CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES (CJPAS) VOL. 19 (9)
SEPTEMBER, 2020 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2020 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
EFFECT OF INTRA-COMPETITION COEFFICIENTS ON THE RESOURCE BIOMASS OF A RESOURCE-DEPENDENT INTERACTING BIOLOGICAL SPECIES
*DIKE, ADEDOTUN OLASUMBO **GEORGE, ISOBEYE
*Department of Mathematics, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State. **Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
The effect of intra-competition coefficient on the resource biomass of a resourcedependent interacting biological species was investigated. To facilitate the investigation, a continuous system of nonlinear first order ordinary differential equation indexed by the appropriate initial conditions, was considered. A MATLAB ODE45 numerical scheme was used to generate the data needed for the analysis. The key result of the investigation shows that increase in intra-competition coefficient of the interacting biological species increases the resource biomass while the population density of the species diminishes.
Keywords: Intra-competition coefficient, resource biomass, resource-dependent interacting biological species, system of differential equation
MINIMIZATION OF TRAINING TIME OF A CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK BY ADDING K-NEAREASET NEIGHBOR AS CLASSIFIER
1SOULEY BOUKARI; 2FATIMA AHMED ABUBAKAR; 3ATIKA AHMAD JIBRIN; 4YAKUBU NUHU DANJUMA & 5YAMUSA IDRIS ADAMU
Professor of Computer Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. 2Computer Science Department, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Image classification is an essential task in machine learning and computer vision however it is still challenging. Although, over the past years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have greatly boosted the performance of a series of image classification tasks, recent works have shown that the softmax commonly used at the classification layer has exhibited some limitations. These limitations include low prediction performance. This research work aims at replacing the fully connected and the softmax layers with k-nearest neighbor so as to hybridize the model. This enabled us to overcome the limitation of the softmax as well to use the KNN to classify large dataset. CNN was adopted for feature extraction and the KNN for classification. Comparison of our model was done with two existing models- the original CNN and the CNN-SVM. Each model was executed ten times on four datasets and obtained as mean for three models as 358.92s for the CNN, CNNSVM 46.02s and our model CNNKNN 39.42s as training time respectively.
Keywords: Training, Convolutional, Neural, Network, Adding, K-Neareaset.
DEVELOPMENT OF BIRTH RECORDS AND BIRTH RATE MONITORING APP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY
NEKABARI-UEDEME, L. F. & AMANNAH, C.I.
Department of Computer Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Over half of Nigerian children are born at home rather than hospitals where their births could have been registered. It is disheartening to note that most births are not registered especially in rural areas where there are little or no health facilities with functional birth registration system. The aim of the study was to develop birthrate monitoring system. To achieve this aim, the study set as its objectives to; ascertain the birth record system of the understudied hospitals, develop a platform for birth information, design a module that computes birth statistics and to integrate the birth information platform with the birth statistics module. The Rapid Application Development (RAD) was used to develop the study. The Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOAaD) was used to analyze and design this system. The Hyper-Preprocessor (PHP) and MYSQL were used as tools to implementing the system. The MYSQL was used to develop a centralized web-based database. Birth rate monitoring information system was developed. The system was tested and deployed. The result showed that using the proposed system makes data entry and information retrieval easier and simple compared to the existing system.
Keywords: App, Development, Birth, Birth rate, Monitoring
THE REMOVAL OF SINGLE AND BINARY BASIC DYES FROM SYNTHETIC WASTEWATER USING BENTONITE CLAY ADSORBENT
O K AKEREMALE AND S. E. OLASENI
Department of Science and Technology Education, Bayero University, Kano. Department of Chemical Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria.
In order to broaden the application of bentonite clay, an easily obtainable and bio-available low cost adsorbent, it was employed for the decolourization of synthetic wastewater consisting of single and binary basic dyes (malachite green and rhodamine b). The sorbent was used as obtained without any further modification and also characterized for its specific surface area, point of zero charge and its surface functional groups pre and post dyes sorption was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch adsorption methods were employed in order to study the effects of pH, Ionic strength and contact time in the single solute system. The parameters of sorption of rhodamine b (RDB) and malachite green (MG) were obtained and fitted to three isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin. The Freundlich plot analysis indicated the process occurred via heterogeneous coverage of adsorbent by both dyes. The kinetics of adsorption data were analyzed using the; pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Intraparticle diffusion, film diffusion, and Boyd kinetic models. Over the study of these parameters, the film diffusion mechanism was found to predominate in the sorption process of the dyes. Competitive sorption studies was carried out by using both dyes as either the sorbate of interest or as the interfering specie and the competitive co-coefficient values obtained from interfering MG in RDB removal were significantly lower than those obtained from interfering RDB in MG removal, indicating that the presence of RDB in the aqua matrix had antagonistic effect on MG adsorption by bentonite.
