SSAA Journal of Pure and Applied Science (SJPAS) Vol. 17 (9)


SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE (SJPAS)

VOL 17 (9) DECEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2318-9315

 

Published by:

Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,

Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,

P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.

Email: ssaapublications@gmail.com


  PAPERS:  


 

MINIMIZATION OF TRAINING TIME OF A CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK BY ADDING K-NEAREASET NEIGHBOR AS CLASSIFIER

 

*PROF. SOULEY BOUKARI; **FATIMA AHMED ABUBAKAR; **ATIKA AHMAD JIBRIN; **ISHAQ MUHAMMED; **AMATULLAH YAHYA ALIYU; & **TURAKI ABDULKADIR MAIGARI

*Computer Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi **Department of Computer Science, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.

 

ABSTRACT

Image classification is an essential task in machine learning and computer vision however it is still challenging. Although, over the past years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have greatly boosted the performance of a series of image classification tasks, recent works have shown that the softmax commonly used at the classification layer has exhibited some limitations. These limitations include low prediction performance. This research work aims at replacing the fully connected and the softmax layers with k-nearest neighbor so as to hybridize the model. This enabled us to overcome the limitation of the softmax as well to use the KNN to classify large dataset. CNN was adopted for feature extraction and the KNN for classification. Comparison of our model was done with two existing models- the original CNN and the CNN-SVM.  Each model was executed ten times on four datasets and obtained as mean for three models as 358.92s for the CNN, CNNSVM 46.02s and our model CNNKNN 39.42s as training time respectively.

Keywords: Minimization, Training, Convolutional, Neural, Network.

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COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF INDUSTRIAL ASSETS.

 

*GODSPOWER C. ABANUM; & **I. C. ELI

*Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria **Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Federal University Otuoke, Yenagoa, Nigeria.               

 

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we considered the numerical method in predicting the biodiversity loss due to the variation of together on biodiversity scenario. However, when the model parameter values   are decreased, the industrial assets variable changes. By comparing the loss pattern in these two interacting industrial data, we have finite instance of biodiversity due to the application of numerical method (ODE45). The novel result we have obtained in this study have not been seen elsewhere.

Keyword: ODE45, Ecosystem, Biodiversity, Matlab, Industrial Assets

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SIMULATION OF DECREASING AND INCREASING EFFECT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLE ON THE POLLUTANT LEVEL AND THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY

 

1ABRAHAM I.M. 2EKAKA-A .E.N. 3EDE P.N, 4UBONG .I.U.

1Institute of Geo-Sciences and Space Technology (IGST), Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria 3Department of Geography, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria 4Institute of Pollution Studies,  Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

It is an established fact that the pollutant level and the relative humidity in the atmosphere do interact. This process of interaction is defined by a continuous dynamical system of two non-linear differential equations of a first order with their specified initial condition values. One of the model parameters that define the dynamics is called the inter-competition coefficient which acts to inhibit either the growth of the relative humidity or the pollutant level. In this study, we have assumed that if the pollutant level contribution to inhibit the relative humidity is fixed, and the contributions of relative humidity to inhibit the pollutant level is being decreased, we have used the Ordinary Differential Equation of order 45 (ODE 45) to analyse and solve this important research question. The full novel results of this numerical simulation analysis that we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Pollutant, Relative Humidity, Inter-competition coefficient, Simulation, modelling

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PERFORMANCE REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE IN NIGERIA (EVIDENCE FROM MANUFACTURING COMPANIES)

 

1ILIYA BAWA, PhD; 2ABUBAKAR HARUNA; & 3SALISU IYAL AHMED

1Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoka, Kogi State – Nigeria. 2Department of Marketing, ISN Adonai University, Cotonou Republic of Benin. 3Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

In Africa, manufacturing sector had encountered fast economic growth over the past decade and a half at a minimum annual rate of 5.5%; although, in 2008, the part of manufacturing in GDP all over the world had shortened to 10%.  In total, African countries are known for the reduction of their economic activity. Performance of manufacturing sector has faced a lot of challenges with regards to their daily operation which affect their performance in the form of market share. Management accounting practice is the backbone of many manufacturing companies around the world which when properly managed contributes immensely in improving firm performance. This study investigated the effects of management accounting practice and performance of manufacturing companies in Nigeria.  This study adopted a survey research design.  The target population for this study was the 20 manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The study collected primary data from the partakers through a structured Questionnaire. The primary data was obtained from the use of structured questionnaires. The study targeted four hundred and ninety-nine (499) employees of the accountant, production, marketing department from the 20 listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria based on their size which makes it interesting for many researchers (2018). The sample size was restricted to four hundred and twenty-five (425) respondents using purposive sampling technique. Data were obtained through the use of a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential (regression) statistics were used for data analysis. Management accounting practice had significant effect on market share (Adj. R2 =0.704; F(4,420) = 100.31=; p=0.00). The study concluded that a significant relationship existed between management accounting practice and performance of manufacturing company in Nigeria. The study recommended that manufacturing company should consider adopting management accounting practice so as to enable them increase their level of performance.

