Berkeley Journal of Medical, Biological and Pharmaceutical Science (BJMBPS) (Vol. 16 No. 3)


BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE (BJMBPS) (VOL. 16 NO. 3)

ISSN: 1211-4401 JUNE, 2021


Published by:

Berkeley Research and Publications International,

Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.

Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247

Email: berkeleynigeriapublications@gmail.com


PAPERS:


DETERMINATION OF IODINE, ORGANIC MATTER AND PH LEVELS IN SOILS OF SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA.

 

UMAR, AI1;  WASAGU, RSU2;  UMAR, RA2; SARKINGOBIR Y3; UMAR, AI4 AND  DIKKO, M5.

1Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto,Nigeria. 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science,Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. 3Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto,Nigeria. 4Department of Medical Microbiology,  School of Medical Laboratory Science, Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria 5Department of Pharmacy, Sultan Abdulrahaman College of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Levels of iodine in soils are related to organic content and pH therein. Soils with low iodine are one of the major factors leading to Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD). This study was designed to determine the iodine level, organic matter and pH of soil samples from three zones of Sokoto State Nigeria. Soil iodine level was measured using cerium IV reduction method. Organic matter was determined by wet digestion method, pH of the soil samples were assessed using pH Meter, while fresh soil to grain iodine transfer factor was ascertained by conversion to dry weight method. Results were revealed. Soil iodine revealed was  2.4±0.01 to 2.9±0.01 μg/g, Organic matter was 3.8±0.03 to 4.5±0.05, pH was  5.82±0.05 to 6.55 ±0.08; while soil to grain iodine transfer factor was 0.038 to 0.077. The result differed among all the three zones of the state and the difference is not statistically significant. Soils iodine levels across the three zones of Sokoto State are lower compared to the worldwide soil iodine level for inland regions at distances greater than 50 km from the coast. Therefore improving the soils capacity to retain iodine should go hand-in-hand with introductions of iodine through fertilizer or irrigation water, which will vary from region to region and even crop-to-crop as this might reduce the impact of IDD.

Keywords: Organic matter, soil iodine, pH, Iodine Deficiency Disorder, Sokoto, zones

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PRODUCTION OF FREE RADICALS BY MITOCHONDRIA: A BIOCHEMISTRY APPROACH

 

USMAN GARBA KURMI1*, HADIZA ABUBAKAR BALKORE1, FATIMA ABUBAKAR2, ABBAS MUSA1, ABUBAKAR ABDULLAHI1

1University of Maiduguri, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2University of Maiduguri, Faculty of Science, Department of Microbiology, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The development of super Oxide by mitochondria is highly dependent on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and cytochrome C acetylation by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and NASH-or succinate-dependent cytochrome c reductase direct reduction are thought to prevent the reoxidation. Ubiquinone is thought to be one of the main superoxide producers as the depletion of endogenous ubiquinone led to decreased hydrogen peroxide formation. free radicals have been involved in apoptosis as essential modulators, while experiments conducted under hypoxic conditions indicated that there may be apoptosis in their absence. Different stimuli are caused by various apoptotic pathways and in different ways, reactive oxygen species can influence them. The transcriptional activation of redoxrelated genes and reactive oxygen species and degradation of withochondrial oxidative ingredients leading to cell death, was proposed as characteristic of gene-induced apoptosis.

Keywords: mitochondrial, free radicals, cytochrome

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DETERMINANTS OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN KOLOKUMA-OPOKUMA LGA OF BAYELSA STATE

 

COMFORT EMMANUEL ELECHI (Ph.D.) & AMADA-OWEI W. FORSMAN

Department of Human Kinetics, Health and Safety Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt.

 

ABSTRACT

This study investigated determinants of contraceptive use among married women in Kolokuma-Opokuma Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of all married women of child bearing age in Kolokuma-Opokuma Local Government Area of Bayelsa State.  A simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of four hundred participants for the study. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using simple percentage and binary logistic regression at 0.05level of significance. The finding of this study showed that 37.2% of the respondents discussed about contraceptive use with their spouse. The result of the binary logistics regression showed a significant relationship between spousal communication and contraceptive use (OR = 5.545): 95%CI = 3.183 – 7.829), a significant relationship between male involvement and contraceptive use (OR = 2.30: 95%CI = 1.292 – 4.168), a non-significant relationship between age and contraceptive use (B = -.156; B = -.270; B = -.808), a non-significant relationship between level of education and contraceptive use (B = -.156; B = -.656), a significant relationship between type of marriage and contraceptive use (OR = 5.568: 95%CI = 3.291 – 9.199)  and a non-significant relationship between work status and contraceptive use (OR = 4.961: 95%CI = 2.00 – 7.832). It was concluded that there are factors that contributes immensely to the level of contraceptive use among married women of child bearing age. It was recommended amongst others that targeted, staged based information, education and communication intervention should be implemented by NGOs such as FHI -360, SFH, PPFN etc to change the knowledge and attitude of married men/women in family planning method.