Keywords: Removal, Single, Binary, Basic, Wastewater.
INVESTIGATION AND APPLICATION OF METHANOL FUEL PRODUCED BY CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF CARBONATED ALKALINE SOLUTION OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE AND ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER: PART II:
*SAMPSON OJON NWOVU O. *M. O. ETEBU &**I. P. OKOYE
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, World Bank African Centre of Excellence, Centre for Oilfield Chemical and Research, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, P.M.B. 5323, Nigeria. **Department of Petroleum Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, P.M.B. 5323, Nigeria.
This study investigates the confirmatory tests and exhaust emissions of methanol fuel produced from carbonated alkaline solution of potassium hydroxide (KHCO3) and water in an electrochemical process. Cu and Zn electrodes were used to catalyze the electrochemical processes in the cathodic and anodic half-cells respectively. Methanol production involved simultaneous electrolysis of water within the anodic half-cell and catalytic reduction of KHCO3 within cathodic half-cell. We separated the anodic and cathodic half-cells using a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) prepared by mixture of Paraffin Wax, Silica Gel, and Sodium Dodecyl/Lauryl Sulphate. The PEM materials facilitated a unidirectional transportation of protons and electrons produced in anodic to cathodic half-cell of the electrochemical set-up. We used KMnO4, FTIR and GC-MS to carry out the confirmatory tests on the synthesized methanol. The emissions test involved the use of methanol-gasoline blend with 5 percent of methanol mixed with 95 percent of gasoline represented as G95, while G100 represents neat gasoline. The experimental engine was naturally aspirated, single cylinder, 4-stroke with port-fueled injector. We operated the engine under constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and varying loads of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 (kg). The emissions test results showed that, addition of methanol in the gasoline fuel decreased the CO emissions under low-to-moderate loads, but increased under high-load operations compared to G100. Conversely, the CO2 emissions increased with increasing engine loads with slight decrease under high-load operations. However, the uHC and oil temperatures of the methanol blended fuel were higher than those of G100 at all the engine operation loads.
KEY WORDS: Carbon (IV) Oxide (CO2); Water; Methanol; Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM); SI Engine; and Exhaust Emissions.
A FUZZY DETERMINISTIC DENDRITIC CELL ALGORITHM: A COMPARISON OF DEFUZZIFICATION METHODS.
Computer Science Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yaradua University
The Dendritic Cell Algorithm is an inspired algorithm modelled based on the functioning of Biological Dendritic Cells. The concentration values of input signals in the DCA are in crisp form, and this shows that there is no clear boundary between low or high values of concentration level of the input signals. This is part of the reason why the DCA is sensitive to class data order. However, this problem solved with the introduction of FdDCA. Despite the performance of the FdDCA, the choice of the defuzzification method (Centre of Gravity) in the algorithm was based on intuition. We believe that the right choice of defuzzification method will improve the performance of the algorithm. In this paper, we investigate the performance of the FdDCA using different defuzzification methods. The main aim of this paper is to select the best defuzzifiction method for the FdDCA.
Keywords: Fuzzy, Deterministic, Dendritic, Algorithm, Comparison, Defuzzification.
ON THE STABILITY OF THE ENERGY EQUILIBRIUM PRICE MODEL USING A COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH
R.E. AKPODEE; & E.N.EKAKA-A
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Nigeria.
The stability of the energy equilibrium price model is one of the challenging scientific problems facing professional energy experts, mathematicians and economists. The qualitative trajectory of this formidable model over a longer trading period can provide a long-term economic planning strategy in a bid to monitor its sustainable development dimension. The full analysis of this problem is beyond an analytical approach; therefore, we have proposed a computational approach under some simplifying assumptions. The novel results of this pioneering problem that we have not seen elsewhere will be presented and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Energy Price Model, Stability, Numerical Simulation, Computational Approach.
ATTITUDE TOWARDS MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KHANA, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA
*ETOR NWAKAJI EMMANUEL; AND **AMADAOWEI, FORSMAN
*University of Port Harcourt **Department of Primary Health Care Tutors, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
This study examined attitude towards menstrual hygiene practices among female secondary school students in Khana Local Government Area. The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of female senior secondary school students in Khana Local Government Area. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of two hundred and fifty participants for the study. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using simple frequencies, percentages, chart and chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study revealed that more than half (81%) of the population agreed that girls should bath regularly during their menstrual period. All the respondents (100%) indicated that girls should always change their pads during their menstrual period. 84.3% of the population agreed that hands should always be washed during menstruation. 73.6% agreed that girls should eat properly during menstruation while 34.3% indicated that girls should be restricted from house work and other activities during menstruation. However, the assessment on attitude revealed that 204(84.3%) of the respondents had positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene while 38(15.7%) had negative attitude towards menstrual hygiene. The tested hypothesis showed a significant relationship between attitude and practice of menstrual hygiene among female secondary school students (p<0.05, df = 1, X2 = 18.401). It was concluded that 204(84.3%) of the respondents had positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene. It was recommended amongst others that the Government, federal, state, and local authorities and stakeholders should put in place special programmes targeting young girls including students on how to prevent behaviours that put them at risk of poor menstrual hygiene.
