SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF AFRICAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (SJASD)
VOL 17 (2) DECEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2115-4255
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
AN ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE AND POLITENESS MAXIMS IN HELON HABILA’S TRAVELERS
ADEGBITE, OLUWASEUN; & IKUELOGBON, KEHINDE (Ph.D)
Department of Languages and Literary Studies, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State.
The human language is dynamic and always evolves based on situations. Most times, people tend to communicate a lot more than the mere words spoken in the course of conversation. The study sought to unearth the pragmatic significance of the novel, Travelers. The basic concern is on contextual meaning as against content or semantic meaning. Focus was also given to background information as a prerequisite for understanding. Therefore, the study was limited to pragmatic features of conversational implicature and politeness maxims in the novel. The study was an analysis of the pragmatic contents of Travelers by Helon Habila. Content analysis was utilized and the data generated from the selected texts were subjected to qualitative analysis, which is concerned with data interpretations and description of results and findings. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS frequency distribution tables which showcased the percentage of occurrence. Research findings revealed Conversational implicature was richly abundant in the novel and added to the beauty of the dialogue and made the language of the novel very interesting, while Politeness occurrence reflected on nearly all the characters in the travelers, therefore, it was revealed that non-observance of maxims can lead to distortion of meanings in language.
Keywords: Conversational Implicature, Politeness, Maxims, Travelers, Language, Pragmatics
EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF AUDIT COMMITTEE ACTIVITY ON AUDIT QUALITY OF NIGERIA MANUFACTURING FIRMS
ILIYA BAWA, PHD1, SALISU IYAL AHMED2 AND ABBAH, GRACE OJOCHENEMI3
1Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State – Nigeria 2Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria 3Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria
Corporate scandals always wipe out investor’s faith incorporation and give doubts on the independence of the auditors. This doubt in turn results into the loss of shareholder’s confidence in the survival of their investment. Objective of this study is to examine the effect of audit committee characteristics on audit quality of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from audited annual reports and accounts of sampled manufacturing firms for the period of 2009-2018. The population of the study is the twenty two (22) listed manufacturing firms on the floor of the Nigeria stock exchange. Binary logistics regression was used to analyzed the data using stata 14.0. The study found out that audit committee accounting expertise, firm size and firm leverage have no significant on audit quality. The study concluded and recommended that accounting experts should be considered necessary in the committee inz order to ensure the committee have carried out their duties effectively.
Keywords: Audit committee, Audit quality, Accounting expert, Manufacturing firms, Auditors.
ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SHEA BUTTER FOR THE OPTIMUM PRODUCTION OF FATTY ACID
ODAFE IMOGU1 NNODIM UCHE2; & PROF. JOSEPH O. OKAFOR3
Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria Technology, Minna.
In recent times, the demand for unconventional natural resources has risen and this has turned the attention of researchers towards abundant resources like Shea butter. Shea butter is a vegetable oil that is extracted from the Shea tree (Vitellaria Paradoxa). It can serve as a feedstock for production of free fatty acid which will in turn be used to produce soap, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc. In this research study, Shea butter was enzymatically hydrolyzed at varying process conditions to produce free fatty acid (a key material needed for soap and drug production). Process parameters such as temperature, time and agitation speed were used to determine the design of experiment through the Response Surface Methodology technique. The physiochemical properties of the Shea butter was observed to have values within a close range with other oils used as feedstock for the production of soap, chemical, pharmaceuticals, etc. The optimum yield of free fatty acid produced after the completion of the experiment was observed to be 88%, and it was produced at a temperature 50oC, time of 145 minutes and 240 rpm. It can then be concluded that the use of Shea butter as feedstock would be economically viable and environmentally friendly in several chemical/process industries.