Keywords: Determinants, contraceptives, use, married and women.

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PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD MALARIA INFECTION IN ALIERO GENERAL HOSPITAL, KEBBI STATE

 

*1DANLADI, Y. K. AND 2ATTAH, O. A.

1Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State. 2Department of Science Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi. Kebbi State.

 

ABSTRACT

Malaria is an ancient plague and it is still a leading cause of mortality among children aged 5years and below in many developing countries including Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the profile of childhood malaria in General Hospital, Aliero using standard parasitological techniques. Out of 156 children examined for plasmodial infection, 64(41.03%) were infected. The distribution among the ages was not statistically significant (p=0.057) although the age group 3-5years showed the highest infection, 32(50.0%). Also, the distribution among the sexes showed no significant difference (males: 43.10% vs females: 39.10%; p>0.05). The socio-economic status of the parents showed that children from mothers without formal education were significantly more infected (72.5%) than children of mothers with secondary education (30.2%) and primary education (30.1%). Children that use mosquito nets were significantly less infected (10.3%) than those that do not sleep under mosquito nets (91.5%; p=0.008). Socio-economic status of parents is a serious factor in paediatric malarial infection. Enlightenment of parents, especially mothers on the risks and prevention of malaria in the study area is hereby recommended.

Keywords: Malaria, infection, childhood, mosquito and Aliero

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IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

 

1BALA USMAN ABDULLAHI and 2SHAFIU NAFIU ABDULLAHI

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano- Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

The study examines the extent to which COVID-19 pandemic made impact in the field of science and technology. Daily living has changed immeasurably since the world was introduced to COVID-19. The global pandemic has not spared a single geography around the globe. Now, nearly 2 years later, most of us are at home, using tools like Zoom, and other technologies to stay in touch with family and colleagues. We are buying almost everything via e-business and having it delivered to our door, including groceries and prescriptions sometimes. The importance of technology in our lives has never been more apparent. Although many technologies and platforms existed pre-pandemic, their importance to our daily living increased exponentially during the pandemic. This is likely to continue in many areas post-pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, Science and Technology, e-business, daily living

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DRILLING MUDS FORMULATED FROM METHYL ESTERS OF VITELLARIA PARADOXA AND HELIANTHUS ANNUUS

 

*DANIEL INUWA BDLIYA; **ALIYU JAURO; ***H. M. ADAMU; AND A. M. KOLO

*Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education, Science and Technology (UIECEST) Bama Borno State, Nigeria. **NASREA, Abuja ***Industrial Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Four drilling muds were formulated and the properties studied. The properties (mud weights, plastic viscosities, yield points, apparent viscosities and gel strengths) were all between the API‘s standard limits. Mud filtration reveals that highest water filtrate came from 82 % Vitellaria paradoxa mud and the highest oil fitrate was from 82 % Helianthus annuus mud. Generally, the mud having the highest filtrate is considered poor for drilling purposes but the porosity of these muds did not rendered them poor for drilling because the filter volumes are still within the limits of the accepted values. The filter cakes are between 0.8 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 which are also within the acceptable limits.

Keywords: Drilling mud, Vitellaria paradoxa, Helianthus annuus, mud filtration.

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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA ASSSOCIATED WITH FOOD CONTACT SURFACES FROM SELECTED RESTAURANT ON CAMPUS

 

NURA MOHAMMED1*; ROSE T. ABAGAI1; UMAR BAYERO2

1Department of Biology, School of Science, College of Education Gidan Waya Kafanchan, Kaduna Nigeria 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru-Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to isolate and characterize bacterial species from selected restaurants on campus. A total of ten samples were collected from food contact surfaces selected for swab collection which include; spoons, plates, forks chopping boards, worktops, tables, hands, washing water and rinsing water. The bacteriological analysis was carried out using the nutrient agar (NA) media, which was prepared by dissolving 28g of the NA powder in 1litre of distilled water, autoclaved and allowed to cool. The growth of the microorganisms were then observed and counted per ml. The identified species include; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus anthracis. The food contact surfaces analysed revealed that chopping board has the highest bacterial load with 28 x 105, followed by hand 27 x 105, Worktop 20 x 105, Table 18.8 x 105, Washing water 16 x 105, Plate 13.6 x 105, Fork 12 x 105, Spoon 7.2 x 105, Rinsing water1 5 x105, Rinsing water2 6 x 105. The frequency of occurrence of the isolated organisms include; Staphylococcus aureus 3 (10.3), Staphylococcus epidermis 9 (31.1), Escherichia coli 4(13.8), Klebsiella pneumonia 6(20.7), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3(10.3), Proteus mirabilis 2(6.9) and Bacillus anthracis 2(6.9). It was observed that Staphylococcus epidermis have the highest incidence of occurrence, Bacillus anthracis and Proteus mirabilis have equal and the least incidence of occurrence.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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EFFECTS OF MATING  PERIODS AND TEASING LEVELS ON HORMONAL BLOOD PROFILE OF MIXED  BREEDS OF RABBIT DOES

