SSAA Journal of Pure and Applied Science (SJPAS) Vol. 16 (9)


SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE (SJPAS)

VOL 16 (9) SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2318-9315

 

Published by:

Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,

Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,

P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.

Email: ssaapublications@gmail.com


  PAPERS:  


 

AN OVERVIEW OF THE COSMOLOGICAL BIG BANG THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE

 

EMMANUEL LEGHARA IKPENDU1 AND DATTI AHMED SHINGE2

Department of Industrial Physics Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli Anambrastate.1   College of Agriculture Damaturu, Yobe State.2               

 

ABSTRACT

The most popular theory of our universe’s origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history—the big bang. This theory was born of the observation that galaxies are moving away from each other with great speed, in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force. This paper therefore reviews the big bang theory and its observational evidences and concludes with the present understanding of the Big Bang.

Keywords; Galaxy, Universe, Big Bang, Matter Atom and Expansion

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CORRELATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NATIONAL DIPLOMA (ND) I STUDENTS WHO ATTEMPT AND THOSE WHO DID NOT ATTEMPT PHYSICS AT O’ LEVEL (A case study of ND 1 students Yobe state college of Agriculture Gujba)

 

EI LEGAHARA

Chukwuemeka Odumegu Ojokwu University Uli Anambra State.

 

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed finding out whether this is a relationship between the performances of National Diploma one (ND 1) students in Agricultural Technology (AGT) Department of Yobe state college of Agriculture Gujba who attempted physics and those who did not attempt physics at O’ level. 10 out of the 27 students of 2016/2017 academic session were randomly selected. From the result of a physics test that had a reliability of 91%, a correlation analysis r  0.4 showed that the is a relationship between the performance of student at ND one who attempted physics at O’ level and vis vasa. Using Chi square, the analysis of the scores of both set of students were confirmed at the level of 8 df   XC   greater than XCt= 15.5. It was therefore concluded that student at ND one will perform better in physics if they attempted physics at O’ level.

Keywords: Performance in physics, correlation, students, National diploma, Chi-square, significant and relationship,

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INTER-COMPETITION COEFFICIENTS VERSUS RESOURCE BIOMASS OF A RESOURCE-DEPENDENT INTERACTING BIOLOGICAL SPECIES

 

*DIKE, ADEDOTUN OLASUMBO; & **GEORGE, ISOBEYE

*Department of Mathematics, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State **Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State                                                               

 

Abstract

The effect of inter-competition coefficient on the resource biomass of a resource-dependent interacting biological species was investigated. To facilitate the work, a three-dimensional continuous system of nonlinear first order ordinary differential equation, indexed by the appropriate initial conditions, was considered. A MATLAB ODE45 numerical scheme was used to generate the data needed for the analysis. The key result of the investigation shows  an increase in inter-competition coefficient results in an increase in resource biomass, while the population of the affected species diminishes gradually.

Keywords: Inter-competition coefficient, resource biomass, resource-dependent interacting biological species, system of differential equation

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NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE TYPE OF STABILITY USING A MATLAB ALGORITHM

 

JAMES I JOSEPH, ENU N EKAKA-A AND PETERS NWAGOR

Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Having studied the effects of varying the intrinsic growth rates together on the type of stability in the context of two competing technologies to obtain a dominant occurrence of stability with a zero bifurcation, we have applied the similar method of a Matlab Algorithm to obtain a total of six (6) instances of degenerate steady state solutions and forty eight (48) scenarios of valid stability. The bifurcation from a stable steady state solution to a degenerate steady state has occurred for the following pairs of the intra – competition coefficient (0.00240, 0.00360) and (0.00120, 0.00018). Next, we have found another bifurcation from a degenerate steady state solution to a stable steady state solution between examples 7 and 8 as displayed on Table 1; the novel results which we have found that we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed.

KEYWORDS: Numerical simulation, Degenerate, Stability, Eigenvalues, Intra – competition coefficient, Steady state solution, Stable, Jacobian matrix, Competing technologies, Bifurcation, Interacting, Matlab Algorithm.