Keywords: Hydrolysis, Shea Butter,
LEADERS’ STRATEGIES TO ATTAIN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL FOUR AMIDST THE COVID 19 PANDEMIC PERIOD IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS, GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL ABUJA, NIGERIA
PROFESSOR BINTA IBRAHIM ZAIFAIDA; & LOVE EFFIONG EBUK (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, University of Abuja, Nigeria
The paper was on leaders strategies to attain Sustainable Development Goal four (SDG 4) amidst the COVID-19 pandemic period in secondary schools in Gwagwalada, Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. The researchers used survey design for the study. The population of the study was 18 principals from junior secondary schools and 8 principals from senior secondary schools, a total of 26 principals (FCT EMIS, 2017). These principals were used through purposive sampling technique. Questionnaire on “Leaders Strategies to Attain Sustainable Development Goal 4 amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic period (LSSDGC19P) was used to collect data for analysis. The instrument was validated by experts in the Educational Management Department, University of Abuja, Nigeria. The reliability of the instrument was obtained through split-half method, Pearson Product Momment and Spearman Rho Rank Order Correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The coefficient reliability index obtained was 0.73. Simple frequency was used to collate data and mean statistics was used to analyze data got from research questions. The findings were that leaders in secondary schools have the knowledge of the sustainable development goals which they have to achieve but that they did not apply the strategies to attain Sustainable Development Goal 4 amidst COVID-19 pandemic period. Due to the findings, the researchers recommended leaders in secondary schools should ensure that teachers should use online e-learning device to teach students in lockdown situations. They should relate cordially with staff, communicate with them and make them participate effectively in teaching students using the necessary information communication technology (ICT) devices in crisis times such as the COVID-19 pandemic period.
Keywords: Leaders, Strategies, Sustainable Development Goals, COVID 19 Pandemic period
THE NIGERIAN SECURITY AND CIVIL DEFENCE CORPS (NSCDC) AND THE CHALLENGES OF NATIONAL SECURITY IN NIGERIA
BASSEY MOSES IGWE
Political and Governance Policy Department, the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
The advent of the Fourth republic in 1999 came with new forms of violent crimes perpetuated by groups such as: Boko Haram, Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) etc. The activities of all these groups and many others have led to destruction of lives, properties and have negatively affected the national security of Nigeria. The government through the different security agencies has put in place different policies to manage these problems but have not achieved the desired outcome. It is against this background this paper looked at the Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSDCC) and the challenges to national security in Nigeria. The study adopted the Case study approach secondary data was gathered from published material such as books, magazines and unpublished material on the subject matter. The study discovered that NSCDC has achieved a mixed result in terms of security. In Oyo state for example the success of NSCDC led to the security outfit being given one of the Operation Burst (OB) command to head, in Benue and Delta states on the other hand they recorded the agency performance is very poor. The paper concluded that insecurity has assumed a frightening dimension with the inability of the government and the different security agencies to tackle the challenge head-long. NSCDC personnel should be re-trained to keep them abreast with the numerous insecurity challenges faced by the country and there should be synergy between them and the NPF as the agency roles and functions continue to conflict with that of the police.
Key Words: NSCDC, National Security, Nigeria, Insecurity
ASSESSMENT OF POVERTY ERADICATION ON KEKE NAPEP PROGRAMME POVERTY AMONG YOUTH (A CASE STUDY OF KONDUGA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
Department of Public Administration, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The study assessed poverty eradication on KEKE NAPEP programme on poverty among youth of Konduga Local Government Area. The main objective is to assess the impact of NAPEP in eradication poverty among youth in Konduga local government, Borno state. While the specific and objectives are: To examine the effects of economic reforms on poverty alleviation. To examine how poverty affects the lives of Konduga local government. The study employs survey design method. The population of the study consists of all KEKE NAPEP participants (Owners, Riders, and Union Members) in Konduga local government. Yalle Yamani method was used to select 250 samples for the study. The sources of data for this study consist of primary and secondary data. A total of 250 questionnaires were designed and distrusted to collect data for the stud. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) while inferential statistics (person product moment correction coefficient was used to test to test the hypothesis. The study revealed poor environment lack of entrepreneurship knowledge/skills bad character and bad morals fracture and dysfunctional families and lack of supervision and poor parenting were the course of poverty among youth in Konduga local government. Base on this the study concluded that there had been poor supervision, monitoring and evaluation of the scheme. The ministry of poverty alleviation and youth empowerment has not significantly alleviated poverty. Despite of the numerous poverty alleviation schemes and the success recorded. Poverty in the Konduga is still high. Based on the foregoing findings it is concluded that poverty is a social and economic problem with serious negative effects on almost every number of the Nigerian society. As economic destroyers, poverty has bedeviled this nation for too long a time. It has along with other factors led to a large extent system and to large extent contributed to our under development. Based on the findings, it was recommends that Borno state government should intensified effort to reduce the rate of poverty before the matter goes out of hand state by Karlmax if the poor cannot sleep because he is Hungary the rich also cannot sleep because the poor are awake among others.