 

DANIEL T. K., SHUA J. N. AND TIZHE M.A.

Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic, PMB, 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

A 6 months study was conducted to investigate the effects of mating periods and teasing levels on hormonal and blood profile of mixed breed of rabbits Does. 30 female rabbles of 5-6 months old, with an average weight of 2.10 kg were used. 7 male rabbits were used for teasing the female rabbits. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 2 mating periods and 3 teasing levels replicated 5 times. Data collected was analyzed using ANOVA as contained in SPES. The haematological parameters – packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hgb), Red blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBC), White blood cell differentials (WBCD), Mean corpuscular value (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), revealed that mating periods had significant (P<0.05) effect on PCV, Hgb, RBC, WBC and WBC differentials; eosinophils (P<0.01). MCH was significantly (P<0.001) influenced, while PCV was significantly (P<0.05) different among the different teasing levels. The biochemical parameters- calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, Globulin, Alanine-aminotrasnferase and Aspartate-aminotransferase, depicted that only urea and globulin were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the two mating periods. The result of the reproductive hormones (oestrogen and progesterone), confirmed that only oestrogen was significantly (P<0.01) different among the teasing levels. Thus, it could be concluded that evening mating period (EP) and once teasing could be used in mating rabbit, while twice teasing would be better for triggering of hormone (oestrogen).

Keywords: Rabbit, Doe, Blood Profile, Hormone, Teasing and period.

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LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF PHYLLATHUS AMARUS AND ITS MEDICINAL VALUES IN OYO TOWN

 

OKUNLOLA, DEBORAH OLUKEMI., WAHAB, ASIATA OMOYIOLA., ALADE, AYODELE OLASOJI. & FADIPE, IBUKUN OLUDAMOLA.

Department of Biology, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The study sorts to examine the level of awareness of a plant species called Phyllanthus amarus (ewe eyin olobe in Yoruba) and its medicinal values (majorly antimalarial and anthelmintic) in Oyo town. The study was a descriptive survey, comprising of 150 respondents which were randomly selected from herb sellers and users in Oyo town. Questionnaire was used as research instrument. Three hypotheses were set up and tested with chi-square statistical method. All the hypotheses were rejected. The result showed that some people were aware of the plant and its antimalarial activity and other medicinal values. However a considerable amount of people are yet to be aware of the plant and it medicinal values. Therefore, there is the need for more research into the various species of Phyllathus so that it medicinal values can be made known to people to overcome the problems of resistance strains of such parasites to drugs

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Awareness, Medicinal values.       

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MEDICAL EDUCATION TRAINEE-TEACHERS TEST ANXIETY AND ACHIEVEMENT IN RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN KADUNA POLYTECHNIC

 

*AHMED ANKUWA ABUBAKAR; & **ABDULLAHI SABO MUHAMMAD, PhD, FAIPH

*Department of Nursing, Kaduna State College of Nursing and Midwifery. **Department of Primary Health Care Education, College of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.

 

ABSTRACT

The present research aimed to assess Medical Education trainee-teachers test anxiety and achievement in research methodology. Six hypotheses were postulated to guide and direct the study. Descriptive survey design was utilized in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was adapted as the primary tool for data collection. The participants are 109 Medical trainee-teachers in PHC and DNE programmes in Kaduna Polytechnic.  The tool Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS) consist of 27 items whose internal consistency reliability was determined using Cronbach alpha yielded a coefficient of .82. The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings reveal that two of the null hypotheses were found to be statistically significant while the remaining four were found not to be significant. Based on these findings, recommendations were made among which school managements’ should make learning environment conducive so as to optimize socio-emotional health and general well-being. Thus as prospective trainee-teachers and educators should endeavor to create tension-free and low-anxiety learning environment for their students.

