CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (CJETR)
VOL. 21 NO. 5 – JUNE, 2021 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2021 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF METAKAOLIN ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NON-LATERITIC SOIL
*ABDULKARIM, IBRAHIM IKARA; **SA’EED YUSUF UMAR & ***SULEIMAN ARAFAT YERO
*, ** & ***Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
This study explored the potentials of metakaolin (Mk) for the improvement of the properties of non-lateritic soil (NLS) intended for use as a road construction material. The soil was classified as A-7-6(14) and CL according to the American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials (AASHTO M 145-2012) and the Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D 2487-2011). The soil is treated to evaluate the effectiveness of Mk in treating non-lateritic soil with 5, 17.5 and 30 % concentrations of Metakaolin by dry weight of the soil. Index properties, compaction (British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH)) and Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the NLS/MK admix blend. The results obtained show a general improvement in the engineering properties of the soil with increase in Mk content, particularly, when compacted at the BSH energy level. However, the results showed that the soil did not meet the 1500-3000 kN/m2 7 days UCS criterion stipulated by the Nigerian General Specification for road base courses, but the 30 % NLS/MK blended soil compacted using the BSH energy level did suffice for use as sub-base in road construction having met the 750-1500 kN/m2 7 days UCS criterion stipulated by the Nigerian General Specification (2013).
Keyword: Non-lateritic soil, Metakaolin, Road
OUTPUT POWER AND SOLAR RADIATION POTENTIAL OF SOME SELECTED STATES IN NIGERIA
*A. ABDULKARIM; **A.U. LAWAN; ***N. FARUK; ****A. A. OLOYEDE; *****ABBA MOHAMMED.
*Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. **Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Bayero University, Kano.***Department of Telecommunication, University of Ilorin, Ilorin Nigeria. **** & *****Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 5004 Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria.
This paper focuses on the development of methodology for the analysis of solar energy potential of a particular area for power generation. To achieve this, statistical analysis is carried out to determine the frequency distribution that best fits solar radiation data of some states in northern Nigeria. The distribution functions used include Weibull, Rayleigh, Logistics, Lognormal, Beta, and Gamma. The performance of the probability distributions was judged based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Chi-Square tests. The goodness of fit (GOF) tests shows that the Weibull and Beta distribution fitted the wind and solar radiation data. Output of the analyses could use as an input for optimum design and operations of solar energy microgrids in the study areas.
Keywords: Output, Power, Solar Radiation, Potential, Nigeria.
APPLICATION OF FIXED BOX MODEL TO PREDICT THE CONCENTRATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM10) IN ADO-EKITI, NIGERIA
AWOPETU, M S, BADAMASI, B. I, DAUDU, T. and UDEGBUNEM N. T
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Ground and Communication Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria
Regular measurement of air pollutants is an imperative exercise given the importance of clean air to human, plant and the environment. Daily measurement of air pollutants is an unavoidable, expensive and herculean task. In order to lessen the financial burden of daily or regular air quality measurement, a Fixed Box Model (FBM) was applied to predict the concentration of particulate matter (PM10) in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State in Nigeria. The air samples were taken both in rainy and dry seasons for a period of one week (Monday to Sunday) in each season, at different times of the day (morning, afternoon and evening). Morning readings were taken between 8am-11am, afternoon readings between 12pm-3pm and evening readings were taken between 4pm-7pm. Due to the influence of land use on air pollution and by adopting Australian Standard AS 2922 ‘Ambient Air Guide for the Sitting of Sampling Units’, Ado-Ekiti was demarcated into seven areas. The input parameters such as wind speed, mixing height and size of area source were estimated based on the area source emission inventory results which include road, mobile, construction, industry and household domestic sources. The calculated results from the model were so close to the results of the field measurement which shows the appropriateness of FBM for predicting the concentration of PM10.
Keywords: Pollutants, Concentration, Fixed Box Model, Particulate matter, Ado-Ekiti
AGGLOMERATION OF WOOD DUST AND CHARCOAL POWDER FOR SOLID FUEL PRODUCTION.
A.S IMURAN, G.A SALAWU, O.M ODENIYI, M.A AZEEZ, F. OLOYEDE
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Kwara State. Nigeria.