Keywords: Assessment, Poverty, Eradication, Programme, Poverty, Youth.
THE RELEVANCE OF HUMAN CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
MERCY OSATO, OMOIFO-IREFO
Industrial Safety and Environmental Technology, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State.
The significant role of effective Human Capacity Development (HCD) in enhancing the achievement of corporate targets has garnered attention overtime. This recognition has led to investments in Human Capital Development (HCD) Programs like education and trainings for employees by their management. However, the holistic relevance of HCD towards sustainable health, safety and environmental management within organizations remains a grey area which necessitates a befitting research. This research attempts to fill this apparent gap in extant literature. It was discovered that there is the tendency for people to be emotionally and actively driven to synergize towards achievement of sustainability objectives set out by institutions that are committed to enhancing their skills, potentials, capabilities and freedom to make informed decisions. Likewise, it was revealed that the implementation of HCD culture and programs is currently more prevalent within workplaces in developed countries. Developmental agencies like the European Commission, OECD and UN still have quite some work to do in their bid to encourage the implementation of HCD within the global workplace, because the implementation of HCD programs is evidently more prevalent within workplaces in developed countries. The management of companies within developing countries is also enjoined to invest in HCD programs to bridge the existing gap with their developed counterparts.
Keywords: Human Capacity, Development, Health, Safety, Environment, Sustainability
CONSEQUENCES OF MOTIVATION ON MEDICAL STAFF PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
*BABA GANA ALIMI; **USMAN ISMAILA; *RABI ISA; & ***AHMED GARBA
*Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Language and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. ***Department of General Studies, Taraba State College of Agriculture, Taraba State, Nigeria
This study was informed by the rising absenteeism of medical doctors and related health care workers in the place of their work during working hours at various health care centres (Hospitals) in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The incessant absenteeism of some of the medical physicians had recently provoked, the executive Governor of Borno State, Professor. Babagana Umara Zulum to pay an impromptu visit to various health care centre’s, including Borno State Specialist hospitals and Umaru Shehu Ultra-Modern Hospital Maiduguri, Borno State. However, the Governor unscheduled visit was led to the suspension of many medical doctors in the two identified hospitals who were absent during the working hours and unfortunately, no official permission is granted to their absence. A descriptive research survey was used coupled with primary and secondary sources of data collection was mingled simultaneously to obtain the information required on the consequences of motivation on medical health worker’s performance. A purposive random sampling techniques was equally utilized to select the respondents, a sample size of (120) respondents spread across various departments and units of the hospitals were adopted as study samples. A t-test statistic method was used to translate the respondents’ opinion in respect of the effects of motivation on medical workers’ performance. Several motivation theories and others scholarly literatures were reviewed and found relevant to the research. The result of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between motivational incentives and worker’s absenteeism as well as poor worker’s performance in medical health centre’s (Hospitals). Thus lack of motivation, discourages worker’s performance is inevitable. It is indeed obvious that inability of the Borno State Government to pay or settle the medical doctor’s full scale locum allowances and related benefits discourages them from effective and efficient health care services delivery. Though, the findings of the study have strongly commended the efforts and commitment of Borno State Government, under the leadership of Professor Babagana Umara Zulum for procuring modern day world class health care equipments and zeal of taken path toward improving the welfare of the health care workers and standardizing the health care service delivery system in Borno State.
Keywords: Consequences: Motivation: Medical Staff: Performance: Public Hospitals.
INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT ON NURSE/PATIENT INTERACTION IN HOSPITALS IN OSHIMILI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
ORORHO, MAUREEN E. N.
Federal College of Education (T), Asaba, Delta State.
The study investigated Influence of Social Environment on Nurse patient communication in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Three Research Questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and non-participant observation. The population of the study comprised 40 nurses selected through purposive random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire titled Influence of Social Environment on Nurse Patient Interaction Questionnaire (ISENPIQ). The instrument was validated by experts. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.73 obtained through Cronbach Alpha method. The data collected were analyzed using mean statistics. The findings revealed that level of income, level of education and environment influence interaction between patients and nurses in selected hospitals in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Based on the findings, the Study recommended among others; that basic workplace facilities should be installed in hospitals to enhance workplace environment and facilitate interaction between nurses and patients.