Keywords: management accounting practice market share, product quality,  

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MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HIV /AIDS ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SULEJA GEOGRAPHICAL ENCLAVE OF NIGER STATE

 

1BAWA, M.; & 2JIYA, S. N.

1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai 2Department of Geography, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai

 

ABSTRACT

This research work proposed and analysed a mathematical model for the dynamics of HIV/AIDS in the Suleja enclave. In particular, a model for the interaction of  and  is developed using a system of ordinary differential equations. The work establishes the existence of the disease free equilibrium and obtain the endemic equilibrium state as well as the basic reproduction number . The result revealed that , which signifies that the disease can be controlled. Numerical simulation  was carried out using the data generated from the field. The sensitivity analysis was done using the sensitivity software and the result shows that  is the most influential parameter that can determine the magnitude of  and hence holds great promise to reduce the HIV/AIDS prevalence in the enclave. Therefore, increased test and treat as well as suppression of viral loads of infected members in community clinics and hospitals should be scaled up.

Keywords: Disease Free Equilibrium, Endemic Equilibrium, Mathematical Model, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

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PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE FROM TEXTILE EFFLUENTS WITH GREEN SYNTHESIZED UREA-DOPED ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES AS PHOTOCATALYST.

 

UCHE NNODIM; ADOGWA ALEXANDER ABU; & PROF. UDUAK G. AKPAN

Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria Technology, Minna

 

ABSTRACT

The consistent discharge of untreated effluents by industries into water bodies that serve as a source of water for human consumption has resulted in a break out of several lethal diseases especially among communities with proximity to these industries. One industry that contributes to water pollution Textile industry. Its effluents are known to contain organic pollutants like methylene blue, methyl red, etc. In the last five decades, several technologies have been developed but Advanced Oxidation Processes have proven more efficient in tackling the menace of organic pollutants. In this research study, organic compounds pollutant in textile wastewater was degraded through Photocatalysis with green synthesized urea-doped zinc oxide (GS Urea-doped ZnO) acting as photocatalyst. The photocatalyst (GS Urea-doped ZnO) was produced from Zinc Nitrate through wet impregnation method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized GS Urea-doped ZnO were obtained by carrying out SEM-EDX, FTIR and XRD analysis. The effects of process parameters (Time, catalyst dosage, pH and initial concentration) on the rate of degradation was also studied. Preliminary studies on photocatalytic degradation revealed that GS Urea-doped ZnO yielded a higher percentage of photocatalytic degradation than pure ZnO and the latter was safe and environmentally friendly than the former. The optimum percentage degradation for the preliminary studies experiments was observed to be 75% and it was achieved with GS 5% Urea-ZnO, 150 minutes and at an initial concentration of 20mg/L. From the results obtained, it can be established that green synthesized Urea-doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles can be used effectively in water treatment and environmental safety applications.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, Photocatalyst, Tigernut oil, Trans-esterification, Biodiesel,

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INVESTIGATION OF NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET AND ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM: A CASE OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS

 

1UMAR NDAGI MOHAMMED; 2ABBAH, GRACE OJOCHENEMI; & 3SALISU IYAL AHMED

1Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria 2Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria 3Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

A huge losses by investors as a result of Nigeria stock market bubble created a doubt on the value relevance of accounting information system. The study investigate the ability of information contained in  the financial statements of Nigeria Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) to reflect the market value of its equity using ex-post facto research design. The data in the study were obtained from the annual published accounts of listed DMBs for the period of 2012 t0 2018. Descriptive statistics and panel data regression analysis were used to analyzed  the data. The findings revealed that earnings per share bank capital efficiency and liquidity of listed DMBs are value relevant, but book value per share is not value relevant. The study recommended that potential investors should pay more credence to earrings per share, equity and liquidity in making decisions to invest in DMBs. Investors should depend on accounting information to make financial decisions regarding their prospects.

Keywords: Accounting information, Capital Market, Deposit money banks, Boo value or equity per share, Earnings per share.