Briquette which is a block of solid fuel was obtained from the compaction of charcoal powder, wood dust, with three different binders. Cassava starch, wood tar and molasses. Briquette is a common coal used as a source of fuel in industrial boilers, and commercial purposes. Charcoal is material without plasticity and cannot be mold into shape without adding a binding material which helps to hold the particles together. Briquettes was formed using charcoal dust, an agglomerating material such as wood dust is added to the charcoal powder, starch from cassava was prepared and served as the binding agent for the two materials. Pressure was then applied to the mixture to form a solid fuel called briquette.
KEYWORDS- Agglomeration, Charcoal, Plasticity, Solid fuel, Wood dust
ENHANCEMENT OF SECOND LEVEL AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE AUTHENTICATION USING RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION AND FINGERPRINT
*JIMOH, A.A.; **RAHEEM, KABIRAT .O; ***OLADUNTOYE, QUADRI OLAWUYI; ****MUSTAPHA KHADIJAT .O.; *****ADURADOLA AUGUSTINE;
*,**,**** & ***** Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Nigeria. ***Information Communication Technology Centre, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Nigeria
Biometric authentication is rapidly growing as a means of personal identification in automated teller machine(ATM) authentication systems. Conventional identification method with ATM is facing a serious challenge which results into increase in criminal cases such as ATM fraud. The need for a secured and accurate means of identification and verification is becoming unavoidable as a result of exponential growth rate in electronic transactions. In this study, a security system using radio frequency identification (RFID) and fingerprint was carried out. A microcontroller (AT89S52) compares two signals from the user radio frequency identification and fingerprints. If the two signals correctly match the pre-stored database, the microcontroller provides the needed control signal to continue the transaction on the automated teller machine, otherwise access will be denied, irrespective of the location. This system can be deployed into ATM system to enhanced security because of the uniqueness of fingerprints. Evaluation results obtained showed that fingerprint based method of authentication has high level of security. The results obtained confirmed that the fingerprint based ATM system could significantly reduce ATM fraud if not totally eradicated.
Keywords: ATM, Authentication, Biometrics, Fingerprint, microcontroller AT89S52, RFID
ESTIMATIVE STUDIES OF EDDY CURRENT CONSTANT IN IRON LOSS OF A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER USING VARIATIONS IN VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY
*ENGR. NWOSU NDUBUISI O. **ENGR. EZEILO C. J.
*Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Federal Polytechnic, Oko **Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Federal Polytechnic, Oko
Losses are undesirable in power systems; thus it is the ultimate desire of a power engineer to obtain a stable and loss-free system. However, this is not realizable in practice. This is because losses exist in many forms ranging from the most common copper losses in cables in power system to other complex losses. In power transformers, losses exist in form of iron losses and copper losses. These copper losses exist in the windings of a transformer when current supplies the windings with resistance. Iron losses comprising the eddy current loss and hysteresis loss exist in a transformer when there are variations in frequency. In this paper, different values of the product of maximum flux density squared and frequency squared are obtained at five staged by varying the voltmetre, wattmetre, fluxmetre etc. in the apparati in fig.1. Also, a corresponding value of the eddy current value is computed as a percentage of the whole core losses in the wattmetre. A graph of the eddy current loss against the product of the maximum flux density squared and the frequency squared is obtained. The scope of the gradient gives an estimated value of the eddy current constant.
DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF PRE-ORDERED FEATURE RANKING FILTERING (PFRF) FEATURE SELECTION METHOD FOR MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS.
*A.D. ADENIYI; **N. S. AJOGE; ***U.I. SULAIMAN
*,**, & ***Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, ,P.M.B. 2021, Kaduna Polytechnic, T/Wada, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Scalability is one of the challenges faced by many machine learning algorithm, there is usually prediction or classification problems where the number of features and instances are too large. Many existing Machine learning/Data mining algorithms are usually faced with scalability, computational complexity, noisy data and low dimensionality attribute challenges which usually leads to prediction or classification problems. To alleviate these problems, this work showcases the development of a novel feature selection method called pre-ordered feature ranking filtering (PFRF) method for selecting the best attribute for any predictive and classification model at the pre-processing stage of the predictive/classification process. The proposed feature selection model is implemented through the use of an in- house developed PHP program experiment with XAMP/Apache HTTP server as hosting sever with MySQL application at the back end. The performance evaluation of the developed system is carried out by implementing the present system on three popular machine learning algorithms which are: the Euclidean distance K-Nearest neighbor (ED-KNN), the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and the Traditional Clustering algorithms (TCL). The result shows an excellent impact of the present method on the studied machine learning models, with precision rates and predictive quality of equal to or greater than 75% in most cases. Therefore the proposed system is capable of providing accurate, scalable, and computationally efficient with capability to handle a high dimensionality and noisy attributes for many existing machine learning techniques.
