CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES (CJPAS)
VOL. 21 NO. 9 – JUNE, 2021 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2021 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
BATHYMETRIC MAPPING AND EVALUATION OF SEDIMENT THICKNESS IN WOJI CREEK, PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA
OJO, EMWANTAIDE PETER
Department of Geomatics University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Navigational channels have become a very useful transportation corridor that have boosted commerce, tourism, and security needs of people, communities, states, the country, and other nations. Hence, these channels should be safe and navigable at all times. Through bathymetric processes, information about thickness of underwater sediments can be evaluated. This study is to map the sediment thickness of Woji Creek using the difference from a dual frequency method. Data acquisition was done using ELAC (4300) dual frequency echo sounder for depth measurements, Trimble DGPS was used as the positioning system for the project execution, Eiva Navipac (Navigation Software) and total tide prediction data for processing. The echo sounder was interfaced with the GPS for position fixing. The highest and lowest depths around the surveyed section were 8.34m and 2.31m respectively, while the total length and width of the channel are 1km and 223m respectively. The sediment thickness computation along the surveyed section of Woji Creek varied between 0.91m to 4.33m. The average sediment thickness of the surveyed section was 2.64m. Sea going vessels may risk grounding in the future if the channel is not monitored. To improve the efficiency of the creek, dredging activities would need to be carried out.
Keywords: Bathymetric, Evaluation, Sediments, Thickness, Woji Creek
MULTI-LEVEL ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM IN AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINES
*ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI, **OMIDIORA E. OLUSAYO, ***ISMAILA FOLASADE M. ****OLAJIDE A. TAIWO
*,**Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria ***Department of Computer Science, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria. ****Department of Computer Science, Kwara State Polytehnic, Ilorin, Nigeria
E-commerce theft involves using lost/stolen debit/credit cards, forging checks, misleading accounting practices, etc. Due to carelessness of cardholders and criminality activities of fraudsters, the personal identification number (PIN) and using account level based fraud detection techniques methods are inadequate to cub the activities of fraudsters. In recent times, researchers have made efforts of improving cyber-security by employing biometrics traits based security system for authentication. This paper proposed a multi-level fraud detection system in automated teller machine (ATM) operations. The system included PIN level, account-level and biometric level. Acquired RealScan-F scanner was used to capture liveness fingers. Transactional data were generated for each individual fingerprint with unique PIN. The results of the simulation showed that (i) the classification at account level only yielded 94.5% accuracy and 5.25% false alarm rate; (ii) matching at biometric level only yielded 100% accuracy and 0% false alarm rate; (iii) combine matching at the three levels produced 84.7% accuracy and 2.65% false alarm rate; (iv) while the classification using voting technique yielded 97.35% accuracy and 0.47% false alarm.
Keyword: E-commerce, personal identification number, automated teller machine, account level, fraud detection, liveness fingers, RealScan-F
EFFECTS OF SOME GOITROGENS ON IODINE DISTRIBUTIONS IN PIPE-BORNE WATER, BOREHOLE WATER, AND WELL WATER OF SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA
*UMAR, AI; **LABBO, AM;. ***SUMAYYA, AA; ****ZAINAB, HB; *****SARKINGOBIR Y; *****UMAR, AI; AND *******DIKKO, M.
*-****Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria. *****Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria. ******Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Laboratory Science, Usman Danfodio University Sokoto, Nigeria. *******Department of Pharmacy, Sultan Abdulrahman College of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto State Nigeria
Many chemicals and substances in drinking water are of public health concerns because of their potential to elicit health problems to users. A study was carried out in three zones of Sokoto State, Nigeria, to determine goitrogens and iodine distributions from different sources of drinking water in the state. Water iodine was measured using cerium IV reduction method. Goitrogens such as (Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate, Chloride, and Fluoride) were evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, while pH of the water was assessed using pH Metter. The revealed result for water iodine level was (5.2+0.01-9.5+0.1 μg/L). Antinutrients levels are: magnesium (7.3+ 0.04-9.7+0.07 mg/L), calcium (8.2+1.05-9.8+1.32 mg/L), chloride (0.8+0.06-1.9+0.03 mg/L), fluoride (0.4+0.02-1.9+0.52 mg/L), and nitrate (1.7+0.06-3.9+0.01mg/L). The obtained pH was (6.24-6.65). Iodine levels differed among different water sources from all the three zones of the state but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). For chloride concentration, significant (p<0.05) difference in well water was observed between SCZ (1.1±0.01μg/L) and SEZ (1.7±0.03μg/L). Water iodine levels across the three zones of Sokoto State in different sources of drinking water were considerably lower than the recommended water iodine level of > 15 μg/L in drinking water according to the international standard. Therefore, analysis of iodine concentrations in different sources of drinking water in the state will highlight more potential areas with low iodine tendency, as concentrations of iodine in water will inevitably reflect concentrations in soils, and food crops and hence overall dietary intake.