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A SIMPLE CODE OPTIMIZING TOOL

 

VICTOR IBOYI1; FATIMA SHITTU2; & MUSTAPHA LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN3

1,2Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu 3Mathematical Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Baushi, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Compilers can be designed to provide code optimization. An optimizing compiler is a compiler that tries to minimize or maximize some attributes of an executable computer program. The most common requirement is to minimize the time taken to execute a program; a less common one is to minimize the amount of memory occupied. Users should only focus on optimizations not provided by the compiler such as choosing a faster and/or less memory intensive algorithm. The need to enhance code for efficient use of computer resources today has called for the need of code optimization. In this work, we look at the various level of optimization. We also describe the different optimizations performed by the compiler as an automated optimizer which include In lining small functions, Code hoisting, Dead store elimination, Eliminating common sub-expressions, Loop unrolling, Loop optimizations: Code motion, Induction variable elimination, and Reduction in strength. Java programming language was used to analyse the code which performed the same operation. The performance metrics (speed, memory consumed and code size) were compared between the optimized code and the un-optimized code.

Keywords: Optimizer, platform independent optimization, code size, code hoisting, memory utilization

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RENEWABLE ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION – A REVIEW.   

 

SANI IBRAHIM

Department Of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

 

ABSTRACT

Energy is a requirement in our everyday life as a way of improving human development leading to economic growth and productivity. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations. The return-to renewables will help mitigate climate change is an excellent way but needs to be sustainable in order to ensure a sustainable future and bequeath future generations to meet their energy needs. Knowledge regarding the interrelations between sustainable development and renewable energy in particular is still limited. The aim of the paper is to ascertain if renewable energy sources are sustainable and examine how a shift from fossil fuel-based energy sources to renewable energy sources would help reduce climate change and its impact. A qualitative research was employed by reviewing peer-reviewed papers in the area of study. This study also brought to light the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources; energy security, energy access, social and economic development and climate change mitigation and reduction of environmental and health impacts.

Keywords: Climate change, Renewable energy, Mitigation, Sustainability, Environmental impact, Sustainable development.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE LEAVES EXTRACT OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA AND ITS MISTLETOE TAPINANTHUS GLOBIFERUS (EPIPHYTE)

 

ISAH, U.B.; ALIYU, U.; & ABUBAKAR, S.B.  

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

A comparative study on the phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of ethanolic and chloroform extracts of the leaves of psidium guajava and its mistletoe was carried out. Agar well diffusion was employed for the antibacterial activity against clinically gastrointestinal pathogens like E. coli, S. aureus and K. pneumonia. The phytochemical screening results revealed the presence of glycoside, alkaloid, flavonoid, terponoid, carbohydrate and saponins in the ethanol extract of psidium guajava leaves also the ethanol extract of the mistletoe leaves revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, terponoid, glycoside, carbohydrate and saponin. The chloroform extract of psidium guajava leaves revealed the presence of tannins, terponoid, flavonoids, carbohydrate, alkaloid and glycoside while the chloroform extract of the mistletoe leaves revealed the presence of flavonoid, terponoid, carbohydrate and tannins. For the antibacterial activities screening the result revealed  the ethanol and chloroform extract of psidium guajava leaves to have greater zone of inhibition than the ethanol and chloroform extracts of mistletoe leaves. MIC and MBC were determined on both extract. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA.

 Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, Bacteria, Psidium Guajava, Mistletoe, Tapinanthus Globiferus (epiphyte)

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PRODUCTION OF OIL FROM SESAME (BENNISEED) THROUGH SOHLEX EXTRACTION AND ITS BENEFIT

 

DAHUNSI TAIWO O. PHD AND OLAWUWO ADEBOOLA F

FCT College of Education Zuba Abuja

 

ABSTRACT

The paper examined the processes involved in production of oil from sesame seed through sohlex extraction, N-hexane (Cyclohexane) was used as a solvent. Different variables of sesame seeds were investigated in term of particle sizes, ratio of solvent to seeds mass and quantity of oils produced from the process. The nutritional value of the oils equally discussed, such as Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, and Potassium in large amounts and it also contain vitamins such as Niacin, Thiamin, Riboflavin and vitamin B-6, oil content and Fatty acid composition in Sesame seeds were examined and Modification of fatty acid composition in sesame oils also discussed. In the course of production, the process faced with some challenges like, lack of improved cultivars, poor seed supply system and poor management practices. Sesame oil has some health benefits such as it provide proteins, vitamins and amino acids. Due to certain challenges identified from production processes some recommendations were made and with its numerous benefits the researchers deem it fit to pass the information to our science students graduate to engage in the production of sesame seeds to reduce unemployment rate in the country

Keywords:   Extraction method, Nutrition, Sesame seed, Sesame oil, Sohlex, Solvent 

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SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN SOME SELECTED FISH SPECIES COLLECTED FROM RIVER TELLA, GASSOL, TARABA STATE

 

HARUNA IBRAHIM

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, PMB 05 Bali, Taraba State.

