CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES (CJHSS) VOL. 18 (6)
MARCH, 2020 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2020 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
CHILDREN IN THE FACE OF IRREGULAR MIGRATION
*PROF. KANU, IKECHUKWU ANTHONY **OMOJOLA IMMACULATA OLU, PhD & ***MIKE BONI BAZZA, PhD
*Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State **Department of Business Administration and Management, Villanova Polytechnic, Imesi Ile, Osun State ***Department of History and International Relations, Veritas University Abuja (The Catholic University of Nigeria).
The involvement of children in migration remains a major issue in the migration discourse. It is very vital for Governments and civil society organizations to pay attention to migrant children who are forced to isolate themselves from home and family ties because of situations. This can be done by providing security and economic strength, education, and health initiatives, building a robust, responsive, and child protection system security and economic strength that offers a powerful tool in preventing dangerous migration. The paper discusses children and migration in relation to education, health and welfare. It was established that insecurity and natural disaster may be some of the factors responsible for migration of children. They are therefore exposed to psychological trauma of separation from their homes. Also, they suffer mental and physical injuries that result from malnutrition, lack of medical attention, sexual and physical abuse, forced labour, and they eventually drop out of schools. It was then suggested that proper system that responds to children affairs and prevent them from dangerous migration should be set up by the government.
Keywords: Migration, Children, Education, Health and Welfare, Government, Civil Society Organizations.
OPERATIONALIZING THE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM INDUSTRY
OLLOR, HELEN Y. AND UTETHE, ELIZABETH O.
University of Port Harcourt, Faculty of Management Sciences, Dept. of Hospitality Management and Tourism
The Hospitality and Tourism Industry is a fast growing, multi-faceted industry that evolved so much over the years. As the tastes, preferences and demand change, so do the methods and activities in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. This growth and changes in Hospitality and Tourism Industry called for an effective Financial Planning and overall management in the Industry; to effectively achieve organizational goals, make profits and compete profitably in the international market. This study examines the varying practices of Financial Management as it relates to the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
Keywords: Operationalizing, Financial, Management, Practices, Hospitality.
LEXICO-SEMANTIC DEVICES AND CONTEXTUAL MEANING IN KOFI AWOONOR’S THIS EARTH, MY BROTHER… AND COMES THE VOYAGER AT LAST
PRISCILLA QUEEN KPAREVZUA
Department of English, University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
Literal and implied meanings are inherent in literary texts and studies abound that have examined how intended meanings are construed and understood in various texts adopting various semantic and pragmatic principles. Kofi Awoonor is an African writer from Ghana that is widely known, especially for his poetic prowess; his poems “The Weaver Bird” is widely referred to in commenting on the effects of European domination of Africa. This prolific poet has some prose narratives to his credit that have scarcely received robust scholarly engagements as does his poems. This study thus, investigates Kofi Awoonor’s two literary texts: This Earth My Brother… and Comes the Voyager at Last, to determine the lexico-semantic choices deployed in the texts and how such features enhance meaning in the texts. This is to enhance the comprehension of intended meanings in the texts as scholars have described the texts as not easily accessible as it is written in poetic renditions. The study adopts the pragmatic principle from Jacob Mey’s perspective as a theoretical framework to account for contextual meaning(s), and complements that with M.A.K Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), to explain lexico-semantic realization of construed and/or intended text meaning(s). The study finds that lexical items are deployed in texts to point to meaning(s), argument(s), motives and goals of the researched texts. The lexical items lead to the understanding of the major theme(s) of texts. Some of the lexical features that occurred luxuriantly relate to concepts such as decay, corruption, death, slavery, native/home land, oppression, and freedom. The study finds that lexico-semantic devices and context contribute greatly in enhancing the understanding of the study texts.
