CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (CJECM) VOL. 19 (4)
SEPTEMBER, 2020 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2020 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF COST AND TIME AS A CONSIDERATION FOR CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE CONTRACTING IN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT PROJECT)
1L.N. BADOM; 2R.E. AKPODEE.
1Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Environmental Science, Rivers State University. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria.
In the consideration of construction contracting in housing development, it is very vital and necessary to carry out a feasibility study and an in-depth analysis using the approach that has been well examined in this work. The result displayed shows the various outputs of the conventional method and the precast method of concrete construction which indicates that the precast method is mostly prefered in terms of speed, volatility and risk handling. Furthermore, other results available in this work indicates an overview of the necessary analysis that is needed to be carried out before a concrete construction project proposal submitted is considered for an award of a construction contract. Full detailed results are hereby presented.
Keywords: Housing Development, Mathematical Model, Precast Concrete Construction, Environmental Factors.
APPLICABILITY OF SMARTPHONE AS SURVEY EQUIPMENT
EJIGA, ABUBAKAR ISA1, ISA ABDUKADIR FUNTUA2 AND SULE ONUCHEYO ZEKERI1
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State Nigeria. 2Department of surveying and Geoinformatics Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Data acquisition is the core of surveying profession. The data when collected must be processed, analyzed and displayed for use. Translating hard copy field books into digital format is a tedious technique and time consuming apart from being very expensive. Besides it is also liable to errors. The sources of these errors may be human, like transposing of figures during reading or booking and such other error sources. Any system that facilitates automatic generation and loading of digital data into the database would fast track the work of the surveyor immensely. Here the mobile or cell phone comes in handy as a possible survey instrument to mitigate the challenges raised above. Owing to it electronic nature, the processes of data acquisition and entry can be merged and handled simultaneously. The smartphone is in common use among the people and often it is used as a routine and a life companion. Equipping this into a survey equipment will be a wise attempt in view of the fact that is very versatile for use. Five very important parameters were used in comparative analysis of the smart phone in relation to dedicated GPS equipment. These parameters included Cost, Convenience, Accuracy, Durability and Battery life. For the first three parameters, the smart phone took the lead. For the latter two, the dedicated GPS was the choice. However improvements in modern phones have tended to give the smart phone the edge. In this research, the smartphone was employed in the execution of base line measurement and cadastral surveys. From analysis of results obtained, minimum requirements for obtaining acceptable accuracies were established. In summary, it is safe to say that smart phone can complement and even at times replace the dedicated GPS in view of its numerous advantages over dedicated GPS as established by this research.
Keywords: Data acquisition, Automatic Generation, Transposing, Transcribing, Cell Phone, Cadastral Surveys
IMPACT OF HOUSING FINANCE ON SELF BUILT DWELLINGS IN A FORMAL SETTLEMENT : A CASE STUDY OF KABAMA LAYOUT, ZARIA.
AMINA ADAMU; ABDULLAHI SADAUKI; DANRAKA MUSTAPHA M.; ZAKI, BLESSED M.; & ABUBAKAR MUAZU ALIYU
Department of Architecture, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria
Housing finance is what allows for the production and consumption of housing. Therefore adequate finance is the first requirement for successful and effective housing delivery in any nation. This study therefore assessed the access to housing finance and how the availability or non-availability of this finance has impacted on the quality and character of self-built dwellings of formal settlements in Nigeria by using kabama residential settlement in Zaria to get a better insight of the situation. The research adopted a descriptive survey approach, and the main instruments for data collection was the questionnaires but it also included secondary sources and interviews. Result from the study indicated that most respondents income level had a direct implication on the type of dwelling and duration to build and the major source of finance for housing developments was from monthly personal savings and cooperative loans. The challenges of accessing housing finance was due to the lengthy and cumbersome process it involves and the inability to access finance impacted on the quality of building appearance and finishing, comfort level and building strength and stability. In conclusion, the inadequacy of government’s previous policies to address affordability issues is the bane of the housing finance sector. It is recommended Policies and programmes of government should be aimed at the low income segment focusing on assisting them to acquire, build or improve their homes through easy accessibility to land and securing of title documents. Also, government should provide mechanism for regulation of lending rates in the private sector and also intervene and complete the mortgage sector reforms and provide incentives that will expand the scope of delivery of the cooperatives.
Keywords: Housing Finance; Self-built Dwellings; Formal settlement; Kabama Residential Layout; Zaria
MARYAM BABA MAIRAMI, MUINAT OMOLARA SANNI & NASIRU SABO JIBRIN
Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Design, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polyechnic, Kaduna
Housing provision has become a global issue as the need for affordable housing kept increasing in Nigeria. This has emerged due to various economic, socio-cultural, and environmental factors which have increased pressure on conventional building materials, thereby leading to the invention of alternative building materials. This paper investigated the adoption of expanded polystyrene (EPS) for building construction. Expanded polystyrene is a thermoplastic material obtained from the polymerisation of styrene and used as packaging material. The methodology adopted elicited information through a structured questionnaire which assessed the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, their level of awareness of EPS as a building material. Strategies in reducing the cost of construction of EPS buildings, advantages of using polystyrene, factors hindering its adoption for building and the remedies to factors impede the adoption of EPS for building construction were also elicited. Structured questionnaires were used for the data collection and subsequently analysed. The study revealed that EPS demonstrates fast construction time, flexibility, reduced heat transfer, high strength and stability and environmental friendliness. The outcome of this research shows that perceived high cost and lack of awareness were the key hindrances to the adoption of EPS for construction and if strategies such as cutting production costs, reducing supply expenses, lower financial expenditure etc. can be adopted the material will be highly suitable in construction.