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SOIL PERMEABILITY AND MOISTURE CONTENT EFFECT ON FLASH FLOOD IN PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA

 

JOHNSON, DUMKA VALIANT

Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt. Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Flash flood is the most devastating of all floods caused by extreme rainfall and other environmental and hydrologic factors. Soil moisture and permeability contribute to level of severity of flash flood in the city of Port Harcourt. 48 samples of soil were taken at (0-30cm) at different flash flood prone areas of Port Harcourt and geo-referenced in-situ using GPS. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory for particle size distribution (PSD), moisture content, and permeability. Results show that the texture of the soil were; loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy soil, and sandy clay loam. The particle size were distributed into sand, silt and clay. The soil moisture in percentage ranged from 1.95 – 38.65 while the permeability ranged from 0.7 – 3.7 (cm/sec) x 10-3. The result clearly show that while the moisture content is between low and average, the permeability is very low. This is an indication that when there is heavy or intense rainfall, the moisture of the soil is quickly increased and fills up within few hours and more rain water could no longer infiltrate because the soil has reached its maximum filling capacity. The rain water becomes runoff as flash flood if not quickly discharged. The higher the moisture content of the soil, the more the likely severity of flash flood. At low permeability of the soil, rain water from heavy precipitation could not easily infiltrate the soil as pores of the soil are almost closed. Soils with low permeability are responsible for high flash flood severity in the city. Provision of good and efficient drainage systems, desilting of receiving creeks and rivers, proper waste disposal habit and other flood mitigation measures could assist in protecting the populace and properties against flash flood.

Keywords: Rainfall, permeability, soil moisture, flash flood, soil

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OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL FROM ORANGE PEEL USING CALCIUM OXIDE CATALYST FROM LIMESTONE VIA IN-SITU TRANSESTERIFICATION

 

*YENKWO, K. C1, KOVO, A. S1, ISA, A. G1, & OGUNJOBI, T. O1

1Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65 Minna Niger State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative fuel to petro-diesel. In-situ transesterification method is an easy method for biodiesel production where the oil was simultaneously extracted and transesterified into biodiesel in one single process. This study was carried out to study the optimization of Biodiesel synthesis from orange peel using Calcium Oxide from Limestone Methanol used was used as the alcohol in the process as it is widely accessible and economically viable. Reaction temperature, catalyst loading, time, and methanol to orange peel ratio were varied from 50 to 120˚C, 0.5 to 5 wt %, 40 to 60 minutes, and 3:1 to 12:1 respectively. The process parameters considered for the optimization study of the in-situ transesterification reaction resulted in an optimum biodiesel yield of 70% which was observed at the condition of 85˚C, 2.75 wt % catalyst, 100 minutes and 16.5:1 methanol to orange peel ratio. It was observed that a close correlation exists between the experimental and predicted results as confirmed by the validation experiment and the square of the correlation coefficient (R2) for the in-situ transesterification reaction was estimated to be 0.9124.

 Keywords: Biodiesel, Calcium oxide, In-situ Transesterification, Orange peel.

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NUTRIENT INPROVEMENT OF CASSAVA BASED SNACK (“BAMBARA EFA”) USING SOYABEANS FLOUR

 

EJIM, KO AND EJIM, M. N

Department of Chemical Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55, Bida, Niger State

 