Keywords: Attitude, menstrual hygiene practice, female, secondary school
ASSESSMENT OF GELLING AGENTS FOR THE FORMULATION OF CULTURE MEDIA
*UDOSEN, I. E.; **SAMUEL, E. *IJAGBEMI, O. O. & *MUSTAPHA, H. G.
*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
**Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Two gelling agents were investigated as agar substitutes. These are cassava starch and guar gum (Cymopsis tetragonolobus). Among these two, guar gum was found a promising alternate candidate for agar. Media solidified with1.2% guar gum was transparent and supportive for the growth of microorganism. Agar has 1.2×1010 and 3.45×1010 colony count for Aspergillus niger and E. coli respectively while guar gum has 9.0×109 and 3.45×1010 colony count. Guar gum also excelled in terms of cost benefit ratio when compared with agar. Guar gum fortified media was found to cost N6,500 per liters as compared to agar supplemented media costing N19,500 per liter. Further, guar gum is easily available and can be added with ease thereby serving as a suitable and inexpensive substitute of agar and thus, can be adopted for routine microbiological testing in resources poor countries.
Keywords: Guar gum, Media, Agar, Gelling agents
THE DEBUT OF 5G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY
OBOTIVERE A. B. & NWAEZEIGWE A. O.
Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-oghara.
The technology promises to transmit a high volume of data to mobile and IoT devices, like connected traffic lights. By some estimates, 5g wireless networks could deliver data to nearly 10 gigabits per second, several orders of magnitude faster than current 4G networks which peak at 100 megabits per second. Since speed is usually the most discerning factors between the changing generations of wireless cellular technology hence the debut of 5g wireless technology.
Keywords: Iteration, Cellular technology, Latency, Bandwidth, Wireless broadband
THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION PARAMETERS ON THE YIELD OF LOCAL CHEESE PRODUCED FROM COW MILK
ADAMU, M.; DAVID, G.T.; & USMAN S.B.
Chemical Engineerin Department Federal Polytechnic Bida
Traditional cheese making was modernized using laboratory equipment under controlled production parameters in order to see their effects on the yield of cheese and the whey obtained from fresh cow milk. The three major parameters investigated were cooking temperature, coagulant concentration and cooking time. The temperature was varied between 40 to 80 OC with a step change of 10 OC at constant coagulant concentration and cooking time while the cooking time and coagulant concentration were varied between 10 to 50 minutes and 5 to 25 g/100ml H2O with step changes of 10 minutes and 5g respectively. The results showed that the yield of cheese which is the primary product reacts to variation of the three tested parameters with significant increase in yield of 32.5 to 44.5g between the temperatures of 40 to 60 OC while that of coagulant concentration was observed between 5-15 g/100 ml H2O with a corresponding increase in yield of 37.2-54.81g. Conversely, the lowest cooking time of 10 minutes gave the highest yield of 62.12g. In all cases, the yields of whey were inversely proportional to those of the cheese. The final result of this investigation have revealed that the yield of local cheese can be significantly improved by regulating the production parameters with the best parameters being 60 OC cooking temperature, 15 g/100 ml H2O coagulant concentration and 10 minutes cooking time with the best yield of 62.12g cheese and 114 ml whey from 180 ml fresh cow milk.
Key words: Local cheese, Whey, Cow milk, Coagulant and production parameters
EFFECTS OF WATER HYACINTH ON WATER QUALITY IN WATER OBTAINED FROM PANDAM LAKE, PANDAM GAME RESERVE PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA.
*POPOOLA, A. S.; **LAPKAT, L. G.; **BAKO, A.; ***ADEMOLA, T. O.; ****MAIKANO, S.; *****YAHAYA, U. F.; **OKECHALU, S. O.; & ******M. S. LIKITA
*Forestry Technology Department, Federal College Forestry, Jos Plateau State. **Horticulture and Landscape Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. ***Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka Kaduna State. ****Forestry Technology, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. *****Agricultural Extension, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. ******Basic Science Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State.