Keywords: Adoption, Building Construction, Expanded Polystyrene, Sustainability, Cost Reduction
EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABLE MEASURES FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY AT PRECONSTRUCTION STAGE OF PROJECT DELIVERY IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
JOSEPHINE OWOJO OLANIYI & MUINAT OMOLARA SANNI
Department of Quantity Surveying, CES, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna.
Sustainability is an important issue to consider at design stage, not only due to environmental concerns but also due to economic and social matters, promoting design quality and economic advantages. This research aims to evaluate the adoption of sustainable measures for achieving sustainability at preconstruction stage of project delivery in Kaduna Metropolis. Data were collected using questionnaire method due to the fact that it’s suitable for analytical and descriptive analysis with the view to find opinions and facts. The research administered a total of 50 questionnaires to practitioners in the built environment. The findings in this study revealsincrease demand for renewable technologies, reducing operational and maintenance costs are the major benefits of sustainability at design stage. Out of the various challenges encountered in attaining sustainable construction at design stage, Knowledge and skill gap in sustainable design and construction were outlined as the major challenge. The study recommends that Government and practitioners should enlighten clients on the benefits of sustainability. Also, sustainability concept should be included in tertiary institutions curriculum. Finally, Government should enact and implement Sustainability policy and sanctions.
Keywords: Evaluation, Sustainable, Measures, Preconstruction Stage, Project Delivery.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT THE ROLE OF THE ESTATE SURVEYOR AND VALUER
ESV, DR. OKORONKWO, NDUKAUBA SUNDAY NWAFOR
Department of Estate Management, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria
Environmental Impact Assessment is a multi-disciplinary activity which the Estate Surveyor and Valuer must partake in its conduct. It is the study of land to determine if there are any factors such as would possibly give rise to concerns about hazardous materials, protected species, historic remains or other such factors and, a written report containing an analysis of the ecology and construction of projects and after completion and public usages. The components of Environmental Impact Assessment Report are: concerns and points of views of all the various groups interested in, and affected by the projects must be considered throughout the Environmental Impact Assessment processes; hence, developer’s preferred sites of the project with reduced adverse environmental consequence is considered; expose both the viability and liability of the project to the investor; enable competent authority’s response to issues on permit application; expose the implication of projects’ adverse consequences on the other projects which governments may wish to promote; enable competent authority’s response to issues on permit application. Total Economic Values of potential hazards of the projects can only be quantified by the Estate Surveyor and Valuer who is that person permitted by law to value and determines the value of property, chattel, plant and machinery, equipment and any other fixed asset or motor vehicle in Nigeria. Various method of Environmental Valuation is: the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM); Hedonic Pricing (HP) Model and, the Indirect Valuation Method (IVM). Most of the current valuation professionals are yet to embrace the art and science of Total Economic Value valuation and they need to be exposed to further training on this activity. This work hinges on literature hence, bases on narratives of significant issues on the topic.
Keywords: Environment, Impact Assessment, Roles, Estate Surveyor and Valuer
ASSESSING PROPERTY MAINTENANCE PRACTICE IN UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL (UITH), KWARA STATE.
1SAKARIYAU, JAMIU KAYODE; 2MANSUR SULAIMAN; & 3YUSUF YAHYA BAMALI
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Physical Planning & Development, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. 3Department of Estate Management. Kaduna State Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Property maintenance needs to be considered seriously if property is to live up to its expected life span. Public properties in Nigeria have suffered long period of poor maintenance culture which makes the properties to become obsolete earlier than necessary and inhabitable when compare with private properties. Proper maintenance of the hospital building provide habitable and healthy environment for patient quick recovery, where a hospital is not just a mere building, but a complex social institution that handles the dynamics of life and death situations during the process of rendering health care. This study assessed the property maintenance practice in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital with a view to ascertain its effectiveness. The study adopted a quantitative approach. Questionnaire were designed and properly administered to 90 respondents comprises of maintenance staff who are also among the users of the hospital buildings for the collection of primary data used in this study. Respondents were surveyed employing census sampling technique to generate data on the socio economic background of respondents, operational state of building elements, factors affecting management practice and current management practice. The data collected was subjected to descriptive statistics, frequency tables, weighted mean score and percentage analysis. The study revealed that, problems that militate against maintenance practice in university of Ilorin teaching hospital include; lack of maintenance policy, inadequate provision of funds for maintenance, corruption, misuse of facilities by occupants, lack of timely response to maintenance request and change in government. Also, there is no adequate staff to meet up with maintenance management of the hospital. It was recommended that there should be a well structure maintenance policy, more staff should be employed and staff should be guided with maintenance policy to improve the maintenance management. Adequate and regular inspection of the facilities in the hospital should be done from time to time so as to arrest any unforeseen circumstances and avoid any major breakdowns.