Keywords: Lexical semantics, Implicit/Explicit meanings,
LIBYAN CRISIS AND THE ESCALATION OF CONFLICT AND INSECURITY IN AFRICA
*JIBRIN UBALE YAHAYA, Ph.D **MUSA MOHAMMED BELLO (Ph.D INVIEW)
*Department of Political Science, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) **Institute for Governance and Development Studies, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
On February 15, 2011, anti-government rallies were held in Benghazi by protesters angered by the arrest of a human rights lawyer, Fethi Tarbel. The protesters called for Qaddafi to step down and for the release of political prisoners. Libyan security forces used water cannons and rubber bullets against the crowds, resulting in a number of injuries. To counter the demonstrations further, a pro-government rally orchestrated by the Libyan authorities was broadcast on state television. As the protests intensified, with demonstrators taking control of Benghazi and unrest spreading to Tripoli, the Libyan government began using lethal force against demonstrators. Security forces and squads of mercenaries fired live ammunition into crowds of demonstrators. Demonstrators also were attacked with tanks and artillery and from the air with warplanes and helicopter gunships. The regime restricted communications, blocking the Internet and interrupting telephone service throughout the country. On February 21st -2011 one of Qaddafi’s sons, Sayf Al-Islam, gave a defiant address on state television, blaming outside agitators for the unrest and saying that further demonstrations could lead to civil war in the country. He vowed that the regime would fight “to the last bullet.” The paper was of the view that the conflict in Libya was as result of government’s sudden escalation of violence against protesters and other civilians drew international condemnation from foreign leaders and human rights organizations. The conflict in Libya has damage the coherence of the regime, causing a number of high-level officials—including the minister of justice and a number of senior Libyan diplomats, including the Libyan ambassador to the United Nations—to resign in protest or issue statements condemning the regime. A number of Libyan embassies around the world began to fly Libya’s pre-Qaddafi flag, signaling support for the uprising. Support for Qaddafi also seemed to waver in some segments of the military; as the Libyan air force carried out attacks against demonstrators; two Libyan fighter pilots flew their jets to Malta, choosing to defect rather than obey orders to bomb Benghazi. The researcher was of the opinion that democracy, justice and good governance must sustain the decorum for African development, unity and progress.
Keywords: Libyan Crisis, Protest, Demonstration and Violation of Human Rights.
PLAY AND COMPOSITION SKILLS AMONG PRESCHOOLERS IN PUBLIC PRESCHOOLS IN RIVERS EAST SENATORIAL DISTRICT.
*DR. ANN IBIBA CHINTUO (PhD) **DR. JANET ENEBI AMADI (PhD) AND ***APRIL OBEHIOYE ODIGIE
*Faculty of Education, National Open University of Nigeria, Port- Harcourt Study Centre, Rivers State. **Rivers State Senior Secondary Schools Board, Port- Harcourt, Rivers State ***Department of Early Childhood and Primary Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port- Harcourt, Rivers State.
Composition skills are some of the factors that influence the image of a nation, either directly or indirectly. This paper therefore, seeks to determine the relationship between play and composition skills in public care centres in Rivers East Senatorial District. One research question and one corresponding hypothesis guided this study. The design of the study is correlational research design. The population of the study comprised of all the 3,489 Nursery three pupils in Rivers East Senatorial District. The sample of the study comprised 350 Nursery three children drawn from the population of the study, using simple random sampling method. The instrument used for the study was the “Play and Preschoolers” Composition Skills Development Checklist” (PPCSDC). It was face validated by three experts. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient (PPMC) was used to compute the reliability of the instrument, which had a reliability index of, was 0.62.
Keywords: play, skills, composition, preschoolers.
MAXIMISING THE UTILISATION OF THE MILITARY FOR EFFICIENT SECURITY DELIVERY IN THE MIDST OF COMPLEXITIES AS AN AGENT FOR TRANSFORMATION.
OGUNDIMINIYI MICHAEL T.
Department of Sociology, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.
This paper attempts on various ways by which the military of some developed countries respond to situations at different times of their needs; especially as it relates to the security of their domain to foster development. The result of which have in no small measure brought succour, relative peace, and hope of existence. Hence, fostering harmony, unity and smooth running of their various governments. The sociological approach is adopted in view of the traditional focal point generated by this paper, to portray the military as it should be in an ideal situation. Identifying the major roles and the herculean task of the military in the developing countries of which Nigeria is a major point of reference, effort was geared towards; among others the stemming of crises posed by religion, ethnicity, the ones generated by the activities of insurgents, separatists, insurrectionists, just to mention but few. How it has translated substantially to the present level of the overall development of our endeared nation – Nigeria. With due regards to the tasks before the military, it was recommended among others that the military should be efficiently funded, and should make its presence known more in the suburbs, villages and sparsely habited forest areas as this areas are used as breeding grounds for criminals who are later sent to the populace to wreck havoc. In conclusion, the paper envisages that the solution this paper will proffer, will serve as a transformation agenda, to enhance a reduction in the state of insurgency in Nigeria and the world at large.