Water is one of the most important resources for sustainability of life on earth. The study assessed the water quality in water obtained from Pandam Lake. The main sources of data for the study were physico-chemical parameters. Standard methods were used to analyze the physico-chemical quality in the water in accordance with the American Public Health Association (APHA) and American Water works Association (AWWA). Sixteen (16) parameters were assessed. The results shows that out of 16 parameters assessed, 6 were above WHO guidelines, in both the water hyacinth root water and water hyacinth leave water. The t-test results also showed significant difference between water hyacinth root water and water hyacinth leave water on 5 out of 16 water quality parameters tested for. Finally, the results shows a general high contamination that water hyacinth presence in water as observed in water obtained from Pandam lake. The study therefore recommends among others that there is a dare need to monitor the water body, create database and utilize it in the management of water quality of water body. The enforcement of existing laws is needed so as to achieve compliance to set standards.
Keyword: Water hyacinth, water quality, physicochemical, WHO, Pandam lake.
ETHNO-BOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
ADEYEMI, S.O1; AKINSOWO, A.J.2; & IKOKIDE, S.Y3
Department of Biology, School of Science, Eacoed, Oyo, Oyo State
An Ethno-Botanical survey of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus was carried out among the three major ethnic groups in Oyo state district, Nigeria, for the exploration of anti-diabetic herbal remedies due to the speedy increase in chronic disease which has became a grim threat to mankind in all parts of the world and the allopathic drugs have not shown any momentous effect. Diabetes mellitus is one of such disease, a metabolic disorder exemplified with elevated blood glucose level, excretion of glucose in urine and causes serious pathophysiological complications due to the defect in insulin secretion or insulin action or both. Interview and discussion method was used to collect data, a total number of 80 respondents were interviewed as sample size of the study using simple random sampling from eight (8) popular markets located in four (4) cities in Oyo state. A total number of 20 plants from plant were identified which are being used for the treatment of diabetes. The collected information of anti-hyperglycemic medicinal plants used by the three major ethnics of Nigeria in Oyo state have been listed along with their local names and plant parts used.
Keywords: Ethnobotany, Diabetes.
DESIGN OF A 3KVA SOLAR POWERED ARC WELDING MACHINE
ZAHRADDIN UMAR DAHIRU; ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR; I.H. USMAN; BALA A.M.; & FATIMA MUHAMMAD
Department of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The unavailability of stable and reliable power supply from the grid for small and medium scale industries has resulted into the use of other sources of power like the generators. The generator is generally characterized by air and sound pollution as well as high running and maintenance cost. Also, the conventional arc welding machines are usually characterized by high weight and large size. This paper focuses on the design of a 3KVA solar power as an alternative to the generator and also an inverter circuit to solve the problem of weight and size of conventional arc welding machine. The inverter provides much higher frequency than 50Hz or 60 Hz for transformer used in welding. Welding is a fabrication process that join metals or thermoplastics together as a result of the application of high heat to melt the parts together and allows it to cool, causing fusion. The designed electric arc welding machine is capable of withstanding 150 A, when subjected to insulation test, short circuit and open circuit test.
Keyword: Welding, Arc, joint. Inverter, MOSFET, solar Photovoltaic
BINARY LOGISTIC REGRESSION IN MEASURING THE LEVEL OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON ELECTRONIC BANKING
AMINU HARUNA; USMAN HASSAN; SALISU LUKUNTI; LUKA JOSHUA & USAMATU USMAN
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
This research work is intended to measure the level of customer satisfaction on electronic banking. The binary logistic regression analysis and descriptive statistics was used to analyze the dependent variable (Satisfaction) on independent variables (security, ease of use, accessibility, information quality, design and features, reliability, and speed.) the descriptive results of the analysis shows that customers are fully satisfied with overall service of the e-banking with a reasonable percentage of 92.59% out of 100%. And also the inferential result i.e. (Binary logistic regression results) shows that 98.7% were correctly classified as satisfied group and 50.0% as not satisfied group. Overall of 95.1% were correctly classified. This is a considerable improvement on the 92.8% correct classification with the constant model hence the model with predictors is a significantly better model.
Keywords: e-Banking, Customer, Logistic Regression.
MEASUREMENT OF RADON CONCENTRATION IN BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER, AND ESTIMATION OF INDOOR RADON LEVELS IN JOS, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Applied Physics, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria
The effect of radon in drinking water and its contribution to indoor air, when combined with other sources of radon exposure portend a significant hazard to human health. In this study, measurements of radon concentration in drinking water comprising of boreholes and wells in Jos and environs, using the radon detector RAD7 were taken and analysed. The contributions of the radon in the water to indoor air (concentrations) were then computed. The results obtained from this study were compared with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by some International regulatory bodies, and it was noted that a significant number of the values exceeded the MCL. Even though the effective dose seemed lower than the world average, prolonged exposure to the radiation may increase the likelihood of severe health hazard.
Key words: Radon, Jos and environs, drinking water, lung cancer, maximum contaminant level.
CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SHALE FROM THE BIDA BASIN, USING TGA, TOC AND ROCK EVAL PYROLYSIS.