Keywords: Property, Property Maintenance, Maintenance Practice, Ilorin, Nigeria.
EXPLORING THE EFFECT OF PLANNING REGULATIONS ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES IN CONFORMING WITH THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN IKEJA METROPOLIS, LAGOS STATE
1HADIZA AHMED MUSA; 2AKINYEMI SAHEED OLAYINKA; & 3SALAU L. T.
1Department of Estate Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. 3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Over the years, the value of properties largely depends on the use that can be made of it. However, planning authorities do create artificial shortage in order to raise the capital values of such properties. Land-use ‘zoning’ or ‘planning’ as a form of regulation determines the use of an economic resource according to the rules and norms (the resource management act 1991). Prices and land markets are still influential, but their influence is constrained and regulated by planning decisions. More so, lack of adherence to planning regulations may pose a great challenge on residential property values, growing towns and cities; Daniel (1999) identifies some of the problems such as congestion, improper dumping of refuse, urbanization, social conflicts, and rapid population growth, fragmented and overlapping governments authorities and special districts, adverse impacts on the natural and built environment among others. This paper aimed at examining the impact of planning regulations on residential property values with particular reference to Ikeja metropolis in Lagos state. In other to achieve the aim of the study, the following objectives are pursued; to identify the existing planning regulation on residential neighborhood of Ikeja in Lagos state, to identify the enforcement of the existing planning regulation control, to identify the specific impact of planning regulation control on residential property value, to examine the impact of planning regulation on residential property value in Ikeja. Conclusion and recommendation were made among is that, the presence of planning regulation on Residential property development in the state brought well planning development in the neighborhood.
Keywords: Planning Regulations, Residential Properties, Property Value, Sustainable Development.
COMPOSITIONAL APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF DEPRECIATION FOR PROPERTY VALUATION PURPOSES: ‘AN EXPLORATIVE ANALYSIS’
1MURITALA, A. O., 1AJIBADE, N. A., 1OLOJEDE, I. O., 1ADELEKE, M. A., 2ONIFADE, A. O.
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke- Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State. 2Department of Architectural Technology, the Oke- Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State.
A method that is commonly adopted in situations where market evidence is unavailable is the Depreciated Replacement Cost method. As the name suggests, this involves estimating the Replacement cost of the property as new and making allowances for accrued depreciation, which is the subject matter of the valuation. The provision for depreciation is important because it allows for the estimation of value that reflects the current state of the property. The determination of such depreciation for valuation purposes has been a subject for a number of empirical studies. There is however no consensus within the valuation profession as to which approach to estimating accrued depreciation addresses the key elements that are of concern to estate surveyors and valuers viz; age, level of condition and functional obsolescence. This paper proposes one such approach that incorporates all these elements in the estimation of accrued depreciation for valuation purposes. The approach first considers separately, the individual causes of depreciation and uses different methods to estimate accrued depreciation for each of the causes of depreciation. Total accrued depreciation is then estimated by first taking account of curable physical depreciation and then age and functional obsolescence. The approach proposed presents a basis for a more comprehensive discussion and a subsequent application of a common methodology that valuers can adopt to estimate depreciation.
Keywords: Depreciation, Depreciated Replacement Cost, Obsolescence, Accrued Depreciation, Property Valuation.
SPACING METHODS AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IMPACT ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF Jatropha Curcas PROPAGATED FROM SEED IN JOS
1LIKITA, M. S., 2POPOOLA, A. S., 3YAHAYA, U. F., 4OKECHALU, S. O., 5LAPKAT, L. G., 6BAKO, A., 7MAIKANO, S., AND 8T. O. ADEMOLA
1Basic Science Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 2Forestry Technology Department, Federal College Forestry, Jos Plateau State. 3Agricultural Extension, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 4, 5, 6Horticulture and Landscape Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 7Forestry Technology, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 8Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State.
Spacing methods and soil characteristic impact on the establishment of Jatropha curcas propagated from seeds in Jos were assessed and analyzed. A pitting hole of 30 x 30 x 30cm was dug (Gubilz et al. 1999). Two hundred and eighty seedlings were sample out and transplanted, the research was conducted in a 32 fraction randomized complete block design with three plots of P1, P2, P3, and T1, T2, T3. Soil samples were taken in 12 replicates from each of the segmented plot at 0-15cm depth with the aid of a soil auger. The soil fine fraction were taken for laboratory analyse the physical and chemical properties of the soil sample, sand silt, clay, pH organic carbon. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Potassium and Calcium. The parameters assessed include the following leaf count, stem diameter, plant height, crown length and crown width. Data collected were clarified using tables bar charts and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) while significant mean were separated with the duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) using SPSS 16.0. The result obtained from the research is as follows Table 4.1 show that the effect of plot on plant hight was revealed in plot 3 with 37.80. The mean value of the soil parameters on the experimental plots are P1 = 1.863, P2 = 1.332 and P3 = 1.560.