Keywords: Influence, Social Environment, Nurse/Patient, Interaction, Hospitals.
EXAMINING THE STANDARD OF ORGANIZATIONAL ROLES ON SAFETY OF EMPLOYEES: A STUDY OF POTISKUM GENERAL HOSPITAL
*ADAMU MOHAMMED; **HASHIMU UMAR; ***ABDULLAHI MOHAMMED JAWA; & ****MAAM KYARI
*Local Government Education Authority Potiskum, Yobe State. ** Dept of Community Health, Bill and Melinda Gate College of Health and Technology, P O Box 57, Ningi, Bauchi State. ***Home Affairs Information and Culture Overseeing, Ministry of Budget and Economic Planning, Yobe State. ****College of Nursing and Midwifery Maiduguri. [Department of Public Health, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, Niger Republic].
The study examines the standard of organizational roles on safety of employees in generl Hospital potiskum, by ensuring a policy implementation or review, availability of PPE and monitoring of the regularities the questionnaire is designed in conjunction with five likertscales and were distributed to the employees according to their various units in the hospital which comprises of both organizations and employees a total of 400 respondents were sampled for the study while 384 respondents were returned and used for the analysis through simple statistics found that the standard of organizational roles played on safety of employees in Hospital is well done.
Keywords: OSH-Organizational Safety and Health, PPE-Personal Protective Equipment, Safety, Organization, Health, Occupation
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PEER GROUP INFLUENCE AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS
Department of Educational Psychology and Counselling School of Education, A.D Rufa’i Collge of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
The behaviors of the senior secondary school students who are mostly adolescents is giving stakeholders in the education sector a sleepless night as to what causes such and who could be responsible. This paper seek to unearth the relationship apparent and influence if any of peer group influence and senior secondary school students’ moral development in Sokoto state. The study consisted of all the senior secondary school of Sokoto metropolis purposively and proportionately sampled. An adapted version of Idowu (2002) was used as the instrument of data collection, validity and reliability established. Spearman Brown Rank Order was used to analyze the hypothesis 1 and regression. One research questions was raised, tested and rejected indicating significant relationship between peer group influence and the student’s moral development. It was recommended that that parents should closely monitor their wards as find out the kind of company they keep as friends as such if left unchecked could have a devastating effect on heir educational carrier.
Keywords: Relationship, Peer Group, Influence, Moral Development, Senior Secondary School Students.
PROBLEM OF DISEASE CONTROL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE.
*VEN EGESI JONATHAN C.; MR. CHIDI UKPABI; & EGESI JULIET ADAKU
*Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, P.M.B 1472, Owerri-Nigeria. **Imo State University, Owerri.
Mortality and morbidity are actually issues of worry for developing counties in the 21st century. Through morbidity refers to your level of health and well-being. Mortality is related to your risk of death. These two different but related terms are so important in this discourse. This is basically because if someone is sick and cannot go for treatment to bounce back to life, he dies off. It has been discovered that given disease outbreak claim lives especially in developing countries and this may simply be traceable to their ability to seek adequate medicare to cure the disease, it is also known that factors as religion and social status come into play as we discuss this topic because religious factors go a long way in making people seek medical attention or otherwise, and again, it has been discovered that people from high social status are practically the only people that most at times can assets quality medicare. Let it be mentioned also that the disparity in accessing of quality social amenities is not limited to medicare alone but extended to other social infrastructural facilities. One aspect of this which is damaging and discouraging efforts from the governments of developing countries in general and Nigeria in particular. Efforts at curbing diseases which most at times claim lives of millions is at its low ebb as most often it is discovered that nothing in its sense of it all is done when governments create the impression that something is going on hence, this study. Series of data collection techniques as oral interviews, questionnaire, newspapers, journals and internet were used. Given sociological theories were examined from which functionalism got the nod and serve as the fundamental framework. The work concluded with the scholar making case that immunization remains the best possible way to managing foreseen disease and prevent them from wrecking havoc to our population.
Keywords: problem, Disease Control, developing Countries, 21st Century, Nigeria.
TEACHER MOTIVATION ON STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
MRS NA`OMI D. SHEHU
Department of General Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic (ATAP), Bauchi, Bauchi State.