ABSTRACT

“Bambara Efa” is a cassava based snack produced mainly from cassava starch. It is commonly eaten in northern part of Nigeria as a snack or main meal.  The aim of the study was to produce enriched “Bambara Efa” and evaluate its proximate, mineral and sensory qualities. “Bambara Efa” was produced from cassava starch and soya bean blends at different propotions (100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20). Proximate and minerals analysis was carried out using standard laboratory procedures and sensory evaluation was conducted using the nine point hedionic scale where 1 represented extremely dislike and 9 represented extremely liked. Findings showed formulated snacks had crude protein value of (7.87%  to 15.58%), ash (2.50 to 3.01%), moisture content (4.27% to 5.61%), crude fat (15.01% to 20.55% ), and nitrogen free extract (NFE) (67.35% to 55.65%), on mineral contents (Mg/100g) i.e calcium had value of (120.53 to 143.77). phosphorus  (28.97 to 52.10)  iron (104.07 to 137.77) and magnesium (72.93 to 96.22). sensory evaluation showed no statistically significant difference(P>0.05)  among all the samples and parameters evaluated. The research work recommends sample E because it produced the best product in terms of nutritional quality and sensory acceptance.

Keywords: Inprovement, Cassava, Based, Snack, Soyabeans Flour.

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EFFECT OF CONCEPT OF INDICES ON THE PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY OF MATHEMATICS STUDENTS IN LOGARITHM

 

JEJE O.S.  &   OLAGOKE, M.

Department of Mathematics, College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti

 

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of concept of indices on the problem solving ability of mathematics students in logarithm . the study was designed to find out the effect of concept of indices on the problem solving ability of mathematics students in logarithm. The study made use of 200 senior secondary school three (3) students drawn from five secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State by using multistage sampling technique. The students were grouped into two: Group A for the control group that will be taught indices only during instruction, while group B will be the experimental group that will be taught both indices and Logarithm together during instruction. Achievement Test (AT) was the instrument used. The achievement Tests was aimed at testing the ability of students in solving problems in indices and logarithms. Three hypotheses was tested at 0.06 level.

Keyword: Concepts, Indices, Problem, Solving ability and Logarithm

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF LOCALLY MADE GYPSUM BLOCKS FOR IRRIGATION SCHEDULING IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF FORESTRY JOS, NORTHERN NIGERIA.

 

1POPOOLA, A. S., 2ADEDIRE, O., 3MBAH, J. J., 4OLADEJO, A. O., 5YAKUBU, C. K., AND 6 E. OLORI-OKE.

1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.2&3Statistics department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 4&6Pest Management Technology department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 5Horticulture and Landscape department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Majority of farmers in Nigeria are practicing irrigating farming during dry season without using any irrigation scheduling criteria. Consequently, the application of excess irrigation water causes water logging, wastage of precious water resources, plant diseases, soil salinity as well as the lack of water results into crop water stress.The study evaluate the performance of a locally made Gypsum Blocks for irrigation scheduling in Federal College of Forestry Jos, Northern Nigeria. Gypsum blocks were fabricated and tested, using the gravimetric method as a reference. Prior to the installation, soil samples were take at three different depth (0-15cm, 15-30cm & 30-45cm respectively) from three plots, making a total of Nine soil samples on the field.  Nine gypsum blocks were intalled (. Performance of the blocks were based on mean difference and relationship between the blocks and the gravimetric method. The result of the experiment showed that gypsum block worked best in sandy-loam soil and best tool for automated irrigation scheduling. The fabricated gypsum block performed within depth 0-15cm, followed by 15-30cm. The reliability of the installed gypsum blocks decreases as the depth increases down the soil profile, as observed in the study site. Therefore, this work recommend 0-15cm depth for gypsum block intasllation for the study site. The major root distribution patterns were concentrated in this root zone depth for most crops and the same could be used for designing irrigation systems and planning crop irrigation scheduling.

Keywords: Irrigation scheduling, Gypsum block, Gravimectric method, soil moisture, wilting point.

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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND VOCATIONAL CHOICES WITH RELATION TO SEX AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS

 

IBRAHIM YUSUF INUWA*1, MUHAMMAD MUBARAK MUHAMMAD2, YUSUF BALA3 MOHAMMAD A.T4

1,2&3Mathematics & Statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State. 4Department of Mathematical Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University lapai.