Keywords: Jatropha curcas, Spacing method, Soil, Biodiesel and Plantation.
TENANTS’ RENT DEFAULT DISPOSITION IN BAUCHI RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY MARKET AMID COVID 19 PANDEMIC
ILEKOIN OLUTOBA AYODELE 1 SAJE JOB KUMO1 ABAH SUNDAY OCHEPO2 DADI HARUNA2
1Estate Management Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, 2Survey and Geo- Informatics Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
To maximize property investment returns is often the main aim of the property investors, yet landlords are not able to receive the expected returns that made them to invest in the property they invested in as a result of some factors that are constantly preventing renters from paying rents as at when due. The outbreak of the novel Coronavirus in late December 2019, which has spread throughout the world is one of such possible factors that makes tenants to default in their rent paying obligations. This paper examined the impact of the outbreak of the coronavirus on tenant’s ability to pay for residential houses in Bauchi, Nigeria. Data on 493 tenants on their rent-paying ability from January 2019 to April 2019 was compared against the rent-paying ability of the same tenants from January 2020 to April 2020. Descriptive and inference statistics analysis was used to analyze the data that was obtained from 25 property agents with the aid of SPSS version 25, the study found that the outbreak of the coronavirus does not significantly have an impact on tenant rent-paying obligation, however; the study recommended that government should assist the few tenants that could not pay their rents as a result of the COVID 19 diseases pandemic. Likewise, the burden of the rent payments should be shared by both the landlord and the tenants .Government should not allowed tenants to be evicted by their landlords from their homes during the period of the pandemic.
Keywords: coronavirus, rent default, diseases, tenants, Bauchi.
DIGITAL SURVEY OF STAFF SCHOOL FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC DAMATURU YOBE STATE
BULAMA A. ABATCHA; DAUDA A. WAZIRI; & 3K. K. GEIDAM
Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria 3Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Yobe State.
The research focused on the topographical survey of the Staff School of Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, which involved carrying out a perimeter and topographical survey of the study area for the production of Digital Map of the area. The characteristic feature of a topographical survey is the determination of location in both plane and elevation of selected points which are important for plotting contour lines and the planimetric location of features on a Digital map. This research is a third 3rd order survey job and was carried out using a Sokkia SET 630R Total Station equipment and processed using a computer system with Surfer 12 as software to generate the contours, while the boundary line and details were plotted using AutoCAD 2009 software at scale 1:1,500 and contour interval of 0.2m.
Keywords: Topographiacal Survey, Total station, AutoCAD, Sokkia
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF RECESSION ON FIRM CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS IN KADUNA STATE
OLALEYE YETUNDE OLANIKE, NAZIF AMINA & MUSTAPHA KAZEEM AMINA
Department of Quantity Surveying, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic
Firm contracts place minimum administrative burden on the contracting parties, but subjects the contractor to the maximum risk arising from full responsibility for all cost escalations .This study assessed the effects of recession on firm contracts for construction projects in Kaduna metropolis; identifying and assessing the effects of recession on firm contracts for construction projects in Kaduna metropolis. A structured self-administered questionnaire was administered to 328 consultants in Kaduna state. 203 (56.7%) were completed returned and analyzed. SPSS 22 was used to analyze the data collected. The research established that; unemployment, budget shortage, cuts to quality of goods and services, and the decrease of private construction activities are the major effects of recession on firm contracts for construction projects. Research of this study also shows that, SWOT (Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats), innovation or technology, cost-cutting strategy, and entry in related business among others are key strategies for firms to survive in economic recession in construction projects. The study conclude that unemployment, budget shortage, cuts to quality of goods and services, and the decrease of private construction activities among others are the major effects of recession on firm contracts for construction projects. Finally, it also conclude that SWOT (Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats), innovation or technology, cost-cutting strategy, and entry in related business among others are key strategies for firms to survive in economic recession in construction projects. The study recommends that The government should introduce policies that will reduce unemployment in the recession period
Keywords: Assessment Recession, Firm, Construction Contracts, Kaduna State
CHALLENGES OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN MADANYA, MUBI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ADAMAWA STATE
GIDEON JAFIYA; JAMES JESSE SHINGU; & STEPHEN JOSEPH
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi
Housing is one of the basic need for man after food and water, and its beyond the reached of the people in the study area. It was discovered during the survey that high population growth rate, overcrowding, inadequate planning and development, high cost of land and construction materials are the major challenges to affordable housing. Others are poor implementation of good policies on housing, dilapidated structures, lack of drainage and sanitary system, housing conversion etc. the survey also revealed that houses in the area are in bad condition, they are rented houses and that 3-5 people lived in each room. Individual developers are the major stakeholders in housing delivery in the area and financing the project through personal savings. The research also found out that more people spend more than 30% of their monthly income to paying rent and other utilities, and finally recommendations were given to achieve desire goal.