Keywords: Pre-Order, predictive, machine learning, Data mining, feature ranking, feature Scaling.
INFORMATION FUSION SCHEMES FOR RELIABLE BIOMETRIC SYSTEM
Department of Electrical / Electronics Engineering Federal Polytechnic Oko
Authentication by biometric system is becoming increasingly more popular in corporate and public security systems for monitoring, identification, instigation, access control and many more due to its performance and basic remise that every person can be accurately identified by his or her intrinsic physiological or behavioral traits. In any biometric system, the choice and sources of evidence used are strongly dependent on the application scenario and the design decisions. Meanwhile, studies have revealed that a biometric system that uses a single biometric source or trait for authentication has this tendency to face with problems related to noise in sensed data, non-universality, susceptibility to spoof attacks and large intra-class variations. therefore, it is believed that some of the shortcomings of uni-biometric systems can be overcome and much higher accuracy achieved by integrating the evidences presented by multiple biometric sources or traits for establishing identity. Researchers at different levels have proposed and combined the outputs of two or more classifiers in the domain. Yet the issue if efficient information fusion of these evidences remains an obvious concept that attract research attention. Hence, this work investigated and presents different classifier fusion techniques and design level scenarios that are viable for reliable biometric recognition system. Based on the research investigation, Dempster Shafer’s rule of combination and fusion at the match-score level were considered the preferred information fusion technique and design scheme respectively due to their pragmatic and performance physiognomies.
LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SLAG MIX CEMENT SLURRY FOR IMPROVED WELL COMPLETION PERFORMANCE.
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, Delta State.
Numerous effort has recently been embarked upon, on a number of initiatives to reduce well cost and associated well cost. This drive has led to the laboratory investigation of slag-mix cement in Irri field, in Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State.. The trial attracted a saving of 55% on slurry cost compared to class“G” cement. A bond log taken to evaluate the job indicated excellent cement bond across the cemented interval. In addition, the use of slag-mix was found to be an effective way of disposing spent mud. Similar trial carried out in in other fields in the Niger Delta, confirmed the same results. In view of these facts, use of stag-mix in different operation in the Niger Delta wells will enhance economic growth and maximize profit in the long run .
Keywords: Slag- mix, cement, slurry, well, costing, disposing and water based mud
PRESSURE DEPENDENCE OF THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF LOW DENSITY POLYURETHANE FOAM
*SUNDAY D. NAJOJI; **BENSON J. YERIMA; AND ***ZANNA M. WAZIRI.
*Federal Polytechnic Damaturu **Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola
The numerous applications of the dielectric properties of materials has made it possible to continue to explore these properties as they depend on other factors of influence. The polarizability of dielectric materials is fundamental in the dielectric properties of materials. The problem of reducing the size of the pore spaces in a low density Polyurethane foam (PUF) to a barest minimum by applying pressure to appreciate the dielectric properties is considered in this work. The parallel plate technique was used where a parallel plate capacitor was constructed and a dielectric material i.e. low density PUF slab was placed between them. Capacitance measurements were done using a multi-meter first without load pressures and subsequently with static load pressures and the variation in the thickness of the dielectric material (PUF) were also measured with a micro-meter screw gauge. A source of potential difference was then applied and the above process was repeated and the parameter of measurement was the voltage across the capacitor with varying thickness of PUF. The result obtained showed a linear dependence for both the dielectric constant and strength of the low density PUF with pressure. Both dielectric constant and strength increases with increasing pressure as predicted by theoretical equation. Pressure could be useful whenever we want to control the dielectric constant and strength of PUF.
Keywords: Dielectric constant, dielectric strength, dielectric material, pressure, polarizability, polyurethane foam.