Key word: Nitrate, Calcium, magnesium, iodine, goitrogens, pH, water, and Sokoto State
COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN THE INITIAL CONDITION ON DATA PRECISION OF TWO ECOLOGICAL SPECIES
*UGBOTU, EXCELLENT OGHENEVWAIRHE & GEORGE, ISOBEYE
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port- Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
For the purpose of this study, a continuous dynamical system of ordinary differential equations of first order that are non-linear has been used to model the data precision of ecological species. Data precision is useful in selection of data for research purposes. Ordinary Differential Equation 45 (ODE45) numerical method has been applied to show the effect of decreased variations of the initial condition on data precision. The study creates awareness on the application of data precision in ecology and enlightens experts on the effects of varying initial condition parameter values on data precision of interacting ecological species. It was observed that 5% variation of the initial value conditions together gave a very low data precision value for y- data set which indicates best fit data. The results also show that y-data set is a better data set compared to x-data set and can be used for further research studies.
KEYWORDS: Initial Condition, Computational Analysis, Data precision, Ecological species
SURVEY AND EVALUATION OF GSM NETWORKS IN NIGERIA.
EHIKHAMENLE MATTHEW1 AND OBORKHALE LAURENCE2
1Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, University of Port Harcourt. 2Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State.
The article tries to identify the key performance indicators and exploited, the experimental/test methods of different GSM networks in Nigeria (MTN, Glo, Airtel and 9Mobile). The results revised show that the KPIs deviate from the recommended values both during the event and non-event period thus the QoS requires an uncompromising improvement in order to curtail further degradation in the services derived by the rapidly increasing subscribers’ rate. Only few researchers have studied technical performance and evaluation of the GSM networks. The KPI adopted were Call Setup Time (CST), Call Setup Failure Rate (CSFR), Call Dropped Rate (CDR) and Call Completion Rate (CCSR). Most studies carried out on comparative analysis focused on subscriber’s view of quality of service. It was observed that, Airtel has the lowest call setup failure rate across the different locations in the country. This shows comparatively that Airtel is the best. Therefore, going by the KPIs comparison we can infer that Airtel performed better than the other three networks (MTN, Glo and 9Mobile) within the selected locations and the study period from 2015 to 2020.
Keywords: GSM network; key performance indicators; assessment; service providers; quality of service
DNA COMPUTING BASED ON INFORMATION SECURITY TECHNOLOGY
OFUALAGBA MAMUYOVWI HELEN
Department Of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State
The world of information security looks in new directions to protect the data it transmits. Using DNA computing in the fields of cryptography, steganography and authentication has been identified as a possible technology that may bring forward a new hope for unbreakable algorithms. Computing is far from any kind of efficient use in today’s security world. DNA authentication on the other hand has exhibited great promise with real world examples already surfacing on the marketplace today. DNA authentication practices will grow as the need for fool proof identification of individuals and items grows as well. This paper examine the concept of DNA computing and also improved security through information technology and to appreciate its benefits and challenges in our society today.
Keywords: DNA, computing, security, information and encryption
RUMEN METABOLITES, HAEMATOLOGY AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF RED SOKOTO BUCKS DURING RAINY SEASON GRAZING SUPPLEMENTED WITH DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SOURCES
SHUA, J. N; TIZHE M. A; AND DANIEL T. K.