The study advocate the influence of Teacher Motivation on student academic performance “. The study was a descriptive survey which employed the use of secondary data. In the course of the study, it was found out that teachers do not receive regular payment of salaries and allowances and that poor salaries reduced the teachers’ performance in the class room. From the above findings, it is concluded that with adequate motivational elements such as regular and prompt payment of salaries and allowances, upward review of salaries, implementation of pro motions would help to improve the job performance of teachers and the standard of education. It is recommended that regular payment of salaries and allowances should be made available to the teachers and that government should increase teachers ‘salaries to help increase the job performance of the teachers.
Keywords: Teacher Motivation, Student Academic Performance, Salaries and Allowance
CONSTRAINTS OF TEACHING COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
EMMANUEL P. MUSA1, DR BITRUS GLAWALA AMUDA2
1Department of Computer Science, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of educational Psychology, Guidance and Counselling, Kashim Ibrahim College of Education Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The study examined the Constraints of Studying Computer Science in Secondary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. There are five objectives raised in the study, which include to ascertain if there are competent teachers to teach computer science in secondary schools in Borno State. A sample of, two hundred (200) participants were selected from eight (8) sampled secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno state. The data collected were analysed using percentage. The results revealed that 57% said there are no in-service training for the ICT teachers in Borno State secondary schools, 65% said there are no internet facilities in the secondary schools in Borno state and 59% said there are not enough computers in the computer/ICT laboratory. The researchers recommended that the secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno state should be equipped with enough computers in the Computer laboratory, the ICT teachers should be sent on in-service training and that internet facilities be provided for the teaming youths in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State secondary schools.
Keywords: Constraints, Teaching, Computer Studies, ICT.
STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF HEURISTICS ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS.
1 MURITALA, A. O.; 1AJIBADE, N. A.; 1ADELEKE, M. A.; & 2ONIFADE, A. O.
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 2Department of Architectural Technology, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.
Investment decisions are deemed as a deliberate and rational process based on availability of information. Though at times people are usually found to hold little information but yet end up making general decisions. Heuristics factors are simple rules of thumb which explain how people make decisions, arrive at judgments and solve problems when faced with complex situations or in cases where the available information is incomplete. This study sought at assessing the influence of the heuristic factors on real estate investment in Lagos Metropolis. The study was guided by Heuristic theory. A census of 126 registered real estate investors from Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland and Ikeja was undertaken. Primary data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire composed of closed ended questions. Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.7 was used to ascertain test of the reliability of the data collection instrument. Descriptive and regression analysis were used to analyze data with the help of statistical package. Inferential statistics was also carried out to establish the nature of the relationship that exists between heuristic factors and real estate investment. Data was interpreted with the help of 0.05 significance P-values. Model fitness R2, ANOVA statistics and regression coefficient were generated. Prior to running a regression model, normality test was conducted. The study findings indicated heuristics factors have a positive and statistically significant relationship with real estate investment in Lagos Metropolis. This study concludes that real estate investors in Lagos Metropolis sometimes do not make investment decisions rationally but are influenced by heuristic biased decisions. The study recommends that Lagos State Government should establish a mechanism to ensure that the prices of real estate in specific regions are availed to enable investors evaluate price changes as it may influence their decision to buy or sell the investment
Keywords: Heuristics, real estate investments, decision making, Lagos Metropolis, sustainability.
EXPLORING TIME BASED COMPARISON OF KRUSKAL AND PRIM ALGORITHMS FOR SINGLE SOURCE SHORTEST PATHS PROBLEM
Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu.
Minimum spanning trees problems (MSTP) of weighted graphs have been instrumental in the design of earliest computer algorithms and provided solutions to weighted graphs with thousands of vertices thus finding applications in communication networks, transportation networks and many more. Two fundamental algorithms namely Kruskal and Prim’s Algorithms have been employed for solutions depending on the problems. This mini project compares both algorithms in terms of speed of execution on a given cpu using C++ programming language and recommends a preferable algorithm where speed of execution is premium.
Keywords: Minimum spanning tree, Kruskal’s algorithm, Prim’s algorithm, speed of execution, C++ programming.