Keywords: affordability, Challenges, Housing, condition, stakeholders.
WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ANALYSIS OF NASARAWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NASARAWA STATE.
1ALABI, J.O., 1SANNI, J.E., 1ASHIRU, M.A., 1YUSUF, M.J., 2ADEOYE, A.S.
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nigeria 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nigeria
This study was carried out to appraise the existing distribution network; and to analyse the present water distribution network using Epanet software which underscored the fundamental objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). EPANET software was employed to modelled the water distribution piping systems in Nasarawa town. It performed extended period simulation of the water movement and quality behaviour within pressurized pipe networks. The analysis carried showed that the design capacity of the distribution network is not adequately sufficient for the present population and the situation is compounded by inadequate supply of water from the production point to the system. Nasarawa Local Government Area has a population of 189,835 based on the census exercise in 2006 (NPC, 2006). Water consumption per meter length of pipe for each loop is dependent on the population per loop and the average daily consumption per day. This implied that consumption is affected by total length of pipes in a loop. Domestic water demand for the loop involved the water required for drinking, cooking, bathing, cleaning, gardening, and sanitary purposes. From the population distribution and water demand for each loop. Loop three (3) is the largest loop and has the maximum demand of 0.1. m3/s, while loop one (I) which is the smallest loop has the minimum demand of 0.008 m3/s. The total water demand is 0.718 m3/s which is equal to 62,035.20 m3/day as compared to 27,000 m3/day used for the design capacity for a population of 150,000 which is the population equivalent adopted for the construction of the facility. The distribution network required modification to cope with the present reality of water demand and by implication the future water demand of the inhabitants.
Keywords: Epanet, Water distribution, Population, Network, Nasarawa town
DETERMINATION OF THE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM THE ZUNGERU ARTISANAL GOLD MINES IN NIGER STATE, NORTHERN NIGERIA
1ABDULLAHI AHMED ALKALI, 2CRAIG WILLIAMS, 2LYNN BESENYEI AND 3JONATHAN YISA
1Department of Chemical Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nigeria; 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, England, The United Kingdom; and 3Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
The by-products of mining for gold are usually some other heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Silver (Ag), and a host of others which when ingested into human body causes ill health and even death depending on whether or not the exposure is acute or chronic. Emphasis in this work is placed on Pb because of its being one of the most toxic elements in nature which has caused the deaths of so many people particularly, the children. The concentrations of Pb in a particular (mining) environment determines how safe it is for human activities like the agricultural practices. Ten soil samples were collected at intervals of 20m from one sampling point to another at the Zungeru artisanal gold mines, and analyzed using X-Ray Refraction (XRF) and all were found to contain Pb and other heavy metals in varying concentrations. The percentage concentrations of Pb in all the soil samples analyzed were found to be greater than 0.001% which is higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) safe limit. This is an indication that ingestion of soils or from this mine field could result to Pb poisoning of the who works or get into contacts with these soils.
Key words: Lead (Pb), X-ray refraction, artisanal, acute and chronic
ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BIDA: A CASE STUDY OF PUBLIC TOILETS IN NEW MARKET BIDA, NIGER STATE.
DANGANA, ISMAIL, MOHAMMAD ABDUL-RAHMAN MUSLIM, SAIDU MUHAMMAD BABASABA AND AMINU MOHAMMED KANDI
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State
The paper aimed at assessing the users’ perception of the quality of toilet facilities in new market. The objectives are to assess the availability of water and hand washing materials in the toilets and observe the hygiene condition of the toilet surroundings in the study area. The study was adopted the sampling technique to sample 110 users. Analysis was conducted with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and the data are presented with the aid of frequency tables, charts and graphs. This study revealed that public toilet facilities have not been effective in the delivery system of sanitation services to the users in New market, Bida, Niger State. Although the privacy of users is guaranteed in the public toilets and lack of alternative are the main reasons for using these toilets. The users express the willingness, readiness and ability to pay an average of N30 to use improved toilets in the study area. Therefore, involvement of the private sector in the provision of toilet facilities and further in-depth study on the health impacts of using public toilets in the study area is recommended.
Keywords: Toilet facilities, Convenience, Hygiene, Sanitation and Privacy
AN EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) FOR INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT ENUGU STATE
FRANCIS, FRANCIS JOSEPH; ACHI, H. C; & NWOSU V. O
Department of Quantity Surveying, AkanuIbiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana
This study is an evaluation of effectiveness of public-private partnership (PPP) for infrastructural development in Enugu state. Due to obvious reality that government alone can no longer finance the provision of infrastructural facilities. However, to address the problem of infrastructure in Nigeria, government requires collaboration which, PPP is the most appropriate to serve as one stroke. In that regard, the problem becomes how effective the option is practiced, and to identify the factors that influences the adoption of PPP in the development of infrastructures in Enugu state in particular. Therefore, primary and secondary sources were used to generate data. Data collected were presented in tables containing frequencies of the responses and their corresponding percentages. Relative important index (RII) was used to rank factors influencing the adoption and application of PPP in Enugu state. The result of the analyses revealed that: PPP is not making progress in Enugu, and in the last five years there is no significant improvement in PPP practice in the state; the study also discovered that corruption, Economic Instability and Multiple Taxation are most significant factors affecting the adoption of PPP for infrastructural development in Enugu state. The study concludes that collaboration with government is the order of the day.