EVALUATION OF SOME ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF ROCKS IN SELECTED QUARRIES FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKS IN KWARA STATE
OBARO, R.I, AGBALAJOBI, S. A. AND OBARO, N.T
Department of Minerals and Petroleum Resources Engineering, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin
Evaluation of some engineering properties of rocks were carried out from selected quarries in Kwara state to determine their suitability for construction works. Representative samples from each quarry were subjected to Aggregate Abrasion Value, Aggregate crushing Value and Aggregate Impact Value and Water Absorption Value. The results of Aggregate Abrasion Value ranging from 28% to 42% with an average of 34.75%. The Aggregate Crushing Value ranges from 30.4% to 43.4% with an average of 35.57%. Aggregate Impact Value (A.I.V) ranges from 21.20% to 27.30% with an average of 24.25% while the Water Absorption rate ranges from 1% to 4% with an average of 2.5%. The results of the engineering analysis revealed that all the rocks are good to excellent for construction purpose and they all attained the required satisfactory standard in accordance to with standard specification for aggregates in British Standard, ASTM, AASHTO.
Keywords: Engineering Properties, Aggregates, Rock Strength, Construction works
RENEWABLE ENERGY AS AN ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF POWER GENERATION IN NIGERIAN POWER SECTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
*EDAFE LUCKY OKOTIE; & **IMHABEKHAI GREGORY
*Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State, Nigeria. **Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, University of Benin (UNIBEN), Edo State, Nigeria.
The predominant energy sources in Nigeria has been fossil fuels which are non-renewable in nature and they constitute a significant source of foreign exchange income for Nigeria, while at the same time there is a severe problem of electricity inconsistency and persistent power blackouts in Nigeria. The concern of this work is to put an end the unavailability of energy for use, and to encourage energy affordability and sustainability. Nigeria has not maximized the advantages of renewable energy after the denationalization of its electricity industry despite the current transformation in the power industry and the rising demand for renewable energy supply. A library-based legal research technique with a comparative method was adopted for this work. It reveals that the absence of a comprehensible legal regime with encouragement for the use of renewable energy is the fundamental element causing the slow utilization of renewable energy as an alternative source of energy in Nigeria at least to supplement conventional energy sources. It is suggested that, among other reforms, there is a need for a comprehensible legal regime on renewable energy and the encouragement of strict implementation of energy regulatory strategies and policies with incentives for the application of renewable energy sources in Nigeria.
Keywords: Biofuels, Renewable energy, Fossil fuels, Electricity market, Government policy, Legal frame work Solar power, Hydropower
A SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF FOREIGN AGENTS
*ENGR. URANTA CHARLES ATEMIE; & **NDIOKWERE GABRIELLA CHIOMA
*Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-ibom State. **Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-ibom State
According to Wikipedia, the UN Development Program lists forty-six (46) of Africa’s fiftyfour (54) countries as ‘Sub-Saharan’. That’s approximately 85% of the entire continent. Of these forty-six (46) countries, the disappointing reality is that poverty, illiteracy, war, underdevelopment and low life expectancy still hold sway over majority of these countries, despite the availability and abundance of both human and natural resources that are prerequisite criteria for rapid national and regional growth. While innumerable political, academic and intellectual efforts had been sort for, debated and superficially implemented to elevate sub-Saharan Africa from its degenerated state to an enviable position in the global arena, a very important aspect of these attempts seems to have gotten little or no spotlight. The issue of the resultant negative impact of overly dependence on external source in an attempt at unlocking sub-Sahara Africa potentials for sustainable development in the 21st century. The issue of looking abroad and being dependent on foreign aid, ideology, technology and encouragement from external agents, rather than inward for solution. Making a case study of three (3) of sub-Saharan Africa countries, namely, Seychelles (considered to be sub-Sahara Africa most developed nation, with a HDI ranking of 0.801), Nigeria (sub-Saharan Africa most populous nation, with an estimate of over two-hundred million (200,000,000) people) and Somalia ( top place holder of the poorest country in the world and unfortunately a sub-Saharan Africa nation with an approximate GDP per capital of less than $500), the research attempts to highlight the adverse impact of a half-hearted and insincerity at unlocking the inherent potentials of a typical sub-Saharan African nations, through the use of external agents (expatriates) and foreign organisations. The research considerers how much