Keywords: Agent, Military, Security, Transformation, and Insurgency.
NIGERIAN DEMOCRACY AND THE USE OF POLITICAL LANGUAGE
OYEWALE SULAYMAN RAMAT
Department of French, Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Noforija-Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria
The 2015 and 2019 general elections have come and gone. Those elections nearly broke up Nigeria as a political entity. Reason: the appalling atmosphere of rancour, abuses, curses and ill-feelings that had characterised the electioneering campaigns .What was noteworthy was the use of language, especially during political campaigns, by politicians to rally round sympathizers and supporters. More than often, the political language left much to be desired: indecent, abusive words and expressions were the order of the day so much so that waves of tension, hatred and envy heated up the socio-political ambiance with pre, on and post election violence, and destruction of lives and properties. Since then, language decorum has been thrown overboard as it has now given room for all sorts of language misguidance and rascal expressions from all and sundry. Today, the orthodox and social media have become the hubs of the tagged ‘hate speech’ with its protagonists and antagonists holding sway. As the next elections are scheduled for 2023, there arises the urgent need and deed to re-orientate the minds of the political leadership and followership, to subject them to language decorum, values and culture, processes and usages , in relation to politics, for a more acceptable attitude, vision and performance in the practice of democracy. This paper sets out to mobilise and sensitise political umpires, commentators, analysts and observers to the ideals of continental language in politics and press for its implementation in order to safeguard our evolving democratic process from imminent dangers and calamities.
Key words: Politics, Government, Democracy, Language
FOOD INSECURTY AND ITS EFFECTS ON NATIONAL SECURITY.
INUWA ALIYU BOBO
Department of History A.D. Rufa`I College for Legal And Islamic Studies Misau, Bauchi State.
Agriculture has remained an important aspect of any economy. Viable agricultural programmers and activities in any polity are capable of sustaining the food supply and reserves needed for the. Welfare of the citizens. But in Nigeria, Agriculture is despised as able bodied young people do not have interest in Agriculture. Climate change and clashes between herdsmen and farmers and the activities of Boko Haram sect have added to food insecurity challenges in the polity as. Population displacement, death, and non-cultivation of farmlands and the burning down of farm produce have reduced the quality and quantity of food demand. Although the Federal Government had assured Nigerians that the fear over imminent food crisis was unfounded, many Nigerians, especially concerned stakeholders, are not persuaded that the means and ways being. Devised by government at all levels. Can possibly address the challenge. This paper addresses the causes and consequences of these challenges and concludes by positing that without addressing these challenges, food insecurity will persist in Nigeria for a long time.
Keywords: Food, Insecurity, National, Security, Effects.
HUMAN SECURITY QUESTIONS AND THE IMPACTS OF BOKO-HARAM INSURGENCY IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA
MUKTAR USMAN LIMAN AND JABIR MUHAMMAD
Department of Social Sciences, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria
Boko Haram insurgency in North Eastern Nigeria has created a human security concern which manifested in the crisis of refugees or internally displaced persons that constitutes one of the world’s most worrisome humanitarian crises. A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war, or violence. A refuge has a well founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes refugees fleeing their countries–may trigger conflicts With the Boko Haram insurgency attacks, the number of internally displaced persons in the northern part of the country rose tremendously. In addressing this crisis in the country, efforts of the government have not been pleasing and encouraging. This paper is therefore set to interrogate the extent to which the internally displaced persons affect human security in northern Nigeria. Forced migration and social inclusion theories were the theoretical frameworks adopted for the study while it relies on primary and secondary sources of data for analysis. Findings of the study reveals that measures of the government in addressing the crisis of internally displaced persons in the country is on ad-hoc basis with no solid and durable solution in view. In addition, the crisis of internally displaced persons hinders immensely the developmental process of the region. This work advocates for the inclusion of the internally displaced persons’ affairs at the local government level thereby establishing offices for the representatives of those displaced persons. The increments of funds to enhance and protect human security amongst the citizens are alternative measures in addressing the crisis of internally displaced persons in the country thereby enhancing human security in the region.