DAVID DAKUP GEORGE; A. G. OLUGBENGA
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
The earth contains large amounts of hydrocarbons that are not contained in what might be called conventional hydrocarbons. With increasing demand for energy both domestically and industrially, a major challenge facing the world, the society is driven to search for alternative energy sources. In this work, oil shale samples were collected from the Bida formation of the Bida Basin, Niger state, Nigeria. Analytical tools such as Rock Eval Pyrolysis, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Thermographic Analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the sample. From the Pyrolysis results, the Hydrogen Index (HI) was 45.71 mgHC/gTOC, the Production Index (PI), 0.42 and the Tmax, 342 OC. The TOC was 1.40 wt%. From the TGA results, the activation energy of the oil shale was calculated using the Arrhenius equation and found to be 48.40 KJ/Mol, while the pre-exponential factor was 884.025 min-1. Consequently, the oil shale is gas-prone and contains migratory hydrocarbons. Also, the content of organic matter in the sample is good.
Keywords: Oil shale, TOC, Rock Eval Pyrolysis, TGA, Hydrocarbons.
ICT FOR YOUTH EMPOWERMENT AND JOB CREATION IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE OF NIGERIA.
ZAINAB ADAMU ALIYU
Computer Science Department, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
This study examine the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in empowering the youth and creating job opportunities most especially in Zaria Local Government of Kaduna state as a solution to unemployment in Nigeria. Data were generated through questionnaire. Findings shows that application of ICT for youth empowerment creates job opportunities. Thus this paper recommends that youth should be personally committed to ICT education and making effective use of ICT for personal and national development.
ANALYSES OF BAKERIES AND TYPES OF ENERGY USED IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS.
*ZAINAB ADAM IMAM; **BABAGANA ZANNAH AUDU; ***AHMED ALIYU; & ****BUKAR USMAN
*Department of chemistry Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State **Department of Geography Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State ***National Identification Management Commission (NIMC) Bauchi State ****Department of Biology Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State.
The study assesses the consumption pattern of woodfuel among bakeries in Bauchi metropolis with a view to provide information for sustainable management of the environment. The data were obtained through both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires was designed to get the pattern of different types of energy used by bakeries. One hundred copies of questionnaire were administered to the respondents of the bakeries identified. The totals of 40 bakeries were identified using snow-ball sampling method in Bauchi state, the rate of overdependence on woodfuel by owners of bakeries is a great concern. The findings show that Woodfuel and electricity were the main sources of energy used. Thirt eight (38) bakeries were using woodfuel while two (2) use electricity. This is due to availability and affordability of woodfuel (N55 per bundle) than electricity (N29.8 per unit). It was found that the high cost is the main factor militating against the use of electricity for baking bread and hot-wet and cold- wet are the period with highly demand of energy for heating the ovens due to the dampness of the environment and also, are the season of high cost of woodfuel because, accessibility is difficult. It was recommended that government and stakeholders should subsidies other alternative source of energy like solar energy in order to reduce over dependency on woodfuel which affect the quality of environment, also modern oven that have chimney or other clean energy sources should be made available at subsidized rate, these may reduce the over dependency on forest resources as the only bank for woodfuel resources for the sustainability of the environment.
Keywords: Woodfuel Bakeries Consumption Energy Electricity
ACCELERATING RURAL ELECTRICITY TRANSFORATION THROUGH GRID CONNECTED MICROGRID AND ISLANDED MICROGRID GENERATION IN NIGERIA
*SULEIMAN A. IBRAHIM, **SMART BELLO & ***EHIOMOGUE PRECIOUS
*Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State **Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State ***Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State
Africa has the largest population of people in the world without access to electricity, an estimate of about 600 million people lacking access and expected to reach 700 million by 2030. Over two-thirds of Nigeria’s population, currently, have no access to quality electricity supply and most of the rural areas are not connected to the National grid. This is similar in other Sub-Saharan Africa countries, where the average electricity grid access rate is 20%. For Nigeria, where fossil fuel is the major source of commercial energy, finding an alternative source from, renewables are important for advancing sustainable development. This paper explores the benefits and challenges that exist because of the current energy policy in Nigeria and why the grid-connected microgrid and islanded microgrid application is the best bet in solving Nigeria’s energy crisis. Global power source arrangements are accessible and efficient. Arrangements which are particular to Africa’s vitality challenges are additionally rising. These arrangements will enable Africa to jump to accomplish least cost, earth well disposed vitality division advancement, which at last adds to feasible improvement objectives.
Keywords: Rural electricity, Microgrids, Islanded, Renewable Energy, Nigeria
A NOTE ON THE EXISTENCE AND UNIQUE OF SOLUTION OF FILTRATION COMBUSTION IN WET POROUS MEDIUM.