Keywords: Evaluation, Effectiveness, Public-Private Partnership, Infrastructural, Development, Enugu State.
SUITABILITY OF ALKALINE ACTIVATED METAKAOLIN AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE
ADEJOH BENJAMIN OCHOLA1, IBRAHIM SHUAIBU2, MUSTAPHA ABDULHAKEEM3
Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic
This study is aimed at investigating the compressive strength of concrete using metakaolin as a replacement for cement in concrete using three grades of concrete; grade 20, 25 and 30 respectively, the concrete cube cast was; control (0%) 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively. the cube was cast, cured and tested at 7days and 28days. The results of this study have shown a significant increase in compressive strength of concrete utilizing metakaolin than normal concrete, it could be recommended that metakaolin of 5%, 10% & 15% replacement can be used for the different grades of concrete, while 20% replacement of metakaolin can be used in road kerbs, concrete blocks, non-bearing concrete walls, Light Weight Concrete, precast units (partition walls, concrete blocks for Architectural applications and some cases of slabs on soil, culverts, sidewalks, drive ways), foundation pads for machinery, etc.
Keywords: Cementious material, Compressive strength, Metakaolin, Pozzolana, filler,
DESIGN, ANIMATION, COSTING AND INNOVATIONS OF SMART TOILET PRODUCTS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
HAMIDU SHITUFA; KABIRU ZAKARI; & OGWUCHE HENRY AUDU
Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The design, animation (using Google Sketch up, BIM and Luimion), costing and innovations in the provision of Smart Toilets can never be under estimated in Bauchi, of which most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria have not actually migrated to the next higher level in terms of hygiene as open defecation is still a norm. To overcome this challenge there is the need to shift from the use of local unimproved pit latrines to something innovative and have suitable latrine designs that would not only be cost-effective, environment-friendly and easy to construct but also would be acceptable to people especially less privileged arise the concept of low-cost but high-quality toilets called ‘SMART TOILETS’. As a result of this, the Federal, State and Local governments are presently trying to achieve safe hygiene practices for a collective responsibility, sustainable waste management and benefits to the society. Bauchi is one of the thirty-six political administrative states in Nigeria offering good opportunity for human settlement due to its peaceful atmosphere with less security challenges, attractive terrain and moderately open defecation free area which paved way for adequate market for toilet business to thrive, in order for the community to migrate from OD to ODF. The non availability of a well fitted squat pan and a trap with a good super and substructure as collection point coupled with lack of ceramic solution that combines squat pan and trap as a monolithic structure is still a mirage, despite the introduction of plastic SATO (Squat and Stool). Hence, the contribution of this work can never be over emphasized as the results and findings of relevant to professionals in design, animation and ceramics with other future possibilities will provide a lasting solution. It has been recommended that government and stakeholders should strictly enforce and implement the laws that will promote ‘Use The Toilet Campaign’ towards positive development in the state by providing more improved Smart toilets products for cost effective toilet structures.
Keywords: Development, hygiene, open defecation, squat pan, toilet
AN ASSESSMENT OF FLOODING RISK PERCEPTION ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES IN ILORIN KWARA STATE
*BLDR. OWOLABI KAYODE MICHAEL; **ESV. OLOWOLERU OLAITAN ADEDEJI; ***QS TAJUDEEN OLUFEMI SALAMI
*Building Techology Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Federal Polytechnic offa, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. **Estate Management and Valuation Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Federal Polytechnic offa, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. ***Quantity surveying Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Federal Polytechnic offa, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,
In recent time, Various scholar have identified location, accessibility, neighbourhood, property design and environmental characters as factors affecting property development and values. Flooding in most cases are natural occurrence that damages life and properties whenever it occurs. In Akerebiata, I having experienced consistent flooding over the years, this paper therefore examines the effect of flooding occurrences on residential property values in the neighbourhood. The study was carried out using survey approach. A total of 120 copies of the questionnaire were administered on the residents while 91 copies were retrieved (85.9%). Also, a total of 25 questionnaires were administered on Estate Surveyors and Valuers within Ilorin, harmony axis and 15 (14.1%) were retrieved. The data collected was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study found that almost 87.5% of the properties are owner occupied; prominent causes of flood are drainage problems. The study further found that there is disparity in rental values of properties in flooded and non-flooded areas. The paired sample t-test conducted showed that there is statistically significant relationship between four pairs of the properties. The study therefore recommends that construction of drainage channels should be made wide enough to drain a large quantity of water
Keywords: Flooding, Neighbourhood, Values, Residential Property
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING FACILITIES, USAGE, AND CONTRIBUTION TO PEDESTRIAN SAFETY IN DAMATURU METROPOLIS
MOHAMMED YA’U1; NURA HASSAN1; & ABUBAKAR HALIDU2
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa
Every road user is a pedestrian at a point, the safety of the pedestrians is paramount, being the most vulnerable road users. An investigation into pedestrian crossing facilities, usage, and contributions to pedestrian safety have been conducted. The investigation is aimed at ascertaining pedestrians’ safety and vulnerability in Damaturu metropolis on crossing road sections. The methodology involved was a mixture of field studies and surveys. The outcome of the pedestrian survey revealed that 800 pedestrians per hour cross streets using undesignated crossing points as against 20 per hour that use designated crossing facilities. The outcome of the administered questionnaires revealed that 70% of the pedestrians know pedestrian crossing facility. Likewise, 70% of the pedestrians do not use the designated crossing points. However, only 10% can identify four (4) and above pedestrian crossing signs. It was also revealed that motorists do not slow down on sighting pedestrians on-road section, thereby 97% of pedestrians indicated to have been slightly or severely hit by other road users in the last five (5) years. 80% of the pedestrians indicated that, the right of way of the pedestrians is unknown to other road users, as 60% of the pedestrians normally observed the pedestrian safety road crossing tips before crossing. It is therefore recommended that road safety awareness program on road usage and pedestrians’ right to the motorist and tricycles riders being the major source of public transport in the metropolis should be organized.
Keywords: Pedestrians, Safety, and Crossing facility.
THE IMPACT OF CHANGE IN POPULATION ON THE PROPERTY MARKETS
ADEBAYO, OYEKANMI OLUWOLE & SHITTU, WASIU OYEWALE
Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria.
Population changes (increase or decrease) over the years has played immerse role in the demand for property and real estate market across the globe. As the population of an area increases, the demand for accommodation also increases and vice-versa. It is the aim of the study to examine the impacts of population changes on property market in Birnin Kebbi. The objectives focuses on the examination of population change on property market between 2009 and 2018; type of property market demand in the study area; and the impact of population changes on property market in Birnin Kebbi. Data were sourced from the practicing Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Estate Agents, National Population Commission (NPC) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Purposive and random samplings were employed for the study. Findings revealed that from 2009 – 2018, the population of Birnin Kebbi has been on the increase; and the most patronized/ demanded property type is residential property market with the mean score of 4.37 while the property with the least demand is specialised property with mean score of 1.96. In addition, the impact of population change (increase) on property market in Birnin Kebbi township revealed increase in property demand, attractiveness in property development and encouragement of competition. The study recommendations include: Kebbi state government should create more conducive environment for investor(s) who are willing to invest in real estate especially residential and commercial properties.
Keyword: Change, Impact, Population, Property, Market
EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF NOISE POLLUTION IN NIGERIAN CITIES; A CASE STUDY OF BIDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT, NIGERIA
FUNKE JIYAH1 AND JOSHUA JIYAH2
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida, 2Department of Architecture, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nigeria
The findings from various research efforts have linked the incidence of different health issues to excessive noise pollution in all works of life. This study provides empirical analysis of the effects of noise pollution on the well-being of the residents of Bida Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. The study adopted a case study research design, involving cross-sectional procedure. Field observations, informal interviews, questionnaire administration and medical reports were obtained to support the respondents’ perception on the state of their well-being. The sample size for the study was selected using the housing stock in 14 wards. One major street in each ward was selected. A total of 1,833 buildings were counted along the 14 sampled streets and 10% of this was selected for the administration of structured questionnaire. The interviewed respondents were grouped into two sets: those that had health challenges as a result of the activities they were engaged in and; household heads that were affected by the prevailing activities around their residence. The environmental quality of the wards was determined by measuring the noise level using Testo 815 noise meters. The result revealed that Bariki ward which houses the GRA had the lowest noise level of 37.8 dB(A)while the noise pollution levels recorded in the other thirteen wards were all above the recommended levels. The average ambient noise level in sawmills, commercial centres, worship centres, road junctions and industrial areas were above 90 dB(A). The temporal record from the Federal Medical Centre, Bida revealed that, apart from malaria, hypertension (5,614 outpatients) was the most prevalent health issue in 2013 alone, although, other factors apart from noise could also trigger hypertension. The paper emphasised the need for compatibility consideration in the choice of residential location, the use of ear muffler for industrial workers and effective enforcement of zoning regulations.
Keywords: Noise, Environmental quality, Bida, Well-being, Decibels
AN APPRAISAL OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS’ FACILITIES IN IKEJA, LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA
LASISI, KAMIL OLURANTI; AND ADETUNJI, JELILAT
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Polytechnic, Ibadan.