impact these approach has had on both the scientific and technological sector of the region, by collating the ravaging and plundering impacts of these external ‘supposed’ agents of goodwill, on the overall wellbeing of the region and its people. The research conclusively proves that, while there may seem to have been positive growth in the region, by engaging foreign companies and supposedly experienced expatriates to aid the rapid development of the nations of sub-Sahara Africa, in reality, the reverse is the case and what is termed positive development, is nothing but a charade at keeping the region in a deplorable state. For true sustainability of the scientific, technological, political and economic ecosystem of the region, the responsibilities for development of the region, must be borne by Africa, by Africans. Thus, the unlocking of the inestimably sustainable potentials of sub-Sahara Africa, which is geared towards regional greatness, is highly achievable by looking within and not unnecessarily without.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SECURITY LOCK SYSTEM
G.N.JOLA; Y.M. AUDU; & C.S. ONATE
Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
This paper presents the design details and implementation of a security lock system using card and code combination. The system is fully controlled by the 8 bit microcontroller PIC16F876A which has a 2kbytes of ROM for the program memory. The design concept of this prototype is an access control system that allows only authorized persons to access a restricted area. The code and card pattern is stored in the EEPROM so that we can change the code at any time. The system has a card slot which the card will be inserted into, if the card pattern matches with the one stored in the memory then it allows the code to be entered and if the code entered equals with the code stored in the memory then the relay gets on and then the door opens.
Keywords: Security lock, Card, Code Combination, memory, access, control.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN OFFLINE SIGNATURE RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK (CNN)
*BUSARI O. A.;**ADEAGA I. I.; ***ONI A. A.; ****AKANJI O. O.
1Department of Computer Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Signature verification is an important biometric technique that aims to detect whether a given signature is forged or genuine. It is essential in preventing falsification of documents in numerous financial, legal, and other commercial settings. The fact that the signature is widely used as a means of personal verification emphasizes the need for an automatic verification system because of the unfortunate side-effect of being easily abused by those who would feign the identification or intent of an individual. Offline systems work on the scanned image of a signature. In this paper, we present a method for Offline Verification of signatures using a set of simple shape based geometric features. The system was initially trained using a database of signatures obtained from those individuals whose signatures have to be authenticated by the system. Before extracting the features, preprocessing of a scanned image is necessary to isolate the signature part and to remove any spurious noise present and finally the signature is being verified by the system whether it is valid or invalid.
Keyword: Biometrics authentication, Convolutional Neural Network, Signature verification.
DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF A WIRELESS SCROLLING MESSAGE DISPLAY BOARD USING BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
*H.A MAHDI, **A.M. GADAM, ***ABDULKADIR ABUBAKAR, ****A. A GARBA, *****PROF. J. D. JIYA
*,**,***,****Electrical /Electronic Engineering Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi,***** Electrical and Electronic Engineering Abubakar Tafawa University Bauchi.
The technology of displaying message is an important part of communication and advertisement. In recent times, Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going with Smartphone technology. This work describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based messaging display system. The messaging display system will be interfaced with an android application which will then be used to display information from the comfort of one’s phone to an LED screen using the Bluetooth application interface. The work employs the use of an ATMEGA328p Microcontroller, a Bluetooth Module (HC-06) and an LED screen. Most of these electronic display systems were using wired cable connections, the Bluetooth technology used in this work is aimed at solving the problem of wired cable connections. The microcontroller provides all the functionality of the display notices and wireless control. A desired text message from a mobile phone is sent via android mobile application to the Bluetooth module located at the receiving end. The Mobile Application called Arduino RC was downloaded online from Google play stores. When the entire system was connected and tested, it functioned as designed without any noticeable problems. The Bluetooth module responded to commands being sent from the android application appropriately and in a timely manner. The system was able to display characters on the P10 LED board within the range of 50m as designated by the Bluetooth datasheet.