 

Abstract

This study examined the effects of academic and vocational preferences among genders in senior secondary school especially the graduating class students in Bauchi metropolis. Two stage sampling method were conducted, the first stage was the simple random sampling which was used in selecting five mixed secondary  schools, and for the second stage the stratified sampling method was used in selecting the sample from the selected schools. A total of 430 students constituting 215 boys and 215 girls were considered for the study. Chi-square test of independence was used to carry out the analysis. Result shows that at 5% level of significance, student aspiration after graduating from secondary school is dependent of gender. It is therefore concluded that student’s academic choice after secondary school is dependent of gender. Also, student’s employment choice after secondary school is dependent of gender.

Keyword:  Sex, vocational, employment, aspiration, academic performance, sampling.

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PROXIMATE, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITIONS OF VIGNA ACCONITIFOLIC COAT, WHOLE GRAINS AND FRUITS (WHITE PARTS)

 

1ADEBAYO, O.R., 2EFUNWOLE, O.O., 1OYEWALE, M.O., 1OYEKANMI, A.M AND 2ORISADARE, O. A.

1Department of Applied Sciences, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree

 

ABSTRACT

Proximate, phytochemicals and mineral analysis of Vigna acconitifolic was analysed using standard procedures. The proximate (%) analysis indicates ash, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, protein content and carbohydrate content. There is significant difference in the values obtained for the three samples analyzed for the mineral elements. These include calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, nickel, manganese, iron, phosphorus. Also, important phytochemicals are also present in the sample such as tannins, phenols, flavonoids and saponins.  The samples are subjected to statistical analysis of SPSS 23. The result of this study had shown that Vigna acconitifolic coat contained high nourishment in the sample analysed.

Keywords: Vigna acconitifolic, SPSS 23, proximate, phytochemical and mineral analysis

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PHYTOREMEDIATION EFFECT OF PISTIA STRATIOTES (WATER LETTUCE) ON SOME HEAVY METALS FROM A POLLUTED RIVER

 

1ALIKALI, A. A. AND 2MOHAMMED, A. K .  

Department of chemical engineering, Chemical science Department, The Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The laboratory experiment was performed on the use of Pistia stratiotes in the removal of some heavy metals (Cr,Mn,Pd,Cu,Ni,Fe and Zn) from river Kusogi in Doko town, Niger state. The water sample was collected from this river and Pistia stratiotes was subjected into the water and allowed to stand for 21 days. The concentration of heavy metals present in the polluted water sample was analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). It was observed that there was an appreciable decrease of Pb from 0.70mg/L, to 0.57mg/L, Mn from 0.69mg/L to 0.23mg/L, Fe from 2.50mg/L to 0.58mg/L and Zn from 0.08mg/L to 0.02mg/L and Cu was completely removed from the polluted water sample. This shows that P. stratiotes has an effective phytoremediation properties in sanitizing water bodies polluted with the presence of heavy metals.

Keywords; heavy metals, phytoremediation, concentration and sanitizing.

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MILLIMETRE WAVE FREQUENCY RANGE PROPAGATION MEASUREMENT AND CHANNEL MODELLING

 

ABBATI ALHAJI MUSA1*, RABIU SABO2        

1Department of Basic Studies Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Yobe State 2Department of Sciences Laboratory Technology Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Yobe State

 

Abstract

The emergence of new wireless application and service that requires the use of more spectrum resources is evident with the fast growing evolution in modern multimedia and broadband-type communication system for which the smart phones with exceptional functionalities are an example. This has eventually forced experts in the academia and of course the industry operators and manufacturers to device a means of adopting optimal use of the available but limited spectrum resources. Transmission at the millimeter wave range of frequency offers the potentials of delivering bandwidth capacity to support the surge. In this research, we present the theoretical and practical implications of adopting the millimeter wave transmission, the opportunities it offer and its limitations using simulations and measurements at the 40GHz frequency range propagation channel. RF signal measurements provide important information critical in testing the air interface and help operators to fine tune prediction tools and validate new propagation models. The empirical modelling results that have been presented in this research can be used for the design of 40-GHz radio systems for short-range wireless communications.