Department of Animal Health and Production, School of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing rainy season grazing with two protein and two energy sources on the rumen metabolites, haematology and serum biochemical indices of Red Sokoto bucks (RSB). 24 RSB with an average weight of 13.99 kg were used (6-9 months of age). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design of four treatments with six replications. The diets were cottonseed cake/wheat offal –CSC/WO, groundnuts cake/ wheat offal- GNC/ WO, groundnuts cake/ maize bran- GNC/MB and cottonseed cake/maize bran-CSC/MB (diet i, ii, iii, & iv, respectively). Data were taken on rumen metabolites, haematology and serum biochemical indices. Data were analyzed using SPSE. Results showed that all the rumen metabolites were significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01 & P<0.001) affected by the dietary treatments before feeding (BF) and after feeding (AF). Haematological parameters indicated that, pack cell volume (BF & AF), white blood cell (BF), glucose (BF), total protein (AF), were significantly (P<0.001) different among the various treatments. However, red blood cell –BF (P<0.01) and blood urea AF (P<0.05) were significantly different. Results of serum biochemical indices revealed that iron (BF & AF), calcium (BF), Phosphorous (BF) and magnesium (BF & AF) were significantly affected by the dietary treatments. It could be concluded that rainy season grazing of RSB can best supplemented using mixture of groundnuts cake with maize bran.
Keywords: RSB, GNC, WO, MB, CSC, rumen metabolites, haematology, serum biochemical indices
MODELING BIODIVERSITY IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INTERACTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES
*IGWE P.Y; **OLOWU B.J AND ***EKAKA-A E.N
*,**federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State.***department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Modeling the effect of decreasing the inter-competition coefficient between two phytoplankton species from the value of 0.0025 to 0.0125 has clearly shown an evidence of biodiversity gain for the first phytoplankton species and a biodiversity loss for the second phytoplankton species. Therefore, an appropriate ecological policy should be put in place to sustain the biodiversity gain and also to mitigate against the loss of biodiversity. These novel results obtained in this paper has not been seen elsewhere, they are presented and discussed.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF TWO LESS KNOWN SEEDS: THAUMATOCOCCUS DANIELLII (BENTHI) AND MEGAPHYNIUM MACROSTACHYUM (BENTHI).
*OGUNMOLA OLURANTI OLAGOKE & **ADEYEMI SODÍQ OPEYEMI
*Department of Chemistry, School of Science, EACOED, Oyo, Oyo State
**Department of Biology, School of Science, EACOED, Oyo, Oyo State
Thaumatococcus daniellii and Megaphynium macrostachyum are economic plant of the rain forest of West Africa, they belong to the family Marantaceae. The study examined the comparative analysis of the nutritional composition of the seed of the two plants. The seed of T. daniellii contained (per 100g) 18.47g protein, 1.72g fat, 21.90g fibre, 6.41g ash, 9.25g moisture and 51.44g carbohydrate. It has high mineral content (per 100g). 30.20mg calcium, 27.47mg magnesium and 29.67mg phosphorous. M. macrostachyum contained (per 100g) 17.60g protein, 2.96g fat, 22.11 fibre, 6.01g ash, 8.36g moisture and 42.94g carbohydrate. It is rich in minerals (per 100g) 14.17mg calcium, 19.66mg magnesium, 14.41mg phosphorus and 21.01 mg zinc. The amount of zinc in this sample is higher than that of T. daniellii and is been reported for the first time in this sample to the best of our knowledge.
Keywords: Thaumatococcus daniellii, Megaphynium macrostachyum, nutritional composition.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON LEACH AND ILEACH PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
WILLIAMS Temitope Betty, BULUS, Lucy Dalhatu,& SALA’AT Bello Aliyu
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, P.M.B. 35, Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria
Wireless sensor network (WSN) comprises of many small low battery-powered sensor nodes distributed in some geographical area. These sensor nodes are responsible for Collection of data, processes and relay the sensed data to Sink Station via some routing protocol (e.g., Flat, Geographic and Hierarchical). These Sensor nodes are furnished with non-chargeable, low power, and irreplaceable battery source, and their lifecycle depends on these batteries. Consequently, these nodes consumed more energy while relaying their sensitive data to the desire destination thus, sensor nodes may exhaust their energy after separate rounds of operation.LEACH Protocol is the first and most popular energy-efficient clustering algorithm for WSNs that was proposed for reducing power consumption. In LEACH, the clustering task is rotated among the nodes, based on duration. Direct communication is used by each cluster head (CH) to forward the data to the base station (BS). It uses clusters to prolong the life of the wireless sensor network. LEACH is based on an aggregation (or fusion) technique that combines or aggregates the original data into a smaller size of data that carry only meaningful information to all individual sensors. However, the drawback of LEACH is the unequal dispersal of nodes in different clusters. Also, the residual energy of the motes was not taken into consideration during the selection of cluster head in LEACH. Consequently, nodes with minimum residual energy may be designated as Cluster heads and could result in the early death of the nodes; this will also lead to failure of the network. Due to the drawback of LEACH, much research has been done to enhance LEACH for better routing and clustering approaches. Therefore, in this paper, we reimplement LEACH and ILEACH protocols and perform a set of simulations testing that have been used to improve network lifetime and minimize energy consumption of sensor nodes in WSN. The simulation was administered using MATLAB R2018b Also, we compared the performance of LEACH and ILEACH and the result shows that the ILEACH protocol outperforms the LEACH protocols in two metrics, namely the network lifetime and network throughput.