DISRUPTIVE KNOWLEDGE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL CAPITAL
*EGBEH, PLACID C. PH.D; **AKPELU, AZUNNA E.; & **OBIAH, MMADUBUIKE EMMANUEL
*Department of Marketing, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo **Department of Accountancy, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo.
The study reviewed disruptive knowledge on entrepreneurship development in sub-Saharan Africa: The need for sustainable social capital. Identifying indigenous knowledge of apprenticeship and social capital as the cardinal regional power of entrepreneurship development before the disruption of technological knowledge of automated knowledge work. The paper adopted descriptive design and exploratory analysis as research methodology. The study revealed that for proper entrepreneurship development and sustainable social capital to be achieved in the sub-Saharan Africa, indigenous knowledge must promote Igbo Trade Apprenticeship System (ITAS) and social capital. Also, the know-how knowledge (learning by doing “apprenticeship”) and know-who knowledge (social capital) must not be disrupted by technological knowledge on entrepreneurship development. The study recommended that indigenous knowledge of entrepreneurship development – apprenticeship and social capital should be enshrined in the management science curriculum of tertiary institutions in the region to inculcate the experiential learning, etc. further research can be carried out by fusing together apprenticeship and social capital as Igbo Trade Apprenticeship System (ITAS) with empirical analysis.
Keywords: Disruptive Knowledge, Indigenous Knowledge, Apprenticeship, Social Capital, Entrepreneurship Development
EXAMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFRACTION AND REGULATORY MECHANISMS IN NIGERIA
ERIC OMO ENAKIRERU
Delta State Polytechnic, School of General Studies, Department of Arts. Otefe-Oghara.
The union between human beings and the environment is one inseparable subject of study. Man cannot exist without an environment, and in fact a conducive one. Most of the activities (industrial and agricultural activities) have adverse effects on the quality and life span of the environment, instead, a continuation in those activities that harm the environment and a rise in the development of these activities. It is in this wise that regulations of environmental activities became as necessary as the activities sought to be regulated. The article make an attempt to x-ray the various regulatory mechanisms which impact on these activities in order to balance the conflicting interest of man’s existence and environmental effects, in view of the Nigerian society. The article examined the efficacy of regulatory mechanisms, existing legal framework, challenges associated with enforcement of environmental laws and others. The article concluded that the adoption of effective sustainable reforms will encourage responsible environmental protection and preservation in ways that positively influence economic development and also preserve human and environmental health, sustainable environmental management, good environmental governance, effective environmental management and protection in Nigeria. Therefore, the article recommended proactive measures and effective environmental legislative and institutional framework in order to improve on environmental regulations. Furthermore, there is a dire need to review various national laws and the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as they affect environmental protection, preservation in order to provide effective framework for regulation, sustainable environmental objectives and environmental enforcement.
Keywords: Environment, Infraction, Regulations, and Sustainable Governance
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH WEEDS IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION A CASE STUDY OF SABON GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA STATE NIGERIA
NUHU BARAKA TAHIR & HAUWA RABI’U MUSA
Department Of Biology F.C.E Zaria.
The study, the Problems Associated with weeds in Agricultural production), a case study of Sabon Gari Local Government, Kaduna State. The study population consist both the educated and the non-educated farmers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area Kaduna State. The purpose of this research work wasto assess the different methods of weeds control in Shika dam farmland of Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria. The study uses descriptive research design method, this involves the use of questionnaire and interviews. The researcher adopted descriptive statistics as a stool used for data analysis, simple frequencies count and percentages were used to analyze the data. 50 questionnaires were administered and all were completed and returned. The result of this study shows that majority of the respondent agree that weeds constitute major treat to crop production in Sabon Gari L.G.E.A, also majority agree that weeds reduced the quality and quantity of farm product thereby competition with the normal plant and also serves as a reservoir of some disease pathogens. few are of the view and agree that no any control method is effective to eradicate weeds while many are of the view and agreed that biological method is the best in getting rid of a weed base on this results and many more some recommendation were made. Biological method of weeds control which uses predators, pest and pathogens in controlling weed should be encourage as it not eradicating the weeds only but the non-targeted organisms are not affected, Government should provide loans and others farming materials to support the farmers, Public awareness should be given by expert on the effect on weeds on plants, Government should frequently organize a seminar/forum on farmers for the latest technological instruments to be effective in weed management .this will make a successful eradication of weeds and gives rise to effective and efficiency in weeds management practices.