Keywords: Wireless communication, Smartphone technology, Bluetooth application interface, ATMEGA328p Microcontroller, Bluetooth Module (HC-06), Arduino, P10 LED
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A PASSIVE EVAPORATIVE COOLING WALL FOR HOT AND DRY AREAS IN NIGERIA
*ORILONISE, A; ** MUHAMMED. K. O; ***DIKE P. C; AND ***SHUAIB, A. A;
* -****Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Offa P.M.B. 420 Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria
The concept of passive cooling is a common practice used to achieve thermal comfort with no energy consumption. A passive evaporative cooling wall (PECW) constructed of a porous ceramic with the ability to soak up water by capillary force, which means that the vertical surface is wet up when the lower end is inserted in water is considered in this paper. The water soaked PECW allows the penetration of wind thereby causing water evaporation. This paper analyses the performance of the PECW under the weather of Maiduguri, Borno State with air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity in consideration. ANSYS-Computation Fluid Dynamics software was used to simulate the performance and to identify its feasibility when installed. The following findings were noted from the simulation result; surface temperature of the wet ceramic wall is 4-8ºC lesser than the considered 40ºC ambient air and there was significant reduction in air velocity passing through the pipes. Wet surface condition of the porous ceramic pipes can be maintained throughout the day if there is always water supply in the base tank. The study shows that the installation of PECW is feasible under Northern Nigeria high temperature and low relative humidity for both rural and urban areas since electricity is not needed.
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Passive Cooling Wall, Evaporative Cooling, Surface Temperature, Relative Humidity.
SYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND UTILITY ISSUES WITH HIGH PHOTOVOLTAIC-BASED DISTRIBUTED GENERATION INTEGRATION
*OKOTIE LUCKY EDAFE; & **IMHABEKHAI GREGORY
*Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State. **Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, University of Benin (Uniben), Edo state.
Solar or Photovoltiac (PV) systems have evolved from small stand-alone applications through residential and commercial systems to medium-scale in megawatts (MW) installations and groups of systems that feed significant energy into the utility grid. High PV penetration levels create a number of challenges for the management of the operation of the utility grid. This paper will cover the current and historic status of the integration of renewable energies into utility grids over a variety of global regions. This includes grid control and network planning. The technology for the integration of PV is described including the codes and standards governing the utility interactivity requirements.
KEYWORDS: photovoltaic; utility grid; integration; variability; solar resource; grid codes
EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF GASOLINE LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS AND GASOLINE-ETHANOL BLEND (E15)
*ADEGBOYE, T. A; **OLUWALEYE, I. O.; ***ABERE J. O ; ****ADEDEJI, M. A; *****AZEEZ N. A;
*Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State Nigeria. ** Department of Mechanical Engineering Ekiti State University, Nigeria. ***Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State Nigeria.
This work compared the exhaust emission of the petrol, liquefied petroleum gas and ethanol gasoline blend (E15). A Gas-board model 5020H automobile gas analyzer with the infrared system was used in the experiments. The device has the potential to analyze and measure exhaust gases emissions of gasoline vehicles which include: Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon IV Oxide (CO2) oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx). The test engine is a single cylinder spark ignition SENWEI portable generator of 220V, 1.3KVA output generator. The varying loads: 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 KW was used. The result shows that E15 had the least CO emission for all loads. Its CO2 emission consistently decreased at higher loads. It had the least HC emissions also. LPG had the least NOX emission, the least CO2 emission. HC emission for LPG at low load is extremely high, suggesting that LPG should not be encouraged for low load applications.
Keywords: Exhaust, Emission, Emission-Characterization, LPG, Gasoline-Ethanol blend
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PALM OIL EXTRACTOR FOR LOCAL FARMERS IN OTEFE COMMUNITY
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe – Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.
Palm kernel oil production in Nigeria is not fully exploited due to non-mechanization of the production process. Large percentage of palm kernel oil in Nigeriamarket is processed from the traditional method which is not only unhygienic but isequally labourious and time consuming. This research work is focused on the designand construction of a palm kernel oil extraction machine. The machine was designedand fabricated using locally available materials. The machine was evaluated for performance and the results obtained show that the mechanical method is more efficient(66.07%) than the traditional method (37.69%). Also, shorter processing average timeof 17.66minutes, improved palm kernel oil of 17.48kg, and average machine throughputcapacity of 1.5887kg/minutes were recorded against traditional method average processing time of 165.82minutes and average mass of palm kernel oil of 10.16kg. Thus,with this new designed, more palm kernel oil can be produce at a short possible time.
Keywords: Design, Palm Kernel oil, Machine, Extractor, Efficiency, Capacity.