Index Terms—clustering, network lifetime, network throughput, routing, wireless sensor network
INDISCIPLINE: A DESTRUCTIVE TOOL ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS
*SALAUDEEN, K.A.; ** GBOLAGADE, A.M ***SANGONIYI, S.O
Department of Mathematics, School of Science, EACOED, Oyo, Oyo State
This study was designed to examine the effects of indiscipline on the academic performance of secondary school students in mathematics. Out of all the schools in Oyo East Local Government, three public secondary schools and two private secondary schools were selected through purposeful random sampling technique. The sample used consisted of five (5) schools in Oyo East Local Government Area in Oyo State. A questionnaire was obtained with relevant information from 100 respondents. The test-retest method was employed to obtain the reliability of the instrument. Chi-Square was used to analyse the data collected. The results showed that indiscipline has negative effects on the academic performance of secondary school students in mathematics both in public and private schools. It was discovered that indiscipline is not only students-based; it could be from the various stakeholders too. Based on findings from the study, it was recommended that efforts should be made by all concerned individuals and groups to curtail indiscipline in our school system so that the performances of the students will be boosted.
INFLUENCE OF VAN HIELE PHASE DESCRIPTORS ON STUDENTS’ DEVELOPMENT OF LEVELS OF GEOMETRIC UNDERSTANDING AND COGNITIVE ACHIEVEMENT IN GEOMETRY: FOCUS ON SENIOR PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TARABA STATE
*MUSA MOHAMMED BALASA; **MOHAMMED, TUKUR
*Department of Mathematics College of Education, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State. **Department of Curriculum Studies, College of Education, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State.
This investigation was prompted by the tension that became apparent between students’ geometric thinking levels (i.e. stages in the understanding of geometry) and their achievement in geometry being reported in the research literature. Literature reports do not only convey varying degrees of geometric understandings by students as they learn school geometry, they also try to explain why the differences in understanding. The most inspiring explanation is that which relates achievement in geometry to geometric thinking levels. It explains that in their learning of school geometry, students’ thinking levels occur in stages and that the stages are in a hierarchy. Unfortunately, our classroom practices are such that students receive instructions on the same geometric content as if they belong to the same geometric thinking levels at the same time. This study explored the influence of Van Hiele phase descriptors on students’ development of levels of geometric thinking or understanding and on their achievement in geometry in Taraba State. The quasi-experimental design was employed. A sample of one hundred and eighty Senior Secondary two (SS II) Mathematics students randomly drawn from three clusters of schools was used. Ten research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. Two instruments known as Geometric Thinking Levels Attainment Test (GTLAT) and General Geometry Test (GGT) were used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistic. The results revealed that the Van Hiele phase descriptors fostered the movement of students from one thinking level to the next higher one and students in the Van Hiele checklist-based classrooms achieved significantly better than their counterparts in the conventional lecture class.
Keywords: Geometry; geometric understanding; geometric thinking levels; phase descriptors; cognitive achievement
SECURITY AND PRIVACY ISSUES RELATED TO BIG DATA AND BIG DATA ANALYTICS
*SAMAILA AJI; & **SANUSI MUHAMMED ALIYU
*Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, School of Sciences, College of Education Billiri, Gombe State, Nigeria. **Department of Health Information Management College of Health Sciences and Technology Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria.
Big data may be defined as a term used for very large data sets that have a more varied and sophisticated structure. These characteristics usually correlate with additional difficulties in storing, analyzing, and applying further procedures or extracting results. Big data analytics is the term won’t to describe the method of researching massive amounts of complex data to reveal hidden patterns or identify secret correlations. However, there’s a clear contradiction between the safety and privacy of massive data and therefore the widespread use of big data. This paper focuses on the categories of privacy and security of big data and big data analytics such as; Differential Privacy, Identity based anonymization, hiding a needle during a haystack, privacy-preserving big data publishing. Existing issues or challenges of privacy and security associated with big data and big data analytics domain were identified, possible solutions to those issues were also provided which include; Data encryption, Data trustworthiness, Securing IT infrastructures, and Monitoring data usage within the big data ecosystem. Finally, the paper recommends that further research is often conducted to create more robust and complicated security mechanisms to deal with the impending privacy and security issues in big data and therefore the big data analytics ecosystem.