It has been observed over the years that the rapid rate of decline in the educational sector has to be urgently looked into as there have been scenarios of overcrowding in classrooms owing to its inadequacy, limited classrooms, dilapidated structures, inadequate teaching staff and teaching tools, lack or total decay of basic amenities, hence the production of ill-equipped and half-baked products among the host of other associated anomalies. The aim of the study is to appraise the provision, availability and adequacy of educational facilities within Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State with a view to make proactive measures that would assist the educational sector in the study area. The study identifies the factors militating against the growth of educational facilities in the study area. The cross-sectional survey type of design was used. The primary sources of data involved questionnaire, personal interview and direct observation. The 22 respondents that represent the target population for the study were selected with a predetermined technique where questionnaires were administered to the 22 school management of the public schools. It was observed that most schools, both Junior and Senior Secondary schools that are located within the same confines, have shared facilities, such facilities include the playing ground, canteen, library, computer lab while science laboratories such as biology lab, physics lab and chemistry lab are solely being used by the senior secondary schools. Some of the identified problems include deterioration of some existing structures/facilities and unavailability of adequate waste disposal facilities. The study recommends proper use and maintenance of facilities, provision of capital and teaching aids while governments should enact law that will guide and protect the proposed and existing educational facilities.
Keywords: Educational facilities, provision, availability, adequacy and functionality
ASSESSMENT OF ICT AND E-LEARNING FOR SCHOOLS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
DAUDA ALI MADU; KABIRU ZAKARI; OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED
Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The Federal Government of Nigeria through its agency, the Federal Ministry of Education has incorporated Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Electronic Learning (E-Learning) as a subject of study at all levels of education system especially in the era of Covid-19 pandemic. Looking at the ICT infrastructures for effective teaching and learning of this subject/discipline in the various schools of Environmental in Bauchi metropolis, it seems not to be adequate for the teeming students. This study therefore assesses the availability of ICT infrastructure for effective teaching and learning in the various schools of Environmental in Bauchi State, Nigeria. It adopted survey research design. The population of the study comprised 44 ICT/Computer related lecturers and all students of Environmental (N=5,300) in Bauchi State. Proportionate stratified simple random sampling technique was used to draw sample of students into the study, while all the ICT/Computer education lecturers were used since it has a small population. Researchers self-developed structured questionnaire, known as questionnaire for availability of ICT infrastructure was used as an instrument for data collection, and it was validated by experts in the field of Environmental Science, while the reliability of the instrument yielded 0.79 using Crobanch alpha test of reliability to measure internal consistency of the items in the questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviations with the aid of SPSS. The results revealed majority of ICT/E-Learning lecturers that teach the subject are not majored in computer related discipline and sourced from other discipline; ICT facilities are not available in the School of Environmental, thereby making the teaching and learning of ICT/E-learning difficult and that there are enough ICT/Computer studies/Education textbooks in the schools’ library, which assist students to study ICT/Computer studies/Education subject on their own. Recommendations such as state government should invest heavily on Schools of Environmental in terms of ICT infrastructure procurement; conducive learning environment and philanthropists in the community should also contribute their own quota to the development of the schools in terms of provision of these electronic gadgets with qualified lecturers in ICT/Computer education field should be employed by the government.
Keywords: Availability, Computer Education, ICT, Infrastructure
EVALUATION OF FLEXIBILITY IN BUILDING DESIGN ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY VALUE IN ILUPEJU, ODI-OLOWO LCDA LAGOS STATE
OREKAN, ATINUKE ADEBIMPE AND ADERIBIGBE JAMIU ADEBAYO
Department of Estate Management, College of Environmental Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Commercial properties are built as investment assets to generate income for their owners through rental earning and capital appreciation. The spaces within the property are the major precursor to achieving this expected income. New trends are changing the use of space and facility for the promotion of efficiency, open living, cost savings and urban sustainability. This research seeks to evaluate the effect of flexibility in building design on commercial property value, with respect to cost effect, vacancy rate, and the maximization of investmentreturns.Having discover the existence of over 160 commercial interests in the study area, about 70 major stakeholders in the perception of property design and value were surveyed throughquestionnaires. Technical views was sourced from Estate Surveyors and then corroborated with those from few other built environment professionals to properly situate the frequency and cost of design, construction and operationof flexibility features in commercial properties. Property users were also asked for details and their perception of space flexibility in the buildings they occupy, its impact on the rental/property value, and their overall satisfaction index.The properties surveyed were chosen based on inherent commercial features, in a location with the same spatial/infrastructural development and similar building design, using stratified sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were employed to analyze questionnaire responses received. The study reveals a creative and useful link between space design and the value it generates over time thus establishing the need to make commercial properties flexible. 96% of professional respondents submit that changes to building use are demand based and 80% of all respondents said that commercial properties can be made flexible through designs which then improves the overall satisfaction. Although the cost of making buildings flexible was perceived as expensive, 96% of professionals and 53% of commercial property users’ responses corresponds that the cost is recoverable.This study has brought to focus a sustainable design concept that helps property investors and managers make property developments more veritable to serve stakeholders objectives decades into the future.
Keywords: Property Value, Building Design, Flexibility, Vacancy Rate, Returns