 

ABSTRACT

The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb) were measured in the tissues of some selected fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus and Synodontis gambiense) from Tella River, and also the condition factor of these fish species inhabiting the river was evaluated. The concentrations of these metals in the fish sample were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry (AAS). The result show that among the five element analyzed only two (Cu and Zn) were detected in all the samples collected; Pb was detected in small amount in the months of November, December and January. Cr and Cd were below detection limit. The mean value of metal concentration of Cu in C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and S. gambiense is 0.159, 0.285 and 0.194 mgkg-1 respectively. Similarly the mean value of metal concentration of Zn in C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and S. gambiense is 0.248, 0.303 and 0.260 mgkg-1 respectively. From the obtained, the concentration of heavy metal was found to be slightly higher in the months of November and lowest in the months of February and March. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in tissues of the fish were different among species; this indicated that different species from the same area contained different levels of heavy metals in their tissues. The result also revealed that the concentration of metals among the species as compared with the international permissible limit were within the acceptable limit. The results of the ANOVA pointed that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals in fish flesh of the various fish species at (P-value < 0.05). It was also observed that the fish species recorded varying condition factors, some samples shows slight increases in K – value while others within the normal range. Most of the fish species sampled in this present study had condition factors ≥ 1, and were within the normal recommended ranges. It was also stated from previous study that condition factor greater or equal to one is good, indicating a good level of feeding, and proper environmental condition.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, River Tella, Fish Species, Condition Factor, AAS.

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FLUID MECHNICS: A MATHEMATICAL APPROACH

 

*MIJINYAWA SANI LABARAN; & **ABDULLAHI M. AUWAL

*Science Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Mathematics and Statics Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

 

ABSTRACT

This article, examine a basic structure for treating fluid flow issues in a mathematical approach. In such problems and considerations we mainly explore the mechanism of the theory of similarity and group-theoretical approach, in most cases or usually in fluid mechanics, attention has been paid to symmetries. To highlight the need to create physico-mathematical models for such a problem, study of a fluid flow problem is included.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes equation, Similarity Principle, Fluid mechanics, physico-mathematical and group-theoretical approach.

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EQUIPPING THE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED YOUTHS WITH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) BASED VIRTUAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP COLLABORATION SKILLS DURING THE COVID 19 PANDEMIC FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

 

*OJUOPE KEHINDE ISAAC; **ODUMOSU OLUWAKEMI OMOLARA; & *SALAWU SULE AJIBOYE

*Department of Computer Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Computer Science, Ogun State College of Health Technology, Ilese-Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria.            

 

ABSTRACT

The inception of COVID 19 Corona virus pandemic disease has brought about the challenge of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning systems. The use of ICT in education is no longer a new idea, but the question is where the limit is when the use of ICT does not have the desired effect, most especially on the physically Challenged individuals during the lock down. From the report of World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (2011), physically challenged persons consist a significant proportion of the world’s population, about 15%, due to the differences in their educational level to the normal individuals, they are not always see as contributor to productive human capital development of the Society. Most of the physically Challenged students have little access to education, this is as a result of difficulties they face in learning and comprehension. During the lock down, most of this category of youth were cut off from society’s productivity and this limits the rate of sustainable development. This paper focuses on equipping this physically challenged youth with ICT based virtual entrepreneurship collaboration skills that can promote their productivity ability during the COVID 19 pandemic for sustainable development in Nigeria. ICT based virtual entrepreneurship collaboration skills will promote the virtual learning system of this category of youths during the COVID 19 global pandemic challenge. It will also make them productive sector of the society. The advent of IT has brought about creation of diverse vocational jobs. Most physically challenged persons engaged with one of this job or the other for living. This paper explains the state of Nigeria economy; it also expressed the danger of unprecedented rate of unemployment in our society. It then enumerates various sections of IT that could be used to project wealth creation; it further analyzed the significant development the Nation’s economy would experience if embrace the power of the IT for job creation during the COVID 19 Pandemic. The design and methodology was based on the research work we carried out in one of the government school for handicap children in Nigeria.  From the cognitive ability testing of the research, we found out that the students learn faster and easier with the use of ICT developed virtual applications than normal classroom learning. Base on this, Information Technology (IT) based virtual entrepreneurship collaboration skills will encourage the virtual learning ability and collaboration of this individuals during the COVID 19 pandemic outbreak.

Keywords: Physically Challenged, Virtual Reality, Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Development, COVID 19 Pandemic Disease.

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FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN FIFTH GENERATION AND FOURTH GENERATION OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

 

UMAR SANI DUTSINMA

Computer Studies, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic.

 

ABSTRACT

In the field of mobile communications, a “generation” generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak bit rates, new frequency bands, wider channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz, and higher capacity for many simultaneous data transfers (higher system spectral efficiency in bit/second/Hertz/site). Each generation of cellular technology differs in its data transmission speed and encoding methods, which require end users to upgrade their hardware. 4G can support up to 2 Gbps and is slowly continuing to improve in speeds. 4G featured speeds up to 500 times faster than 3G. 5G can be up to 100 times faster than 4G.One of the main differences between 4G and 5G is the level of latency, of which 5G will have much less. The objective of this paper is to compare 4G and 5G mobile technology using descriptive analysis and previous study.