Keywords: Rain attenuation, Link budget, Millimetre wave, Bandwidth, SNR, Optical fibre, MATLAB, GPS, GUI, Frequency, dB, GHz, MHz, Radio spectrum, Multipath or signal fading, Rician K-Factor

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DEVELOPING USER EXPERIENCE INTERFACE IN YORUBA LANGUAGE IN IMPROVING USABILITY OF THE INTELLECTUALLY CHALLENGED THAT CAN NOT READ AND WRITE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

 

*I.K. OJUOPE1, A. O. ADETUNMBI2, O.E. OYINLOYE3

1Department of Computer Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Science, Ekiti State Univerversity, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Most interfaces were developed without considering the fact that, there are different categories of users including people living with disabilities. This paper focuses on the development of interface in African Language using Yoruba language option that will promote the user experience of persons with intellectual disability and also to compare the degree of efficiency of assistive Interface with the existing interfaces. Theoretical framework on Human computer interaction (HCI) was also carried out and several related articles were reviewed. The design and methodology was based on development of usability interface for people with intellectual disability using Department of Special Education in a renowned Federal University in Nigeria. During the process of this research, we discovered that most of the work reviewed did not focus on the usability performance and accuracy of systems using acceptable error metrics in HCI. The system was designed and implemented using Text / Image enlargement and text to speech architecture in C# programming. Concepts of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a global centre for web usability design standard and Web Content Accessibility Guide (WACG) for Users with Intellectual Disabilities was employed. The user model was tested based on the concept of User Satisfaction Performance/Essential Usability Metrics. Effectiveness/ Efficiency/ Analysis of reading Errors, The Mean Percentage, Task Completion (in seconds) were used as the performance measure technique for evaluation. The result showed that the model developed had a mean percentage performance of 98% and the mean time taken to perform a task in 32secs. The model was successful for people with intellectual disability.

Keywords: User Experience, Usability, User Interface, Intellectual Challenge, Yoruba Language,

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CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS PULMONARIUS ON CASSAVA PEELS AND SAWDUST

 

*UDOSEN, I. E.; **SAMUEL, E.*DANTA, B.T. AND *HARUNA, H. S.

*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.

 

ABSTRACT

Multiplication of the spawns of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) was carried out by inoculating it unto bottles of cooked grains and incubated at temperature of 26-280C 23days. Bags of the substrates made from cassava peels and sawdust were inoculated with the replicated spawn. The study revealed that mycelia initiation started on the 3rd and 5th day for Sawdust and Cassava peels respectively after the inoculation and fully colonized the Sawdust in 22days and Cassava peels in 24days under temperature of 26-280C. The study also revealed that complete fruiting body formation occurred on the 29th and 34th days for Sawdust and Cassava Peels respectively. The results obtained suggest that both Sawdust and Cassava Peels can serve as good substrates for cultivation of mushroom.   

Keywords: Cultivation, Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus, Pulmonarius, Cassava.

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CASSON FLUID FLOW WITH ARRHENIOUS FUNCTION OVER AN EXPONENTIAL STRETCHING SHEET

 

1MOHAMMED I. B. S., 2OLAYIWOLA R.O., 2A. A. MOHAMMED AND 2 N. NYOR

1Department of Mathematics, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This paper transformed the model equations of casson fluid flow with Arrhenious function over an exponential stretching sheet from non-linear partial differential equations (PDE) to ordinary differential equations (ODE) using suitable similarity transformation. The transformed equations were solved using iteration perturbation method. The graphical illustrations were provided and it was observed that velocity profile decreases with increase in casson, magnetic, permeability and porosity parameters while increase in ratio parameter, thermal and solutal grashof numbers enhance the velocity profiles, Soret number increse the concentration profile while chemical reaction parameter, activation energy parameter and schmidtl number decrease the concentration profile. Increase in magnetic parameter, radiative parameter, heat source, dufour number, chemical reaction and activation energy parameters enhance the temperature profile while increase in prandtl number decreases the temperature profile.