IBRAHIM A.; SAIDU Y.V. & ODO, C. E
Department of Mathematics Federal Polytechnic, Bida.
This paper establishes the criteria for the existence of unique solution of filtration combustion in a wet porous medium by analytical solution method.
Keywords: Combustion, Eigenfunction expansion technique, Filtration Combustion, Porous medium.
MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AS A TOOL FOR THE DISCRIMINATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC AND LITHOGENIC HISTORY OF KANO RIVER IRRIGATION PROJECT TOPSOILS
*ABRAHAM MUSA ZIRA; **AMINU AHMED LAWAL; & ***ISMAIL YUSUF
*Physics Department, Federal College of Education Potiskum Yobe State **Physics Department, Ahmadu Bello University zaria, Kaduna State ***Geology Department, Ahmadu Bello University zaria, Kaduna State
In the recent years the measure of the magnetic susceptibility has been proved to be a reliable tool for the monitoring of pollution in topsoils. A total of 77 sample points were collected. Magnetic susceptibility was measured in two different frequencies (0.47 and 4.7 KHz) and the percentage of frequency dependence was calculated. The results revealed the presence of two areas with high susceptibility values. These areas are investigated in details in order to distinguish the anthropogenic or the lithogenic influence.
Keywords: Environmental magnetism, soil pollution, magnetic susceptibility and anthropogenic
SECURING CLOUD DATA USING BLOWFISH ALGORITHM COMBINED WITH TEXT STEGANOGRAPHY
ISHAQ MUHAMMED; MUHAMMAD ALIYU; ILIYA MUSA ADAMU; AMATULLAH YAHAYA ALIYU; ABDULKADIR MAIGARI TURAKI; & SUNUSI ABDULHAMID DANTATA
Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Computer Science Department
Cloud computing has emerged as a computing paradigm and has gotten much attention in the last years known to handle systems with large-scale services sharing between vast numbers of users. It provides enormous storage for data and computing power to users over the Internet. There are many issues with the high growth of data. Data security is one of the most important issues in cloud computing. There are many algorithms and implementation for data security each having its own merit and demerit. These algorithms provided various encryption methods. In this Paper, we propose a combination of these algorithms to provide a high level of security to cloud data, Blowfish Symmetric Algorithm as Cryptography combined with Text Steganography as a cover medium considering that both have proven to have good performance and less data redundant in literature.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, Symmetric Algorithm, Cryptography, Text Steganography.
IONISING RADIATION MONITORING OF 5km AWAY SOROUNDING THE REACTOR OF CENTRE FOR ENERGY RESEACH AND TRAINING AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY ZARIA,NIGERIA
GAZARA, A.B.; A. DALLAMI.; ANGO, A.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria.
Nuclear radiation arise from hundred of different kinds of unstable atoms; nuclear energy is widely used in medicine, industries, research and agriculture. Although it has beneficial applications, yet it is always accompanied with dreadful consequences, in any event of identified nuclear accident. The recorded in-situ dose rate measurement obtained ranged from 0.12 to 0.38 for dry and rainy season respectively. In addition the measuring activity concentration level in the soil sedment samples were in the range of 357 to 948( 40K) 16 to 62 (226Ra) and 85 to 233Bqkg-1 (232Th).The activity concentration level where also measured in the soil sedment samples, both in dry and rainy season using gamma ray spectrocophy technique.There is no significant different in the two seasonally acquired data in both the indoor and outdoor measurements.The important radiation monitoring to asses the environmental radiological impact of Nigerian Reseach Reactor (NIRR-1) of centre for energy reseach and training Ahmadu Bello University,Zaria cannot be over emphasized. It is therefore recommended that the personel and monitoring as done should be continued to check the state of the stack filters and have the protection of personel,public and environment,. The data provides the mean activity concentration levels of the analyzed soil and sediment samples with their corresponding mean measure dose rates for both rainy and dry season in Nigeria.The point were selected for the determination of nuclear effect of NIRR-1 on the neighboring communities was shown in the table.
Keyword. Radiation, environment, personnel.
EFFECT OF CONCEPT OF INDICES ON THE PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY OF MATHEMATICS STUDENTS IN LOGARITHM
JEJE O.S.; & OLAGOKE, M.
Department of Mathematics, College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti
This study investigated the effects of concept of indices on the problem solving ability of mathematics students in logarithm . the study was designed to find out the effect of concept of indices on the problem solving ability of mathematics students in logarithm. The study made use of 200 senior secondary school three (3) students drawn from five secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State by using multistage sampling technique. The students were grouped into two: Group A for the control group that will be taught indices only during instruction, while group B will be the experimental group that will be taught both indices and Logarithm together during instruction. Achievement Test (AT) was the instrument used. The achievement Tests was aimed at testing the ability of students in solving problems in indices and logarithms. Three hypotheses was tested at 0.06 level.