Keyword: LTE, ITU-R, ISPs, 4G and 5G.

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RELIABILITY MODELS AND APPLICATIONS IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

 

VICTOR IBOYI1, FATIMA SHITTU2, MUSTAPHA LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN3

1,2Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu 3Mathematical Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria         

 

ABSTRACT

One of the potential advantages of distributed systems is improved reliability and availability. This, however, is not a feature that comes automatically. It is important that mechanisms be provided to ensure the consistency of the database as well as to detect failures and recover from them. The implication for Distributed Database Systems (DDBS)s is that when a failure occurs and various sites become either inoperable or inaccessible, the databases at the operational sites remain consistent and up to date. Furthermore, when the computer system or network recovers from the failure, the DBSs should be able to recover and bring the databases at the failed sites up-to-date. This may be especially difficult in the case of network partitioning, where the sites are divided into two or more groups with no communication among them. In this mini project, we discuss the various reliability protocols operational in a distributed database system. We also consider different types of reliability models and then implement and test the validity of a two-phase commit protocol in an object oriented environment.

Keywords: Reliable distributed database, Reliability protocol, 2-Phase Commit model, failure model, poisson distribution

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DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA SEED FOR OPTIMUM PROCESSING.

 

ABODENYI, V. A., EZEAKU, C. A AND ATANU S. O.

Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to investigate the physical properties of Jatropha seed. The seed length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, bulk density, true density were investigated using standard methods and equations. The result obtained was 14.7, 20.0, and 23.60 mm for small, medium and large seed of major, intermediate and minor diameter respectively, the geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increase in size. The true density and bulk density were found to be 0.90, 0.80 and 1.20g/cm3, 2.40, 2.70, and 3.0g/cm3 respectively. Sphericity and Surface area were found to be 54.0 %, 66.0 % and 73.0 %, and 1309.8 mm2, 959.1 mm2, and 157.0 mm2 for small, medium and large seed respectively. The results obtained will provide a data base for designing equipment for handling, processing and development of new products of the seeds. The Jatropha seed is spheroid in shape based on the result obtained. Further studies is recommended for flow properties of jatropha that will aid in the material handling.

Keyword: Jatropha seed, physical properties, sphericity, density, surface area

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PREVALENCE OF TICK INFESTATION AMONG SOKOTO GUDALI AND RED BORORO BREEDS OF CATTLE IN WURNO, SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA

 

1HAFIZ ABUBAKAR, 2KASIMU ABUBAKAR SHAGARI, 1AHMAD BELLO, 1A.A. SANI, 1RILWANU UMAR

1Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Wurno, Sokoto 2Integrated Science Department, Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto

 

ABSTRACT

Ticks transmit different tick-borne diseases (TBD) to cattle causing production loses. Sokoto Gudali and Red Bororo breeds of cattle found in Achida, Wurno LG Sokoto State were sampled for Tick infestation between October, 2019 and February, 2020. Body surface of 464 cattle were visually examined and tick found were manually detached and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and taken to Parasitology laboratory Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto for identification to species level using morphological features. A total of 296 Ticks infested 269 cattle (Mean Infestation Rate = 51.70) in general, cows were more infested (IR% = 52.65) than Bulls (IR% 51.0). Among the two breeds, Red Bororo has higher Mean Infestation Rate (%) (IR = 69.47) than Sokoto Gudali with IR (%) 24.80. Generally, in all the breeds of cattle, young cattle (< 1 Year) have the highest IR (%) with 53.35, followed by old cattle (> 3 Years) with IR (%) 52.35, and Adult (1-3 Years) have the least infestation Rate (IR%) = 35.70. Species of Ticks identified were Hyalomma Truncatum (46.3%), Boophilus decloratus (19.9 %), Hyalomma dromedarii ((9.8%), Hyalomma refipes (1.4%) Hyalomma impressum (1.0%),Boophilus geigyi (3.7%), Boophilus annulatus (5.4%), Amblgomma variegatum (5.7%), Rhipicephalus senguineus (3.4%), and Rhipicephalus evertsi(3.4%). This research suggests that, these breeds of cattle are at risk of Tick-Borne Disease outbreak. Effective Tick control strategies should be adopted by cattle owners, herdsmen, and veterinary personnel to prevent wide-spread. 

Keywords: Prevalence, Tick infestation, Sokoto Gudali, Red Bororo, Tick-borne Diseases

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POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF TOMATO CROP (Lycopersicon esculentem Mill.)

 

1NASIRU YAHAYA AHMED; & 2MOHAMMED UMAR ALI

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering 2Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, PMB 05 Bali, Taraba State.