Keywords: Human Security, Boko-Haram, Insurgency, North East.
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND ARABIC PHONOLOGY
*DAHIRU MUSA ABDULLAHI AND **MUFUTAU KAZEEM ISHOLA
*School of General Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi **Department of English Language, Directorate of Basic and Remedia Studies, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi.
Phonology is a wide area of study in any language, especially English &Arabic Language; it therefore needs books to cover every single part of these languages. This review paper aims at providing foreign learners of English and Arabic with concise awareness of these two languages in area of phonology, to ease their learning of English and Arabics as foreign or second language. This review paper provides learners with the main differences and rules of English and Arabic language alphabets that the researcher gathered during her teaching of both language to Hausa and Yoruba speakers. The information in this paper is presented in a comparative systematic order to be beneficial for researchers to add in the same area (Phonology) and to do further studies in the fields of: 1- Morphology. 2- Syntax .3- Super segmental.
Keywords: Phonology, supra- segmental, germination, cluster, phonotactics
CATHOLIC YOUTHS AND CONSECRATED LIFE
*OMOJOLA IMMACULATA OLU, (SSMA), Ph.D & **KANU, Ikechukwu ANTHONY, OSA
*Department of Business Administration and Management, Villanova Polytechnic, Imesi Ile, Osun State **Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State
This paper discusses youths and consecrated life. The ideal and rudiments of religious life is being represented in the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience. By these three evangelical counsels, one offers all he has to God; his exterior goods by poverty, his body by chastity, and his soul by obedience. These vows are to be lived in the community with other member that shares the charism and spirituality of the same congregation. The particular concern is how today’s youths are responding to this type of life in this age. The fact that society is gradually influencing consecrated life through the recruitment of children of this time may make it loose its meaning. It is then suggested that reviewing and reexamining the relevance of consecrated life in this generation may be urgent instead of professing what is no achievable.
Keywords: Youths, Consecrated life, Chastity, Poverty, Obedience, Community life.
TOWARDS HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS (HEIs) IN NIGERIA FOR RESEARCH, INNOVATIONS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
UMAR MUAZU TADAMA1, YAYIRUS GARBA ULEA2, USMAN UMAR SHALL3, SULEIMAN SANI4
1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, 2&4Department of Computer Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. Adamawa State-Nigeria. 3Department of Islamic Studies, Adamawa State College of Education, Hong
Honestly speaking, education is the driving force for growth of every nation and economy. An economic growth is driven by the productivity of a nation’s workforce, whereas productivity of any workforce is based on its education. As a result, all nations give superiority to the education of their citizens, making sure that as many citizens as possible have access to education. Undoubtedly, the impact of education on society becomes better as the number of people with access to HEIs increases. Hence this paper shows that HEIs is a level of education where citizens are finally prepared to contribute their quotas to socio-economic development, and also deduce that the impact of HEIs is identified to be affected by certain factors, amidst which research and innovations stands tall. The ability of graduates of HEIs to contribute credible quotas to socio-economic development practically depends on how well they are taught in their respective HEIs. Resource persons therefore have a vital role to play in ensuring effectiveness in HEIs in Nigeria. In every HEIs therefore, the quality of education is contingent on the performance of academic staff, to maximize performance every HEIs are expected to set the highest educational qualification and experiences as the basis for effective teaching and learning in its environment. On the job training and exposure to research work are other basic measures instituted by HEIs to maximize the performance of resource persons.
Keywords: Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges, HEIs, R&D, Innovations, Workforce, Employment, Socio-Economic, Development.
THE NEED FOR FURTHER AMENDMENT TO THE 1999 CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA IN ORDERTO REINVIGORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP SPIRIT IN THE CITIZENS.
USMAN BAPPAH, DARAZO
General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.