Keywords: Problems, Associated, Weeds, Agricultural, Production.
AN EXAMINATION OF THE MEANING AND NATURE OF PLEDGE
*SHEKARA PEACE JOHN & **UMAR IBRAHIM WUNTI
*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of Environment, Department of Estate Management. **The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of General Studies, Department of General Studies.
This paper examines the reality of customary pledge practices, its advantages and the threat it poses to contractual relationship in Nigeria. It x-rays the concept of pledge, its practice, rights and duties of both the pledge and the pledgor. consequently, the paper identifies inter alia, lack of writing (reducing) the pledge agreement in writing, long term pledge agreement and the legal protection that guarantee redemption even after many generations as a major setback, further, the paper suggests a number of ways through which these challenges can be tackled. These range from discouraging oral pledge agreement, specifying time of redemption denouncing quic quid plata solo codit to allow those millead to recover value for improvements on pledge property.
Keywords: Examination, Meaning, Nature, Pledge, Reducing.
THE ROLE OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES TO NATIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
*BALA SULEIMAN ABDUL; *IDRIS MOHAMMED; *ABUBAKAR ABDULLAHI HAMANI; & **ADAMU HASSAN
*Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi **Muhammadu Wabi Library Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
This paper examined the role of library services in national growth and development in Nigeria. The paper also discussed the concept of library services in the context of Nigeria. The paper further discussed how library services affect the attainment of national growth and development in Nigeria. Finally the paper offered recommendation on how to move the Nigeria society to next level of development.
Keywords: Library services, National growth, Development, Nigeria.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL (DTM) INTERPOLATION METHODS FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT
ZAKARI, DANLADI; ADAMU MAKAMA PINDIGA; ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR; & SURV. AHMED, BABAYO
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The aim of this research is to compare different methods of digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation. The procedure adopted for this research comprises of field reconnaissance, in which the boundary stations were selected and monumented, and a recce diagram was produced. Ground surveying method was adopted in carryout the field observation. The instrument was setup on an existing control with a beacon number SC/BA 299 for connection. The coordinate of the point was collected from the Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. The spatial data were obtained from the field using Global positioning system (GPS) receiver. The data obtained was exported in to ArcGIS 10.3 version which was for the production of DTM. The DTMs generated were compared and analyzed for further discussion. The generated DTMs are found to be sensitive to height interpolation Methods as well as the terrain nature. Investigations according to this research revealed that (Inverse Distance Weighting) IDW method of interpolation is the method that produced the best result when compared to other methods and kriging interpolation is the the method that produced worst result in term of accuracy. The accuracy of interpolation methods is determined by the value of standard deviation. The higher the value of the standard deviation, the lower the accuracy whereas the lower the value of the standard deviation, the higher the accuracy of the result. The summary of the results is shown on Table 1. Figures 11, is a bar chart showing the standard deviation of each method adopted and their rank.
Keywords: Digital Terrain Model, Interpolation, Earth configuration, Spatial Coordinates, Accuracy and Analysis.
CONSTRAINTS TO COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA) PRODUCTION AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
1BABUGA, U. S., 2GARBA, A. AND 3IMAM, M.
1Department of Agriculture Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria. 3Jigawa State Research Institute, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria.
The study examines the constraints of cowpea production in Bauchi state Nigeria. Data were collected from the study area through questionnaires administered to seventy five randomly selected respondents across the four districts of the study area. Data were analyzed using Descriptive statistics and Likert scale. From the data analyzed, it was discovered that greater percentage (90.7%) of cowpea producers were male and only (9.3%) were females. Majority (38.6%) were having household size that falls between 1-5 and (34.7%) between 6-10, and (26.7%) from 11 and above. Majority (62.7%) of the respondents were married while (34.7%) were single and (1.3%) were divorced and (1.3%) were widows. It also reveals that almost half of the respondent (46.7%) were literate up to tertiary level of education while (30%) were having secondary education, (16%) with primary education and only (5.3%) with no form of education. The result further reveals that majority (54.67%) obtained their planting materials from previous harvest. Also greater percentage (61.3%) of the respondents acquired their land by inheritance. The result of the likert scale shows that majority of the respondents agreed to the constraints of cowpea production in the study area with includes: poor storage facilities, incidence of pest and diseases, non-availability of quality seeds, high cost of insecticides and herbicides. It is recommended that government should provide adequate extension services, improved seeds varieties and also provision of adequate storage facilities with pesticides in order to check the constraints affecting cowpea production in the study area.