 

ABSTRACT

Tomato production and amount consumed increase with the increase in the population growth. In terms of value and rate of consumption, tomato is reported as one of the leading horticultural crops worldwide. Post-harvest losses in tomato are influenced by factors like; lack of appropriate production techniques, poor or non-application of the pre-harvest recommended treatments, lack of absolute care during harvesting, bulk packaging without cleaning, sorting and grading of the produce, inappropriate storage facilities and method, bad transportation systems, distance of distribution point/market and time taken to reach the final consumer. In the local and global supply chains fruit and vegetables, tomato are gaining importance with increase in consumption at local markets and generating revenues from exports. The supply chain is considered as a large system comprising several organizations together with the relationship between them aimed to improved quality and sufficient food production in an economically and socially sustainable way and reduces postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables. Value chain is the series of activities required in moving a product from origin through the different phases of production to deliver to final consumers. Considering both the supply and value chain as trend and drivers of global food security more especially in the aspect of fruit and vegetable, will alleviate the production constraint and minimize post-harvest losses.

Keywords: Postharvest Losses, Tomato, Value chain, Supply Chain.

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GROWTH KINETICS AND THE EFFECT OF SURACTANTS ON BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM NRIC 0383

 

1IHUM, T. A, 2EFUNWOLE, O. O.; 2BUSARI, T. A

1Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Ilorin, Kwara State 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic Iree.

 

ABSTRACT

Lactobacillus species are of major interest in the food industry because of their bio preservative properties. They produce various types of antimicrobial compounds, including bacteriocins. Lactobacillus isolates from locust bean were identified using biochemical and molecular means. Growth kinetics of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0383 was determined by inoculating one ml inoculum (108CFU/ml) of Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0383 in 1 L of MRS broth medium and  testing its activity against test bacteria (Escherichia coli 2013C-3342, Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973, Pectobacterium carotovorum Pec 1, Enterobacter cloacae AS10, Klebsiella aerogenes OFM28 and Proteus mirabilis UPMSD3) from selected vegetable (Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) samples. Maximum OD (600 nm) of 0.6 ± 0.03 mm was observed at the 24th hour of growth of Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0383 while maximum antibacterial activity of bacteriocin produced during growth (shown as an inhibition zone) against the test bacteria occurred at the 24th and 30th hour of incubation. The effect of different surfactants (Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween 20, Tween 80, Urea, Triton 114 and Triton 100) on bacteriocin activity was also tested. Maximum activity of bacteriocin against the test bacteria in the presence of SDS ranged from 70.74 ± 3.22 to 91.46 ± 4.59% on the other hand activity of bacteriocin in the presence of tween 20 ranged from 45.82 ± 1.05 to 67.65 ±1.65 % while in the presence of tween 80 it ranged from 34.56 ± 1.77 to 59.17 ± 5.15 %. Study of growth kinetics is an indispensable tool not only in the applied fields of industrial and environmental biotechnology, but also in fundamental areas such as microbial genetics.  Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0383 bacteriocin was not hampered in the presence of surfactants. 

Keywords: Growth, Kinetics, Effect, Suractants, Bacteriocin, Production.

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PRODUCTION OF GEOIDAL MAP AND THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELLING FOR SURFACE MONITORING

 

ZAKARI, DANLADI; SURV. AHMED, BABAYO; ADAMU MAKAMA PINDIGA; & ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR

Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechic Bauchi, Bauchi State

 

ABSTRACT

Dual Frequency Global Positioning System (DGPS) has emerged as a successful technology in providing precise positions of points on the surface of the earth over the reference ellipsoid with sub-metre level of accuracy.  DGPS is one of the most frequently used positioning methods in geodesy. The end products of surveying with this receiver gives geodetic latitude (ϕ), geodetic longitude (λ) and ellipsoidal height (h) which are obtained with reference to the ellipsoid. This research involved the determination of Geoidal undulation for the production of Geoidal map of Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state. DGPS receiver and precise Level instruments were used to obtain ellipsoidal and orthometric heights of the study area.  Geoidal heights were derived from the differences between ellipsoidal heights and orthometric heights. The adjusted orthometric heights obtained using precise Level and the ellipsoidal heights which are part of the geodetic/Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates obtained using DGPS were post processed using spectrum survey office Software (SSO). The Geoidal map, contour map and three dimensional surface Model (3D) were created using ArcGIS 10.2.1 Software version. The Microsoft Office Excel was used to deduce the ellipsoidal heights and orthometric heights in order to obtain geoidal heights for the production of Geoidal Map of the study Area. The statistical analysis of the result met the precision of second order geodetic control network and levelling specifications. The result of the spearman correlation coefficient computed using geodetic coordinates is 0.054 and the coefficient of determination 0.0029%. The result of the Z test computed (0.125) indicated that the measurements are precise at 95% confidence level. The reliability of the measurements of X and Y second order geodetic coordinates were computed at the scale of 1:5000 and found reliable at 95% confidence level. The mean value of the geoidal heights determined is 22.680 metre which can be used as the geoid of Bauchi State. The contour map, geoidal and 3D model were produced at the scale of 1:60,000 and the contour lines were interpolated at 0.2 meter contour interval which represented the terrain configuration. Therefore, the results obtained can be used for any work requiring the use of geoidal heights in Nigeria and any part of the world.