Keywords: Test, Anxiety, Trainee-teachers, Academic Achievement, Medical Education.

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ETHNO-BOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

 

ADEYEMI, S.O; AKINSOWO, A.J.; & IKOKIDE, S.Y

Department of Biology, School of Science, EACOED, Oyo, Oyo State

 

ABSTRACT

An Ethno-Botanical survey of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus was carried out among the three major ethnic groups in Oyo state district, Nigeria, for the exploration of anti-diabetic herbal remedies due to the speedy increase in chronic disease which has became a grim threat to mankind in all parts of the world and the allopathic drugs have not shown any momentous effect. Diabetes mellitus is one of such disease, a metabolic disorder exemplified with elevated blood glucose level, excretion of glucose in urine and causes serious pathophysiological complications due to the defect in insulin secretion or insulin action or both. Interview and discussion method was used to collect data, a total number of 80 respondents were interviewed as sample size of the study using simple random sampling from eight (8) popular markets located in four (4) cities in Oyo state. A total number of 20 plants from plant were identified which are being used for the treatment of diabetes. The collected information of anti-hyperglycemic medicinal plants used by the three major ethnics of Nigeria in Oyo state have been listed along with their local names and plant parts used.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, Allium cepa, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, peripheral edema, Diabetes.

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INVESTIGATION INTO PEOPLE’S AWARENESS AND USE OF BLACK SEED (NIGELLA SATIVA) AS A CURATIVE MEASURE AGAINST DISEASES

 

AMUSAT M.A

Department of Biology, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.

 

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to investigate people’s awareness and use of black seed Nigella sativa as a curative measure against diseases. It is written in the scripture that black seed is a cure against all diseases except death whereas some people claimed not to know what this seed is.  This prompted the investigator to conduct research on its awareness. Four hundred pupils both literate and literate were selected from Oyo and Ibadan as the two major geographical zones in Oyo State. A well structured self designed questionnaire was used as the instrument of the study. All data obtained were subjected to chi-square test and ANOVA to test associations between different variables and awareness of black seed at p = 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that there was generally low level of awareness among the subjects of the investigation. Except in the gender where there is no significant association between male and female awareness and use of black seed, other results revealed that there was significant association between geographical location, religious affiliation, age, level of education, and people’s level of awareness and use of black seed as a curative measure among the people of the south-western zone of the country.

Keywords: Awareness, People, Black Seed, Curative, Investigation.

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EVALUATION OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL, MINERAL AND NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF LAUNAEA TARAXACIFOLIA (WHITE LETTUCE)

 

ODOJE, OLUWATOYIN FUNKE; & OWONIKOKO , ABAYOMI DELE.

Department of Chemistry  Emmanuel Alayande College of  Education, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Fresh leaves of Launaea taraxacifolia (White Lettuce) were  harvested and processed with a view to analyse its photochemical constituents and nutritional potentials. The proximate, mineral and phYtochemical analysis was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results  of the  phytochemical analysis showed that the plant contained ; phylate ( 0.22 + 0.00) , Oxalate (0,16 + 0.00 ),Saponin ( 0.030 + 0.00) ,anthraquoinonine (0.01 + 0.01 ) ,Terpene ( 0.02 + 0.00) ,Steriods ( 0.03 + 0.01), flavonoids (0.10 + 0.01)  and Alkaloids (0.19 + 0.00).The proximate analysis revealed the mean values for crude  protein ( 26.28 + 0.02 ) , crude fat ( 6.11 + 0.01 ),crude fibre ( 7.87 + 0.00 ), Ash  (13.37 + 0.01 ), Moisture ( 8.991 + 0.00) and  NFE (37.47 + 0.00). The mean value obtained for the mineral composition were reported in percentage; Ca (0.2245 %), Mg(0.0259%), P ( 0.332%0, Fe ( 1.16 %) and Cu ( 0.89%).this result shows that Launaea taraxacifolia is a good source of minerals and it is also revealed that it has  numerous nutritional potentials.

Keywords:  Phytochemical, Mineral  ,Composition ,Medicinal, Nutrition

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THE IMPACT OF HEAT AND DRUG INGREDIENTS IN DRUG DISPOSAL SITE ON THE SURVIVAL AND NITRIFICATION OF NITROSOMONAS AND NITROBACTER SPECIES

 

1LAWAN BELLO, AND 2IBRAHIM YUSUF

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu. 2Department of Microbiology, Bayero University, Kano.