Keywords: Activation energy, Casson fluid, Chemical reaction, Stretching sheet, Non-Newtonian,

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SECURED SHARING OF PERSONAL HEALTH RECORD (PHR) USING ATTRIBUTE BASE ENCRYPTION

 

*ISHAQ MUHAMMAD; *ABDULRAHMAN ABDULKARIM; *SUBERU YUSUF; **UMAR SAIDU ABASHE; * LELE MOHAMMED

*Department of Computer Science, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria) **Department of Multimedia Technology, Katsina State Institute of Technology and Management, Katsina (Nigeria)

 

ABSTRACT

Personal health record (PHR) has e- merged as a patient-centric model of health information exchange. It enables patients to store, share, and access personal health data in centralized way that it can be accessible from anywhere and anytime. One major problem is to manage and secure data from the unauthorized persons. The security schemes are used to protect personal data from public access. To assure the patients’ control over access to their own PHRs, it is a promising method to encrypt the PHRs before outsourcing but Yet, issues such as risks of privacy exposure, scalability in key management, flexible access, and efficient user revocation, have remained the most important challenges toward achieving fine-grained, cryptographically enforced data access control. Attribute based Encryption is proposed in this work to secure PHR and also provides many functionalities such as accountability, revocation of user, searching over encrypted les, delegation of other user access, searching over encrypted les and  multi-authority.

Keywords: Personal health records; data privacy; fine-grained access control; attribute-based encryption.

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THE EFFECT OF SOME SELECTED FERTILIZES AND SPACING ON THE YIELD OF MILLET (UNDER DIFFERENT FIVE SPECIES) A CASE STUDY OF DR. JAMILA BAKO BALARABE FARM

 

AMINU HARUNA; USMAN HASSAN; SALISU LUKUNTI; & USAMATU USMAN

Department of maths and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.

 

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect of some selected fertilizer and spacing on five different varieties of millet (Foxtil. Little, Pearl, Finger and Proso Millets). Some related literatures were reviewed and secondary method of data collection was used. Data on the 5 varieties of millet were collected from Dr. Jamila Bako’s farm for the period of 10 years (2009 – 2018). The data obtained from the study area were analyze using ANOVA/factorial (SPSS version 20.0) from the farm yield, little produced more quantity (184.54) followed by Pearl, Finger, Foxtail and Proso using 25cm spacing at inter-row and 75cm at intra-raw spacing. 2 different fertilizers were applied (NPK & Urea) and their combination (interaction). The analyzed result shows the significant effect of millet type, fertilizer type and their interaction at alpha level of 0.05 It is recommended that little millet should be planted when there is no any fertilizer application, while pearl millet should have planted too when there is fertilizer application.

Keywords: Effect, Selected, Fertilizes, Spacing, Yield.

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF FILTRATION COMBUSTION WITH TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT IN A WET POROUS MEDIUM

 

IBRAHIM A., MANKO A. A AND JIBRIN K. T.

Department of Mathematics Federal Polytechnic, Bida.

 

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of temperature dependent thermal conductivity and diffusion coefficient on the filtration combustion in a wet porous medium. The model which relies on several assumptions and based on the conservation of total mass, chemical species and energy written in transient state mode of operation which governed the phenomenon is presented. The properties of solution were investigated. The coupled nonlinear governing equations were solved simultaneously for the temperature and concentration field analytically via parameter expanding method, direct integration and eigenfunction expansion technique. The influence of dimensionless parameter such as scaled thermal conductivity, species diffusion coefficient, Frank kamenetskii parameter peclet mass number on the filtration combustion was investigated. It is established that the maximum temperature is attained when =0.5 for fixed time t. Simulation results also revealed that high temperature front created by combustion; the oxygen molar fraction, vapor molar fraction, passive gas molar fraction, molar concentration of the solid fuel and molar concentration of liquid depend appreciably on the values of the parameters involved.