Keywords: Geoidal heights, Orthometric heights, Ellipsoidal heights, Correlation and Statistical analysis

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IDENTIFICATION OF KEY FACTORS OF DEPRECIATION AND OBSOLESCENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMERCIAL BUILDING DESIGN IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

 

OLOJEDE, I. O., MURITALA, A. O., AJIBADE, N. A., SAKA, J. F., ONI, F.

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.

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CLOUD COMPUTING AND THE IMPROVEMENT STATUS OF CLOUD SECURITY

 

OFUALAGBA MAMUYOVWI HELEN

Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnics Otefe, Oghara, Delta State.

 

ABSTRACT

Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing service provided by the third party allowing share of resources and data among devices. It is widely used in many organizations nowadays and becoming more popular because it changes the way of how the Information Technology (IT) of an organization is organized and managed. It provides lots of benefits such as simplicity and lower costs, almost unlimited storage, least maintenance, easy utilization, backup and recovery, continuous availability, quality of service, automated software integration, scalability, flexibility and reliability, easy access to information, elasticity, quick deployment and lower barrier to entry. While there is increasing use of cloud computing service in this new era, the security issues of the cloud computing become a challenges. Cloud computing must be safe and secure enough to ensure the privacy of the users. This paper focus on the architecture (software and hardware requirement of the cloud computing, then discuss the most common security issues of using cloud and some solutions to the cloud security issues since security is one of the most critical aspect in cloud computing due to the sensitivity of user’s data. And also the Improvement Status of Cloud Security.

Keywords: cloud, computing, information technology, security, internet, data,

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MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS OF SOME CLASSICAL SEQUENCE SPACES

 

IBRAHIM MOHAMMED DIBAL AND BUKAR YUSUF

Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State of Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The sequence  space    was  introduced  and  studied  by  Schaefer (1972).  In  the  present  research work  we extend    which  is  related  to  the  concept  of  invariant  mean   and  characterized  the  matrix  classes    and  .  Further,  we  also  determine  the  necessary  and  sufficient  conditions  on  the  matrix  sequence    in  order  that  the  matrix  A  belongs  to  the  matrix  classes    and   .       

Keywords:  Sequence   spaces;  matrix  transformation;  invariant  mean

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EFFECT OF GA CONCENTRATION VARIATION ON THE BAND GAP OF IN1-XGAXAS TERNARY COMPOUND

 

BABATUNDE, R. A., BOLANLE, Y. I. AND AMUSA, R. A.

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Pure and Applied Science, the Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro. Ogun State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Semiconductors are used in fabrication of electronic components and manufacturing of electronics equipment. Band-gaps play prominent role in determining some characteristic properties of electronics devices, such properties include conductivities and optical wavelength. In this project, band gaps of Indium Gallium Arsenide,(InGaAs) ternary semiconductor compounds were calculated using generalized gradient approximation within Density Functional Theory as embedded in Quantum espresso package. The optimized values of k-point and cut-off energies of Indium Arsenide and Gallium Arsenide were used to optimize their respective experimental lattice constants. Lattice constants of Indium Gallium Arsenide, at varying concentration of Gallium, were calculated using additivity equation and later optimized to obtain stable equilibrium values using convergence test. These equilibrium values were used to calculate energy gaps of the ternary compounds by varying concentration, x (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90 and 1.00) of gallium. The results show that lattice constants, calculated at each concentration are 11.055, 10.808, 10.562, 10.364, 10.266, 10.167, 10.068 Å, and energy gaps were zeros for, 1.02, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 eV respectively. And the results compare favorably well with experimental values. This results show that the ternary compound exhibited property at x=0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0.

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MODELLING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CO2 EMISSION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA: DOES ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNET CURVE HYPOTHESIS HOLD?