A REVIEW OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR) FOR POWER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT
1MUHAMMAD MUSTAPHA SALEH, 2ALIYU ABDULLAHI AND 2AISHA ABDUL MUHAMMAD
1Department of Electrical Technology, School of Secondary Education Technical, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau, Zamfara state. 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic
Power quality issue is one of the most priority concerns in power system operation, in order to have an optimum utilization of the resources. Most of the power quality problems are encountered due to non-linear loads within the utilities and consumers jurisdictions. Power quality problems exist such as swells, sags, harmonic distortions, frequency variations etc. Among of these problems, the most frequent or predominantly and severe impact on electrical equipment and devices are sags and swells. To mitigate these power quality problems, customs devices are normally used such as Unified Power- Quality Conditioner (UPQC), distribution STATCOM (DSTATCOM) devices, and dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this work, DVR is considered to be the device used to mitigate voltage sags and swells with advantage of active/reactive power control. In this paper, also a comprehensive literature review on different configurations and control strategies of DVR are presented. This review paper, gives better control strategy and optimization in selecting DVR among custom devices for enhancing good simulation model.
Keywords: Power Quality, Custom device, Sags, Swells and Literature review.
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CYCLONE DUST SEPARATOR
RACHEL UGYE, ABUBAKAR J. ABDULLAHI, AND ABUBAKAR N. MOHAMMED
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Cyclones have often been regarded as low-efficiency collectors. However, efficiency varies greatly with particle size and cyclone design. Advanced design work has greatly improved cyclone performance. This paper have discussed the design parameters required to construct a high performing cyclone through the application of the classical cyclone design, However, the pressure drop in this design does not consider any vertical dimensions as contributing to pressure drop, This is a misleading in that a tall cyclone would have the same pressure drop as a short one as long as cyclone inlets and outlets dimensions and inlet velocities are the same. This cyclone design model was used to obtain an accurate pressure drop and sizing of cyclone, The Texas cyclone approach to design cyclones was to initially determine optimum inlet velocities (design velocities) for different cyclone designs, hence using the inlets velocity a cyclone dimension can be determined.
Keywords: Cyclone, Inlet velocity, pressure drop, sizing
SMART MICROGRIDS FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SUPPLY IN THE NIGERIAN POWER SYSTEM (FUTURE GRID)
OKOTIE LUCKY EDAFE; & OKOEKHIAN JOSHUA
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State
The potential of micro grid network for improvement in the Nigerian power industry and the possibility of using smart technologies to control and improve the available energy were discussed in this paper. The Nigerian power system peak demand is continually being increased because of increase in population growth and this further make worsen the already troubled state of the Nigerian power industry. With possible future increase in population the challenges bedeviling the energy sector may become enormous to contain, hence the need for a proper planning and strategic design and implementation of a future grid network using incorporating smarter technologies in already existing renewable energy micro grid network across the country. The micro grid network will be interconnected with traditional generators using interfacing technologies to strengthen the traditional grid. The overall benefit of the smart grid network is to cushion present and future challenges of energy in the Nigerian Energy Industry.
Keywords: Smartgrid, Microgrid, Renewable energy, SCADA, Rural Electrification, Transmission Company, Solar, Hydro, Wind.
SUITABILITY OF ALKALINE ACTIVATED METAKAOLIN AND ALKALINE ACTIVATED RICE HUSK ASH WITH LOCUST BEANS WASTE ASH AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE
ADEJOH BENJAMIN OCHOLA1, ABUBAKAR MUHAMMED AHMADU2, ABDUL-BASIT SA’EED AHMAD3
Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic
This study suitability of alkaline activated metakaolin and alkaline activated rice husk ash with locust beans ash as partial replacement for cement in concrete has been investigated. The activated rice husk ash and metakaolin with locust beans ash was partially replace as cement by percentage of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively. 60 number of grade 20 concrete cubes and 60 numbers of grade 25 concrete cubes were cast in laboratory and cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days respectively in accordance to BS1881: part 116: 1983. The study uses water/cement ratio of 0.55; with the hope that its usage would reduce accumulation of rice husk wastes and metakaolin which is harmful to human health and also use locally available products to reduce cost and utilize agricultural waste. The rice husk was carbonized, sieved after carbonization using sieve size 150m and was activated in the chemical laboratory using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the alkaline medium. However despite the observed loss in strengths of the concrete, it can still be used for various application requiring medium and low strength in accordance to concrete grade 5, a strength which is achieved with these replacement of activated rice husk ash and activated metakaolin in concrete: such as non-load bearing concrete wall, sidewalks, road barrier, concrete block, kerbs. The amount of concrete produce worldwide for this application could ensure the viability of this study.