Keyword: Concepts, Indices, Problem, Solving ability and Logarithm
EXPLORATION OF TAMSULOSIN EFFECT ON CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDE IN NORMAL RATS
*DIKKO, M.; & **SARKINGOBIR YUSUF
*Department of Pharmacy, Sultan Abdurrahman School of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto state, Nigeria. **Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria
Tamsulosin is used to manage benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and among the risk factors of BPH is obesity. The aim of this study was to verify tamsulosin effect on body total cholesterol and triglycerides in normal rats. Normal rats of six different groups (n=8) were orally given daily distilled water (5mg/kg), carvedilol (800µg/kg), tamsulosin doses (6µg, 12µg, 18µg and 40µg/kg) respectively for six (6) weeks. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined at the end of the study.The results showed significant decreased in cholesterol and non-significant decreased in triglycerides levels compared to normal control. It is therefore concluded that tamsulosin has lowering effects on total cholesterol and triglycerides in normal rats. Tamsulosin may be useful in BPH associated obesity.
Keywords: Tamsulosin; BPH; Cholestrol; Triglycerides; Obesity
THE EFFECTS OF NANOFLUIDS ON THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF HEAT PIPES
SIBEUDU CHIWETALU EMENIKE & OCHUBA NNAMDI SOMTOCHUKWU
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko Anambra State
A new technique in determining the thermal efficiency in heat pipes is to use nanofluids as working fluids in the heat pipes. Heat pipes are effective heat transfer contraptions which nanofluid operates in two phases: evaporation and condensation. The heat pipe transfers the heat supplied in e.g. an oven, from the evaporator to condenser. Nanofluids are mixtures of nanoparticles (e.g. nano-sized silver particles) and a base fluid (e.g. water). The aim of this research has been to examine the effect of nanofluids on heat pipes on the subject of temperature parameters and thermal resistance in the heat pies, through findings in literature and an applied model. The study, based on literature and an applied model, found that higher particle conductivity and higher concentration of nanoparticles reduce the thermal resistance in the heat pipes, resulting in an enhanced thermal efficiency of the heat pipes with nanofluids as working fluids. It is however concluded that difficulties in finding the optimal synthesis of nanofluids, the concentration level of nanoparticles and the filling ratio of nanofluids in heat pipes, set bounds to the commercial use of nanofluids in heat pipes. It is suggested that, in order to increase the heat transfer capacity of nanofluids in heat pipes, to conduct further research concerning e.g. synthesis of nanofluids and concentration aggregate of nanoparticles in nanofluids.
POULTRY PRODUCTION AS A TOOL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY: NEW DIRECTION FOR ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION IN NIGERIA.
MOHAMMED IBRAHIM GIREI, Ph.D
Agricultural Education Department, Federal College of Education Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria.
The paper examined poultry production and its significant contributions to the global economy; despite the significant role of poultry business in the society, the poultry production in Nigeria is still at subsistence level and the sector is facing numerous challenges ranging from social, economic and institutional factors. It’s observed that, worldwide the demand for poultry and poultry products are tremendously increasing as a result of population growth. It was revealed that, poultry production in Africa contributing insignificantly to the economy when compared the production capacity and marketing of poultry in places like Asia, America, China, Brazil etc. However, with the existing global demand for livestock and livestock product, there is need for economic diversification in agricultural production especially in poultry venture by training the farmers through seminar and workshop and provision of financial support to the intending and existing farmers so that to encourage and promote the subsistence production to commercial standard and by doing so it can serve as a means for engaging many people into business and reviving the Nigerian economy, to be food secured and stand a good basis for economic development and sustainability.
Keywords: Poultry, production, economic, development and sustainability
AN INVESTIGATION OF ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF Anogeissus leiocapus LEAF EXTRACT ON MAIZE, COWPEA AND SORGHUM.
*GARBA, A., ** ABUBAKAR I. A. **Y. HARUNA, ***S. ADAMU
*Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Agricultural technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. ***Department of Animal Health and Production technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Extracts from leaves of Anogeissus leiocapus was used to test the inhibitory effect on stimulation of hypogeal development and epigeal growth of maize, cowpea and sorghum. The study was conducted under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extract of the tree species was prepared by chopping 50g fresh leaves and soaked in 120ml of distilled water and kept overnight. The effects of extracts from these tree species was compared with distilled water. The extract shows remarkable inhibitory effect on the hypogeal growth on the three receptor plant.