ENHANCED ENCRYPTION USING NEXT NEAREST PRIME KEY GENERATION ALGORITHM
ZAINAB ADAMU ALIYU
Computer Science Department, Federal College of Education, Zaria, P.M.B 1041, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Today the usage of internet increases tremendously. So, there is need of increased security in transmitting data. Cryptography is a process of scrambling data into unknown format which provides more security to the data. Modern cryptography is mainly based on mathematical theory and computer science practice. Cryptography process is done with the help of encryption and decryption. The basic two ideas behind the cryptography technique are substitution and transposition. One such techniques was proposed by Kiran et al. for improved data confidentiality and integrity. Although the technique of Kiran et al. has some merits, its efficiency can be enhanced. We propose to improve performance of the next nearest prime key generation algorithm used by Kiran et al. We plan to adopt the Sieve of Eratosthenes algorithm in the framework of Kiran et al. We plan to evaluate, empirically and theoretically, the relative time efficiencies of the original algorithm of Kiran et al. and other enhanced version of it.
Keywords: Cryptography, Key generation, Next nearest prime, Sieve of Eratosthenes
ASSESSMENT OF INSECT FAUNA IN KEBBI STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ALIERO, KEBBI STATE
*DANLADI, K. Y. AND **ATTAH, O. A.
*Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State. **Department of Science Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State.
Assessment of insect composition is important in predicting environmental health of any ecological zone. In this study, we assessed the insect fauna of Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero. Three areas were sampled using sweep net. The areas were Botanical garden, Behind girls hostel and the faculty of Life Sciences. In total, 102 insects were captured, as follows: Botanical garden (66 insects), Behind girls hostel (32 insect) faculty of life science (06 insects). Species of insect captured include Periplaneta americana (26.0%), Catopsela folium(2.0%), Eurema spp (7.0%) Microcentrum rhombifoldum (1.0%) Schistcerca americana (63.0%) and Microsphorus spp (1.0%). All insects captured belong to six genera which include Periplaneta (27 ), Catopsilia (2) Eurema (7) Microcentrum (1); Schistocerca (64) and Microsphorus (1). It was therefore inferred that insect species diversity in the University is low. Laws banning indiscriminate destruction of insects in the study community is hereby recommended to promote insect survival and to avoid extinction of profitable insects.
Keywords: Distribution, Insects, Fauna, University, Kebbi, State
EFFECT OF DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL ON ACHIEVEMENT OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN ELECTRICAL SCIENCE A STATISTICAL APPROACH
*AKUNNA, OGOCHUKWU AGATHA; & **ONWUBUMPE, BIBIANA NKIRUKA
*Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Nigeria **Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Nigeria
The paper, focused on statistical analysis of effect of digital instructional material on achievement of engineering students in electrical science. It contains two research questions and two hypotheses. A sample size of 264 students was purposively drawn from a population made of all national diploma engineering students in the polytechnics in the south-east zone of Nigeria. A quasi-experiment was carried out by using digital instructional material and analogue instructional material in teaching an experimental group and control group respectively. The two groups (digital and analogue) were subjected to pre-test and post-test. The instrument for data collection was Students’ Achievement Test on Electricity (SATE) which is a 50-item 4-option multiple choice objective test with reliability co-efficient of 0.89. Statistically, the research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using ANCOVA. Results obtained showed that engineering students taught electrical science with digital instructional material has higher mean achievement score than those taught with analogue instructional material. Hypothesis tested (F = 288.504, P = 0.000) revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of the two groups of students. Also, result from the hypothesis tested (F = 0.469, P = 0.494) showed that there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female polytechnic engineering students, although the female students had a slightly higher mean achievement score than the male students. Conclusion from the statistical deduction is that digital instructional material is more effective than analogue instructional material in enhancing polytechnic national diploma engineering students’ achievement in electrical science.
Keywords: statistical analysis, instructional material, electrical science, achievement, engineering students.
FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF MARINE ELECTRICAL SIGNAL CARRYING CYLINDRICAL TUBE (UMBILICAL): A CASE STUDY OF DEEP-OFFSHORE WEST AFRICA
*CHIEGBOKA JOSEPH EZEILO; **NDUBUISI OLUCHUKWU NWOSU,
*Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko. **Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko.
The Subsea umbilical is being used increasingly in turbulent harsh environments that requires its mechanical features to be subjected to the axial symmetrical loads that will be discussed. To ascertain the mechanical behavior of umbilical with multiple layers, a theoretical model is presented in this conference paper. The feature of the umbilical cross section in the model is a large-diameter central tube. The contact problem between two adjacent layers contains deformation compatibility of the contact surface. The principle of virtual work is applied in the theoretical model to formulate the governing nonlinear equations and the contact conditions are introduced into the principle of virtual work. The analysis shows greater highest maxima Force ‘F’ values for Ochi-Hubble as against JONSWAP. From the foregoing, this work shows that using a JONSWAP based umbilical design on an Ochi-Hubble environment like Offshore West Africa shows higher ocean current at the near surfaces which consequently leads a higher tendency for fatigue damage in the future and hence it should be properly taken into consideration in umbilical design for Deep-Offshore West Africa. In addition, the theoretical model is used for the assessment of other important parameters, such as the effects of internal pressure, lay angle and diameter-to-thickness ratio on mechanical behavior of umbilical, which are helpful for the design process of umbilical.
DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED RIVEST SHAMIR AND ADLEMAN (RSA) ALGORITHM FOR SECURING DATA ON TRANSMISSION AND STORAGE
1ADEJUMOBI, O.K., 2SADIQ, M.O. 3BARUWA, ABIODUN A. AND 4AKINTOYE, N.O.
1Department of Computer Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan. 2,4Department of Elect./Elect., The Polytechnic, Ibadan. 3Departmentnof Elect./Elect. Engineering, Osun Sate College of Technology, Esa-Oke, Osun State.
In present times, the high growth in the networking technology leads to the practice of interchanging digital data frequently. The data in both the private and public sectors are increased which requires, Availability, Authentication, Confidentiality and Integrity. The security of this confidential data from unauthorized access can be done by a process called Cryptography. This is achieved by converting Plain text into Cipher text (encryption). The original message is then recovered by a process called decryption. However, many encryption techniques are available. This Paper therefore reviews most popular and effective algorithms of encryption that are currently used. It focuses mainly on different kinds of encryption techniques, their advantages and disadvantages. The Paper also developed an Improved Rivest Shamir and Adleman (RSA) Algorithm for Securing Data on Transmission and Storage. Recommendations were also drawn for improved cryptography.
Keywords: Algorithm, Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption, Plain Text, and Cipher Text.
FACTORS OF DESIGN WHICH AFFECT THE FATIGUE STRENGTH OF POWER TRANSMISSION TAPERED SHAFT
ISHAQ T. MUHAMMAD, TANIMU G. IBRAHIM AND ABUBAKAR J. ABDULLAHI
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.
A shaft fatigue failure almost always occurs at a notch, hole, keyway, shoulder, or other discontinuity where the effective stresses have been amplified. These are the obvious locations where the shaft should be first analyzed, particularly in regions of high stress. This paper discuss some service factors that affects fatigue strength of a power transmitting shaft and relates the diameter and area of the tapered region of a shaft with the extension produced when subjected to loading.
Keywords: Shaft, tapered, Fatigue, Stress concentration, Elongation.
ANALYSIS OF TOPOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF GREATER YOLA USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
1TANKO BINIBONORI SALIHU, 1SULEIMAN MOHAMMED DAJI AND 2GAMBO HYELLAGUNACHA GUNDRI
1Department of Urban and Regional, Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Modibbo Adama University Technology, Yola, Adamawa State
By combination of digital elevation models (DEM) with digital geological maps within GIS environment, it is possible to detect the topographic analysis in relation to the site analysis of the study area. This technique has been demonstrated on Jimeta metropolitan DEM map. From a topographic point of view, large relief defines mountains essentially. Thus, (DEM) usually form the base data for any mountain geo-information system and any spatial model. The DEM is the digital representation of continuous changes of relief within space (Burrough 1986,). Information generated from the DEM is of critical importance within many GIS applications and is used to produce contours and many other types of information including; indivisibility, slope, profiles, watersheds, aspect and the concavity and convexity of a surface. Shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM) help in obtaining digital elevation models on a near global scale.
Keywords: Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM) contour, topography, hill shade