It is said that entrepreneurship is about utilization of idle time but such opportunity is not available to the teeming population of Nigerian public officers. The fifth schedule of the 1999 constitution makes provision that deprives public officers the right to utilize such idle time except on farming. The said provision has to a great extent hampered the growth of entrepreneurship spirit in civil servants with experiences and zeal to make good use of their idle time. The wisdom that prompted the legislature to insert the said provision in the Constitution might be germane and convincing but whatever is the reason, it is quite important to revisit the provision in the light of the present Government’s desire to encourage entrepreneurship development. Consequently, this work suggest an amendment to aforementioned 5th schedule to the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria (as amended) and other legislations that limit the sprit and growth of entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Amendment, constitution, entrepreneurship, public officer.
LIABILITY OF THE PRINCIPAL TO THIRD PARTY IN AGENCY PARTNERSHIP
MUHAMMAD SANI EQS,
Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Business Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
The Principal is generally responsible to third parties for any decision, act or omission of his agent, which was performed or taken while executing the terms of his agency. Such decision, act or omission may constitute contractual, tortuous or criminal delinquency.
Keywords: Liability, Principal, Third Party, Agency, Partnership.
EXTERNAL FINANCING AND INDUSTRIALIZATION IN NIGERIA (1985 – 2016)
*OKORONKWO CHINONYEREM FAITH **AJAH NNENNA FRANCA & ***UGODIEGWU EKENE JOHN
*National Productivity Centre, Rivers State Office. **Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI), National Productivity Centre, Imo State Office ***Consultancy and Business Development (CBD), National Productivity Centre
Prior to the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programme in 1986, the major reason given for non-participation of foreign investors in industrialization was weak institutions in the economy. Years after, Nigeria is still saddled with low level of industrial sector performance especially given low capacity utilization and declining industrial output. This study investigates the effect of external financing on industrialization in Nigeria covering the period of 1985-2016. The study is hinged on the Dual Gap Model (1966) and adopted the Johansen Co-integration test, Error Correction Model under the VAR framework for data analysis. Data was obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and World Development Indicators on External Loans, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Portfolio Investment, Remittance, Official Development Assistance and Exchange Rate. Findings reveal a negative relationship between external financing and industrialization in Nigeria given that external loans, foreign portfolio investment, remittance, official development assistance are negative while foreign direct investment exerts a positive impact on industrial output. The study therefore recommends that Nigeria government should properly align foreign funds inflows to suit the industrial sector, as the current external financing has not recorded significant gains. In addition, the government should also advocate for more of the official development assistance to industrial sector given the small proportion allocated to the sector within the study period.
Key words: External Financing; Industrialization; Foreign Direct Investment; Foreign Portfolio Investment; External Loans; Remittances
CORRUPTION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE WAY FORWARD
*TIJANI SULEMAN OLATUNJI **ALHASSAN AISHA *DAMISAH MARYANNE O.
*Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi **Department of Public Administration, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi
The problem of corruption considered as one of the most emerging issues, which posed serious challenges to national development in Nigeria. Corruption is so endemic in Nigeria in such a way that the entire fabric of the society is affected. The myriads of issues associated with corruption on which has permeated both public and private sectors have almost run Nigeria socially and economically grounded that between 1960 – 2015 corruption cost Nigeria over $30 billion in financial loss. Many private sector individuals and organizations act in connivance with public servants to steal or divert public funds in billion of Naira. In the public sector, public funds and property are routinely cornered by well- placed officers who wind up owning stupendous wealth while the majority Nigerian masses suffer from massive poverty, lack of infrastructure and absence of other social services. This paper tries to look at corruption and national development: the way forward in Nigeria. It is recommended among others that there should be payment to civil servants and public officers a living wage that can take care of their needs. Employment in both public and private sectors should be based on merit so as to engage credible and competent manpower to man our organizations. This would enable them to work with the extent regulations in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Federal government should consolidates and entrench the principles of rules of law (i.e. equality before law impartiality, and supremacy of law) and constitutionalism in order to deal with all corrupt officers in both public and private service without any fear or favour. Educational stakeholders should include the menace of corruption and its impact to the Nigerian society in the curriculum so as to teach our students ranging from basic education to tertiary institutions.