Keywords: Cementious material, Compressive strength, Rice husk ash, Pozzolana, filler,
EFFECTS OF VIV IN A SUBSEA UMBILICALS: A CASE STUDY OF DEEP OFFSHORE NIGERIA
*UGOCHUKWU KENNETH UDEZE; **KENECHI MARKANTHONY ONWUGHALU;
*Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko. **Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko.
This work was carried out using a typical Deep- Offshore Nigeria JONSWAP based Umbilical design data of lengths 3044m, 3215m, 4481m and 2873m clamped to an FPSO in water depth of 2000m. Also, appropriate meteocean data for Offshore Nigeria was used to simulate the environmental conditions. The entire process was statically and dynamically simulated using different wave spectra on Orcaflex software. The results from JONSWAP spectra for Umbilical 1 to 4 at near-current surfaces [End A: 850m] gave a Transverse Vortex Force (TVF) range of 0.0115 – 0.018KN/m; 0.009 – 0.0149KN/m; 0.006-0.014KN/m; 0.0048 -0.009KN/m respectively. Similarly, results from Ochi-Hubble spectra for Umbilical 1 to 4 at near-current surfaces gave a TVF range of 0.004 – 0.0305KN/m; 0.004 – 0.028KN/m; 0.003 – 0.027KN/m; 0.003 – 0.0232KN/m respectively. JONSWAP spectra gave highest maxima TVF as [0.013,0.018]; [0.012,0.0149]; [0.008,0.014]; [0.0074,0.009] from Umbilical 1 to 4 respectively. Whereas, for the Ochi-Hubble spectra, highest maxima TVF values show [0.018, 0.0305]; [0.016, 0.028]; [0.013, 0.027]; [0.0141, 0.0232] from Umbilical 1 to 4 respectively. It clearly shows greater highest maxima TVF values for Ochi-Hubble as against JONSWAP. From the foregoing, this work shows that using a JONSWAP based umbilical design on an Ochi-Hubble environment like Offshore Nigeria shows higher VIV at the near surfaces which consequently leads a higher tendency for fatigue damage in the future and hence it should be properly taken into consideration in umbilical design for Deep-Offshore Nigeria.
Keywords Transverse Vortex Force, Ochi-Hubble Spectra, JONSWAP Spectra
EXPLORATION OF SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIALS IN ADAMAWA STATE FOR ELECTRIC ARC WELDING. “DELVING INTO ISSUES AND RESOURCES FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN GROWTH IN THE MILLENNIUM ERA”
*WADAI J.; **C. NATHAN AND ***AARON J. ZIRA
* &***Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, PMB 35 Mubi, Adamawa, Nigeria. ** Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigerian Army University Biu, Borno State, Nigeria.
The research work explores the possibilities of solar powered arc welding processes to meet the acute power demand for small and medium scale industries in Adamawa State of Nigeria. The photovoltaic power generation principle is chosen as the suitable method of solar energy conversion processes to meet the power demand. The power required for the 5KVA arc welding machine is provided by four (4) 300W solar panels fitted with 100A charge controller, four (4) 200Ah, 12V lead acid batteries connected in parallel and a 5KW, 48V inverter. Both visual and NDT inspection were carried out on the butt-welded joint from the GTAW solar process and the result was successfully competitive compared to the conventional process. When the solar powered GTAW station is operated at 89%, about $624 would be saved in contrast to the conventional power tariff in Nigeria; with return on investment of 5Years, and whole equipment warrant averagely at 15years. This safe, non-pollutant arc welding power source when fully implemented and patronized; the entrepreneurial lucrativeness of welding industry will greatly boast the dwindling economy of the Adamawa State and the Nation.
Keywords: Solar Power source, Solar Panel, GTAW welding, Visual and NDT weld test