Keywords: Analytical Solution, Filtration Combustion, Combustion, Porous medium, Eigenfunction expansion technique.

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THE VARIATION OF MASS SPECIFIC MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ACROSS KANO RIVER IRRIGATION PROJECT, A CHALLENGE TO AFRICAN FOOD SECURITY

 

ABRAHAM ZIRA MUSA AND HAUWA MARI

Physics Department, Federal College of Education Potiskum Yobe State

 

Abstract

In the present study a broad area of Kano River Irrigation Project in Kura Local government of Kano State has been investigated by means of mag-netic susceptibility measurements. In total 90 profiles with some of the depth 50 cm have been sampled. Magnetic susceptibility was measured in two different frequencies (0.47 and 4.7 KHz) and the percentage of frequency dependence was calculated. The results revealed the presence of two areas with high and magnetic susceptibility values

Key words: mass specific magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent mass specific magnetic susceptibility

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CLOSED LOOP SPEED CONTROL OF A WORKSHOP FABRICATED BRUSH-LESS DC MOTOR DRIVE PROTOTYPE

 

ODIGWE FIDELIS OBI

Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko

 

ABSTRACT

This paper presents steps and procedures of designing a closed loop speed controller for a surface mounted permanent magnet(SM-PM) brush-less DC machine(BLDC). The closed- loop speed control technique has been implemented using Hall-effect position sensor. The BLDC motor control algorithm has been modelled and simulated first. The same has been thereafter practically implemented on a 0.75 hp, 1500 r.p.m BLDC motor that was designed and developed as a lab prototype. Both the simulation and the experimental results are in excellent in agreements.

Index Terms—Permanent magnet, Brush-less DC motor, Closed loop speed control, position sensor, Hysteresis current control, Simulation results, Experiments on BLDC motor.

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SPECTRUM SENSING ALGORITHM FOR TELEVISION WHITE SPACE APPLICATION IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

 

*I.H.USMAN; **E.E. OMIZEGBA; **J.D.JIYA; **G.A. BAKARE

*Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria **Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa University Bauchi, Nigeria

 

Abstract     

The ever increasing demand for wireless broadband services has imposed severe bandwidth constraints on wireless communication system. These demands have led to the technological responses such as the advancement in radio access, coding and modulation schemes as well as spectrum(carrier) aggregation and cognitive radio capabilities of Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) and Fifth Generation (5G) networks developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). This aspect of spectrum or carrier aggregation uses cognitive radio technology that implements the dynamic spectrum access for spectrum utilization by sensing and using the underutilized spectrum on co-primary basis without interference to the primary users. In this work, an energy-based, non-parametric TVWS spectrum sensing algorithm was implemented in MATLAB environment. The developed sensing algorithm was aimed at finding free TVWS frequency channel(s) that would be used TVWS applications such as the spectrum aggregation. The consistent TVWS signal estimation was done by Blackman-Tukey windowing. The result showed the instantaneous TV channels statuses; free, busy and interfered by computing the PSD expressed in dB while the estimated received power level in dBm for free channels was computed for the UHF range from channel 21 through channel 69. The detectable TV signals’ threshold value was set at -114 dBm. In the five simulation cycles carried out, the developed algorithm instantaneously selected channels: 68,34,48,60 and 26 corresponding to the centre (carrier) frequencies of 850MHz, 578MHz, 690MHz, 786MHz and 514MHz, respectively as channels with the least RxLEV for each of the simulation cycle at a point and each would be dynamically used for TVWS during spectrum aggregation process.