Keywords: Corruption, National Development, Economic, Society
AN ASSESMENT OF THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING IN POLYTECHNICS: EMPIRICAL STUDY OF NORTHEAST NIGERIA.
BASHARI HADIZA1, & MOHAMMED RABIU MOHAMMED2
The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
Human Resource forecasting is the process of estimating the future human resource requirement in the right quality and right number. The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of Human resource forecasting in polytechnics of northeast Nigeria. The study was quantitative and explanatory in nature, where a cross-sectional survey of 257 Staff of 10 polytechnics in northeast Nigeria was carried out using simple random sampling and structured questionnaire were distributed personally and with the aid of field assistants to the randomly selected Staff. However, the data collected was analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the research instrument was assessed and based on the results obtained, all the constructs met the Cronbach’sAlpha requirement of above 0.7 coefficients and the validity was tested using content and construct/face validities. The validity of the instrument was also measured through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The outcome of EFA revealed that the variables have satisfactory Kaiser Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity. Simple regression analyses of the variables (Replacement need, Understaffing, Overstaffing, and productivity of employees) show a positive and significant relationship with Human Resource Forecasting. But, the multiple regression analysis results show that the level of implementation of Human resource forecasting in the polytechnics of northeast Nigeria is negative but significant. It was recommended that the polytechnics should embrace human resources forecasting through the use of computer based systems as a trend in human resource management as it will not only enhance the capability of employees but also ensure effective and efficient organizational expansions, also Human resource forecasting should be matched with the organizations’ strategic planning to enable for enhanced its implementation.
Keywords: Human resource, Forecasting, Overstaffing, understaffing, productivity, Personnel.
ASSESSING THE PARADOX OF PUBLIC POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ON POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAMMES IN ADAMAWA STATE
*AHMED HAMIDU MAIHA & **ISMAILA ABUBAKAR
*Department of Public Administration, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola **Department of Business Administration and Management, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola
Public policy is the process of articulating, formulating and implementing government developmental initiatives or programs for the benefits of its citizens. It is assemble try government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations, decisions or pertinent to the problem at hand with a view to enhancing standard of living of the people. This study therefore, focused on assessing the implementation of the Anchor Borrowers Programme (ABP) as o policy thrust of government with a particular reference to Adamawa state in northeastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design in assessing the success or otherwise of the policy in addressing eradicating in our society. Data was collected from 400 farmers in six local government arears cutting accross the three senatorial zones in the state. The study found that about 85% of the farmers interviewed have benefited from the ABP. This means implementation of the programme has been effective especially in terms of coverage. However, majority of the beneficiaries are men and can only cultivate between half to one hectre and mostly during rainy season. Government should therefore re-strategize the implementation process of the programme in order to increase access to women especially in the rural areas. This would boost rice production as majority of the rice farmers are women but could not afford to cultivate large farmland. Government should also encourage dry season farming by given incentives to those embarking on it. Majority of the farmers prefer wet season farming despite its high risk because it does not require huge amount of money.
Keywords: Public policy, Anchor borrowers programme, Policy implementation
EXTERNAL AUDITORS AND FRAUD EXAMINER: A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE DIFFERENCES IN SKILLS SETS AND TASK OBJECTIVE
GAD BHILIPNANDI EMMANUEL
Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
As of late, many organizations have seen a fall in stock costs as a result of control of organizations’ records, which prompted loss of self-assurance by investors and others; as contained in the financial statements. The controls concern governments, which battle misrepresentation through issuing statutory guidelines in order to reduce fraudulent practice. This paper critically examines and evaluate the meaning of auditing, the need and the requirement for audit. Furthermore, this article features the role of firms to help auditing work and vital obligations regarding auditors. In the same vein, the paper examines the issue of fraud, its attributes, the type of frauds and the factors that contribute to fraudulent practice. Finally, this paper incorporates a clarification of how to look at misrepresentation and the approaches to identifying fraud, and in addition the most vital examinations amongst fraud examiners and external auditor in fraud detection.
Keywords: Auditor, fraud examiner, skills sets, task objectives.