 

ABSTRACT

Studies on the effect of heat and drugs ingredient released into the environment following NAFDAC disposal activities was assessed on the survival and nitrification of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter sp.  Isolation was achieved using selective and enriched Winogradsky media. Tetracycline, Lincomycin, Co-trimoxazole and Ampiclox were heated at 120oC for 20 min and different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%) of the burnt antibiotics were introduced into their respective conical flask with sterilized Winogradsky broth to which 2ml of culture added and incubated.  Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) colony counts were found to be 1.93 x 106CFU/g and 1.03 x 106 CFU/g of soil from drug disposal site respectively, which was lower than the colony counts of AOB and NOB from old-burnt soil 7.2 x 106 CFU/g and 4.03 x 106 CFU/g respectively. New-burnt soil also had colony counts of 7.0 x 105 CFU/g for AOB and 4.0 x 105 CFU/g for NOB, lower than colony counts from old-burnt soil. It was observed that low concentration of the heated antibiotics (0% and 0.5%) favoured the survival of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter sp while high concentrations of the antibiotics (5% and 10%) contained ingredients  inhibitory to the survival of the bacteria as time of incubation increases from 0 hr to 120 hrs. Nitrification was also inhibited at high concentration of antibiotics as compared to low concentration. It is therefore recommended that an alternative means of drug disposal should be employed to take care of heat stable drugs and antibiotics during disposal.

Keywords: Nitrification, Antibiotics, Winogradsky Medium, Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB).

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ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF ALLIUM CEPA (ONION) AGAINST MALASSEZIA FURFUR AND CANDIDA ALBICANS

 

*1OGBEBA, J., 1IRUOLAJE, F. O., ³ADEOSUN, F.F. ¹YAKUBU, D.A., 2DOGO, B.A.  AND 1USMAN, M. A.

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria. 2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Federal Secretariat Complex, Oke-Mosan, Abeokuta, Ogun state. ³Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Allium cepa (onion) is a main ingredient in human foods as it is commonly chopped and used as an ingredient in various dishes, apart from its medicinal uses. Fungi infection is a global infection which has affected millions of people, both young and old around the world. Some of the synthetic drugs have little or no effect on the fungi causing infections. Hence, there is the need to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Allium cepa extracts on some fungi and their antioxidant property. Ethanol, methanol, crude and aqueous extracts of Allium cepa were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against the fungi Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans using agar well diffusion method. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of the Allium cepa were also carried out. The antimicrobial activity showed that ethanol extract had the highest inhibition zone of 10mm against Malassezia furfur, while methanol extract had an inhibition of 6mm. All the extracts did not inhibit Candida albicans. Crude and aqueous extracts did not show any zone of inhibition against both fungi. The crude extract indicated the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, terpenoid, flavonoid and tannins. Aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloid, terpenoid, saponin, and tannins. Methanol revealed alkaloid, glycoside, terpenoid, flavonoid, saponin, and tannins, while ethanol extract showed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, terpenoid, and tannins. Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed 0.14mg/g alkaloids, 0.033mg/g ascorbic acid, and 0.019mg/g total phenol. The study shows that the bioactive constituents of Allium cepa could inhibit the growth of some fungi and the quantitative phenolics present suggests antioxidant ability of Allium cepa.

Keywords: antimicrobial, phytochemical, antioxidant, extract, inhibition.

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CASE BASED REASONING SYSTEM FOR FIBROID DETECTION

 

1BINITIE, AMAKA PATIENCE 2BULUS, LUCY DALHATU, & 3WADZANI, ADUWAMAI GADZAMA

1Department of Computer Science, Federal College of Education (T), PMB 1044, Asaba , Delta state, Nigeria 2Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, PMB 35, Mubi Adamawa state, Nigeria 3 ICT Unit, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, PMB 35, Mubi Adamawa state, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Uterine Fibroids are non-cancerous gentle growths of smooth muscle cells in the wall of the uterus, for which there are several possible treatment options. This paper considers various symptoms of uterine fibroid, some of the symptoms include, heavy bleeding, frequent urination, among others. Patients and Physicians generally approach the decision support process based on a combination of Patient’s symptoms and physician practice patterns. In this paper a thorough examination of case based reasoning System; applying both Inductive Indexing and Nearest Neighbour Retrieval mechanism as a decision support tool to facilitate more systematic Fibroid detection was done. A Case based Reasoning System constructed from C- sharp (C#) programming Language helped Patients to make this decision by exploring previous cases stored in the data base and reaching a conclusion in a very short time. Case based Reasoning system for Fibroid detection can ease the work of clinical Doctors in helping Patients in determining if a symptom is fibroid related or not within a shortest possible time.

Keywords:  Fibroid, Uterus, Asymptomatic, Myomectomy, Hysterectomy, Pedunculated,

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