Keywords: Constraints, Cowpea, Small Scale farmers, and Bauchi State
TREATMENT OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH MAIZE SEEDS USING EXTRACT OF TURMERIC RHIZOME (CURCUMA LONGA) AND MORINGA LEAF (MORINGA OLEIFERA)
1IHUM, TEMITOPE A. AND 2WALTER, JOHN CHINAKA
1Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria 2Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
This research focused on the use of different concentration of aqueous extract of Moringa leaf and Turmeric rhizome as seed treatment agents against fungi associated with maize seeds. The study was designed using 2 x 3 factorial in completely randomized design. This research was carried out in the Biology Laboratory of Federal College of Forestry, Jos from April to June 2018. Untreated maize seeds were collected from farmers in three different areas of Mazah village in Jos North LG. Aqueous extract of Turmeric rhizome and Moringa leaf at 25, 50, and 75 ml concentration were used as seed treatment agent against fungi. Maize seeds were soaked in prepared extracts for 1 hour and then cultured on petri dishes having moist filter paper, control samples were soaked in sterile water. Infested seeds were counted manually after twenty days. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance at 95% confidence level. Penicillium sp, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were isolated from the untreated maize seeds. Fusarium solani gave the highest percentage occurrence of 35.48. Fifty milliliters (50ml) concentration of Turmeric rhizome had an antifungal mean value of 3.67 after 20days. The control (untreated) showed the antifungal mean value of 6.67 after 20 days. The results obtained revealed significance between the treatment and the control. The results indicate Turmeric rhizome and Moringa leaf extracts could be used in seed dressing against maize infection caused by fungi.
Keywords: Treatment, Fungi Associated, Maize Seeds, Extract, Turmeric Rhizome (Curcuma Longa), Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera).
MONITORING DESERTIFICATION USING TASSEL CAP TRANSFORMATION INDEX IN YANAKARI NATIONAL PARK, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
1TANKO BINIBONORI SALIHU, 1SULEIMAN MOHAMMED DAJI AND 2GAMBO HYELLAGUNACHA GUNDRI
1Department of Urban and Regional, Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Modibbo Adama University Technology, Yola, Adamawa State
Desertification is a process that integrate climatic elements with human activities in transforming productive land into an ecological impoverished area generally refers to as desert. Nigeria is one of the countries in the sub-Sahara Africa that is faced with a rapid desert encroachment, with a notable effect on the northern part of the country where the Yankari Park is located. This research project investigated the greenness, brightness, and wetness maps of Yankari Park compiled from images taken for five epochs (2014 to 2018) in order to examine the rate of desertification in the Park. The three maps have shown that, in 2014, the study area has small patches of open spaces denoted by low greenness and wetness values but with high brightness values. These areas were majorly located in the south-eastern part of the study area as well as in the far northern part of it. In 2015, a rapid change in the land cover was observed in all the maps with large portion of the study area, especially around the boundary, converted to open space or bare soil indicating desertification. However, a steady recovery of the grass land was observed from 2016 to 2018 making the area largely dominated by grass land. Although, the grass land did not only expand towards the open space areas but also towards the forested areas causing deforestation. Hence, the study area is not experiencing desertification at the moment but deforestation and it needs to be addressed to avoid carbon loss and to prevent the tendency of future desertification in the area.
Keywords: Brightness, Wetness, Greenness, TCT, GIS, Remote Sensing, Landsat TM.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MULTI-PURPOSE DRYER FOR PRESERVATION
E.O. POPOOLA, K.E SAMUEL
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe – Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.
With the subsequent increase of food growing especiallyin rural areas, there is an accompanying need for preservation method. This has led to a substantial increase in the number of driers, yet expensive for local farmers to acquire.This paper condensed and comprehensive work done with the aim of reducing the cost of drying and also for practical demonstration of some of the theoretical knowledge acquired. It was discovered that the drier is efficient since the heat leakage was found to be very low.
Keywords Drier efficiency, microbiological growth, heat leakage, coefficient of thermal conductivity and convection heat transfer.