 

ABUBAKAR SADIQ SALISU; ABUBAKAR ABDULLAHI; MUSA MUNKAILAL; & BILYAMINU ABDULLAHI

Department OF General Studies (Economics Unit) Gombe state Polytechnic Bajoga

 

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between carbon dioxide emission (CO2) and economic growth in Nigeria for the period (1981-2018) with the objective of checking the validity of environmental kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis using annual time series data. The study employs econometrics techniques of Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test, Johansen co-integration and error correction methodology while E-views econometrics package was used as a tool of analysis. The results from the analysis reveal that all the variables are integrated of the first order I (1). the Johnsen co-integration indicates that real GDP per capita which is a proxy for economic growth is statistically significant and negatively affects CO2 in the long run while GDPSQ shows a positive statistically significant effect on CO2.and capital formation has negative long run influence on carbon emission. The vector error correction model revealed a 27 percent speed of convergence to long run equilibrium and the results short run dynamics shows statistically effects of GDP, GDPSQ and CAP. U-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission was obtained from the study and therefore environmental kuznet curve hypothesis does not hold in Nigeria for the periods under study. Arising from the foregoing it is recommended that policies that discourage importation of carbon intensive product should be formulated and implemented and that productive activities of multinational and local companies that contributes to emission should be checked so that economic growth can be achieve with minimal emission.

Keywords: CO2 Emission, Economic growth, Environmental quality, Environmental Kuznet Curve and Johansen CO-integration.

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WOODY SPECIES COMPOSITION OF A EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS PLANTATION AT BUNUNU, TAFAWA BALEWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT HEADQUARTER BAUCHI STATE NIGERIA

 

1GARBA A.; 2SANI A.; 3ABUBAKAR I. A.; & 1AHMAD I. A

1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State,

 

ABSTRACT

The study accessed the woody species composition within the one-hectare plantation located in Bununu Tafawa Balewa local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria with the view of providing information on ecological impact of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on natural regeneration of indigenous species. Three quadrats of 10mx10m were selected and total species count conducted in each. Results from the study shows that, there are 236 tree stands in the three selected quadrats representing 18 tree species cutting across 10 families and 13 genera. Eucalyptus camaldulensis recorded the highest frequency and percentage frequency of 98 and 41.53% respectively followed by Acacia ataxacanta with frequency and frequency percentage of 34 and 14% while, Vitellaria paradoxa, Tamarindus indica, Paliostigma reticulata and Cassia singuriana have the least frequency and frequency percentage with 1 and 0.47% respectively. The family Fabaceae/Leguminosae recorded the highest frequency and percentage frequency of 5 and 45.45 while Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae, Apocynaceae, Ebenaceae, Oligocaceae and Zygophyllaceae recorded the lowest frequency of 1 and 1.23% each. Although the introduced Eucalyptus species is the dominant species natural regeneration could be said to be fair probably caused by periodical harvesting of the Eucalyptus species.

Keywords: Tree species composition, Savanna, Indigenous tree species, Forest Conservation

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ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY VEGETABLE FARMERS IN JERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA BORNO STATE NIGERIA

 

1MARYAM IBRAHIM UMAR; 1MUHAMMAD WAKIL; & 2UMAR LAWAN SHERIFF

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of General Studies, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture Maiduguri, Borno state.

 

Abstract

This study assessed climate change adaptation strategies adopted by vegetable farmers in Jere Local Government Area, Borno State. The objectives of the study were to level of awareness, perceived causes, effects, adaptation strategies adopted, and constraints to vegetable farmers’ adoption of climate change adaptation strategies in the study area. Three wards (Dusuman, Gongulong and Old Maiduguri) were purposively selected, and twenty (20) vegetable farmers were randomly selected from each of the wards using simple random sampling giving sixty (60) respondents. The result on level of awareness revealed that perceived awareness of climate change variations among respondents were temperature fluctuation increases and rainfall disturbance (93.2%), increase in sunshine intensity and violence wind/storm (91.6%), drought (88.2%) and short dry season (75%). Result on perceived major causes of climate change among the respondents was reported to be bush burning (98.2%), gas emission and industrial revolution (96.6%), mono cropping (94.9%), deforestation (93.2%), excessive tillage (91.6%), and excessive pesticide application (90%). The respondents revealed that increased pest and disease outbreak, increased cost of production decreased crop yield (96.6%), alteration of planting time (93.3%), and low profit (93.2%) were the major effect of climate change in the study area. The adaptation strategies adopted by vegetable farmers were practice of agro-forestry, use of early maturing varieties, intercropping, use of resistance varieties, and use of minimum/zero tillage. Moreover, the major constraints to adaptation of climate change in the study area were high cost of adaptation (46.6%), inadequate necessary inputs (30.0%), lack of appropriate technology (21.6%) and lack of government intervention (16.6%). The study concluded that vegetable farmers in the study area were aware of the challenges, causes and effects of climate and have embraced adaptation strategies to mitigate these impacts, thus recommended that more stalk holders should come in to ease the adaptation level of the farmers. In addition, emphasis should be placed on awareness creation on appropriate agronomic practices and adaptation to changes in climate.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate change, Awareness, Variations

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