Keywords: Allelopathy, Allelochemicals, Inhibition, Receptor, Hypogeal
MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR PROGNOSIS OF NASARAWA STATE POPULATION GROWTH
NASIR, M. OLALEKAN. AND IBINAYIN, S. JEROM
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nigeria
This study developed some specific population growth models and subjected them to accuracy test in order to determine the most appropriate model for the prognosis of Nasarawa State population. The study employed method of differential equation, exponential, geometric and hyperbolic functions as governing equations. Available census data of 1991 and 2006, Mean Absolute Error (MAPE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to obtain the growth rate and compared the three developed models for the population prognosis accuracy. The result of the analysis shows that exponential growth model with MAPE and RMSE values of 0.51% and 13.75 respectively is the most accurate and closely followed by geometric growth model with values 0.56% and 14.87 respectively. The study concludes that exponential growth model is the best for the prognosis of Nasarawa State population growth with approximate growth rate of 2.9% per annum, the projected population of the state will be 3,757,536 million by the year 2030. Hence, it is recommended that Nasarawa state government should institute developmental programmes, policies and work towards industrialization of the state to effectively improve its absorptive capacity development through the population size increase.
Keywords: Population prognosis, Exponential, Geometric, Hyperbolic, Specific model, Nasarawa state.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCES OF SILICON MONOCRYSTALLINE AND POLYCRYSTALLINE PV SOLAR PANELS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
MOHAMMED MANNIR ALIYU1, PAUL BARTHOLOMEW2 AND HAMISU USMAN1
1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
The monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon solar cells are the most commonly used Photovoltaic (PV) Solar technology that are deployed in both commercial and domestic applications in Nigeria. These devices are rapidly gaining acceptance. However, due to some few differences, which includes pricing and performance, there are certain uncertainties over the most appropriate choice of the two technologies. In order to throw more light and create better understanding of these devices, this study investigated the performances of the two technologies in Kaduna Metropolis. Two panels, rated 80W each of the monocrystalline and polycrystalline technologies were exposed to similar environmental conditions while the panels’ output variables were measured together with the environmental indices. The data were analyzed and the results obtained indicated that while the solar irradiance varies irregularly across the days of the month and over months of the year, the ambient temperature was more uniform. These are the most dependent variables on the performance of PV solar cells. From the measured outputs it was found that the open circuit voltage of the monocrystalline was generally higher than that of polycrystalline, throughout the year. However, the short circuit currents of the two panels were nearly equal for the first seven months of the year, but the was slight increment for the monocrystalline during the last five months. These led to higher power and energy yield by the monocrystalline over the polycrystalline panels. This led to estimated energy generation of the total energy generation by PV1 and PV2 as 68.95 and 84.34 kWh respectively. At a cost respective cost of N16,500.00 and N18,500.00, it gives us a measure for the comparison of the two panels. The cost per unit energy generated was calculated at N199.42/kWh and N182/kWh respectively. Thus, while the monocrystalline solar panels costs are slightly higher, but their energy generation is better and thus compensate, on the long run, giving better value of investment.
Keywords: Performances, Silicon, Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline, PV Solar.
INFLUENCE OF COARSE-GRAINED SAND ON SHEAR STRENGTH OF LATERITIC SOIL
OLUMORIN MAIYE MICHAEL1, JOSHUA HIRPAYA POGU2 & IBRAHIM SHUAIBU3
1,3Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2Department of Railway Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
This research was carried out with an intention to evaluate the effects of coarse grained sand on the shear strength of lateritic soil obtained at 1.0 m depth from a borrow pit located at Goningora, along Kaduna-Abuja high way, Chikun Local Government Area, Kaduna South. The lateritic soil was reconstituted by adding coarse grained sand of 0.075 – 4.75 mm in proportion of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% after the sieve analysis conducted on the real sample showed about 54% fines contents. Tests that were performed on both samples dealt with sieve analysis, compaction, shear strength and California bearing ratio. Compaction test results show that optimum moisture contents decreased consistently from 19.7% at 0% to 14.26% at 25% addition of coarse sand contents, while maximum dry density increased progressively from 1.81 g/cm3 at 0% to 1.94 g/cm3 at 25% for the constituted samples. For the shear strength parameters ϕ and c, angles of internal friction ϕ and apparent cohesion c revealed that ϕ values increase from 15to 240 and c values decrease from 30 to 23 kN/m2 for both control and reconstituted lateritic samples respectively. Shear strength results improved from 150.15 to 247.82 kN/m2 and California Bearing Ratio CBR increased from 41.64 to 71.65% for the real and reconstituted samples respectively. Lateritic soils have wide range of shear strength from poor to excellent and pervious to impervious based on the concretionary formations. Therefore, the paper concludes that use of coarse grained sand to reconstitute poorly graded lateritic soil of high percentage of fines content, has significantly improved shear strength for foundation of structures and CBR for sub base of road construction.
Keywords: Lateritic soil, Coarse grained sand, Reconstituted samples, Shear strength, California Bearing Ratio