Keywords: LTE-A, TVWS.  PSD, UHF, RxLEV

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A UNIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON COLLEGE STUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE (AWARENESS) ON HIV/AIDS

 

IBRAHIM, ABDUL AUDU1, SALISU, KALABU AHMAD2, BALA, YUSUF 3

Department of Mathematics and Statistics Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State1, 2, 3

 

ABSTRACT

This is a cross-sectional study conducted to determine if there is a significant difference in knowledge on HIV/AIDs amongst college students based on their academic level of study. Based on students’ population of 8,293 at the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, a sample size of 382 was computed. A questionnaire was designed and applied on 382 randomly selected respondents (students) across 6 schools in the Polytechnic. 372 questionnaires were returned after the survey. Of this number, 30 (8.14%) were freshmen (students from Pre-ND, Remedial Studies, IJMBE); 101 (27.2%) were from ND I; 87 (23.4%) from ND II; 78 (21.0%) from HND I; and 74 (19.9%) from HND II. The dependent variable in the study was the points scored by respondents and the independent variable was the academic level of study which has five levels as hinted above. The Null Hypothesis: there is no significant difference in knowledge on HIV/AIDS amongst college students based on their academic level of study, was tested at 95% confidence level (α. = 0.05) using the Univariate Technique. Data analysed from the survey using Brown-Forsythe Robust Test indicated a significant difference in knowledge amongst college students based on their academic level of study, F(4,189.705) = 4.684, p=0.001. Post hoc comparisons to evaluate pairwise differences among group means were conducted using the Games-Howell Test since equal variance assumptions were found not tenable across all groups. And test revealed significant pairwise differences between the mean scores of students from HND II and freshmen, p= .013; between students of HND II and ND I, p= .012; between students of HND II and ND II, p= .043. Based this evidence, college managements should engage in a HIV/AIDS sensitization activity for freshmen during new students’ orientation programs. This is imperative in order to mitigate the vulnerability of freshmen to HIV/AIDS infection.

Keywords: Hiv/Aids, Fedpoly Bauchi, College Students

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EFFECTS OF INDISCIPLINE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS

 

SALAUDEEN, KAFILAT ADEBIMPE.

Department of Mathematics, School of Secondary Education (Science Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College Of Education, Oyo, Oyo State

 

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to examine the effects of indiscipline on the academic performance of secondary school students in mathematics. Out of all the schools in Oyo East Local Government, three public secondary schools and two private secondary schools were selected through purposeful random sampling technique. The sample used consisted of five (5) schools in Oyo East Local Government Area in Oyo State.  A questionnaire was obtained with relevant information from 100 respondents. The test-retest method was employed to obtain the reliability of the instrument. Chi-Square was used to analyse the data collected. The results showed that indiscipline has negative effects on the academic performance of secondary school students in mathematics both in public and private schools.  It was discovered that indiscipline is not only students-based; it could be from the various stakeholders too. Based on findings from the study, it was recommended that efforts should be made by all concerned individuals and groups to curtail indiscipline in our school system so that the performances of the students will be boosted.

Keywords: Indiscipline, Academic, Performance, Students, Mathematics

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SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE LEVELS OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN KOFAR MARUSA IRRIGATION WATER

 

1YARGAMJI, G.I.; 2KAMALADDEEN, A.; AND 3HAMIDU, S.

1&2Department of Chemistry Education, Isa Kaita College of Education, Dutsin-Ma. 3department of Biology Education, Federal College of Education, Katsina.

 

ABSTRACT

Seasonal variations of the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb in KofarMarusa irrigation water were studied over one year period. Water samples were taken at different points of the irrigation area mixed and homogenized and then digested and analyzed using AAS for the presence of the metals on quarterly basis. Results obtained showed that Cd and Cu were totally absent throughout the study period while Cr, Fe and Pb were present at levels that varied seasonally. Pb levels were found to exceed the NSDWQ and WHO standards significantly. It was concluded that consumption of the vegetables grown with the water would pose serious health hazards. It was then recommended among others that more researches are needed on the irrigation water as well as the vegetables grown with it for the presence of other heavy metals especially the toxic ones and the metals levels should be monitored on continuous basis. 

Keywords:  Seasonal variation, Heavy metals, Irrigation Water, Vegetables, Kofar Marusa

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