CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (CJETR) VOL. 18 (5)
MARCH, 2020 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2020 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT TREATED (A356) ALUMINIUM ALLOY REINFORCED WITH LOCUST BEAN POD ASH METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES USING ONE FACTOR RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY
MOHAMMED A. BAWA1, JACOB S. JATAU1, ABDUL MALIK ABDULWAHAB2, SALAKO ISMAILA3
1Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria 2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi, Nigeria
Materials are selected for structural applications due to their possession of desirable combinations of mechanical characteristics. Development of metal matrix composite has become an important area of research interest in material science. In view of this, the present research focuses on the use of One Factor Response Surface Design Methodology in evaluating the mechanical properties of A356 (Al-7%Si-0.3%Mg) / Locust Bean Pod Ash composites. The Locust Bean Pod Ash which contains hard chemical compounds such as Al2O3, , Fe2O3, and Na2O was used as reinforcement ranging from 0% to 25% volume fraction in the production of the Metal Matrix Composite using sand casting technique. The samples were machined and subjected to solution heat treatment. Ultimate Tensile Strength, Toughness, Percentage Elongation and Tensile Young Modulus properties of the samples were investigated. Microstructural analyses of the samples produced were done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) carried out showed that the effect of the reinforcement was significant. The Optimal condition determined was 15.20% of the reinforcement. Under this condition, 165.94 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength, 39.39 J Toughness, 8.48 % Elongation and 1.71 GPa Tensile Young Modulus of the alloy / composite samples were obtained. The Ultimate Tensile Strength and Tensile Young Modulus improved by 21.66% and 26.51% respectively while the Toughness and Percentage Elongation reduced by 52.37% and 41.44% respectively as compared to the matrix alloy. The microstructure obtained reveals a dark ceramic (reinforcement) and white metallic phases. The microstructure of the optimal result sample showed a structure with more grain boundaries than that of the alloy. Hence, it has better strength than the alloy. The research has established that Locust Bean Pod Ash could be used to enhance the properties of A356 alloy for engineering applications.
Keywords: Metal Matrix Composite, Aluminium, Locust Bean Pod Ash, Sand Casting Technique, Response Surface Design.
A DETERMINISTIC COMPARTMENTAL MODEL FOR TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL OF MEASLES INCORPORATING VACCINATION AND TREATMENT.
ENAGI, A. I.1 AND SHEHU, B.1
1Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
In this study, we presented and analysed a deterministic compartmental model for transmission and control of measles incorporating vaccination and treatment. We obtained the positive invariant region for the model and the positivity of the solutions. We also established the existence of the equilibrium states and carried out the stability analysis of the equilibrium states. The result shows that both equilibrium states are stable.
Keywords: Measles, Positivity of solution, Invariant Region, Equilibrium State and Stability.
IMPACT OF FACTS DEVICES (STATCOM) ON VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT AND TRANSMISSION LOSSES REDUCTION ON 132 KV BIDA POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS NETWORK
1AFOLABI O. ABIOYE, 2NKELEME V. OBINNA, 3ALIMI T. ADEKUNLE. AND 4SHALLUM T. ABRAHAM
1,2,4Department of Electrical / Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi 3Department of Electrical / Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bida
The Nigeria power system is associated with epileptic supply, poor system stability, high losses, weak bus voltages, line overloads, inappropriate location of generating stations, long transmission lines among others. These affect the overall power quality. Every day, the power transmission and distribution systems face increasing demands for more power, with expecting for better power quality, reliability at lower cost, and as well as low environmental effect. Under these conditions, transmission networks are called upon to operate at high transmission levels, which invariably turn the system to unstable condition. An approach towards solving this problem among others will include placement of Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM) optimally by the use of any optimization tool. This paper attempts to solve the problem by using simple heuristic technique which involves randomly placing STATCOM until the best voltage profile and lowest power loss is attained, Bida Power Transmission Network System with 5 buses systems is presented as case study. Simulations carried out confirmed that the STATCOM is capable of minimizing power loss, improve the voltage profile of the network as well as ensure system stability during fault condition on the 132 kV Bida transmission network when compared with the base case (without STATCOM placement).
Keywords: Load Flow Analysis, Facts, Matlab, Psat, Statcom, Power Loss & Transmission Network.
THE PERFORMANCE OF A GAS ENGINE FUELED WITH CARBON DIOXIDE-NATURAL GAS (CO2-NG) MIXTURES
WASIU B. AYANDOTUN1,2,A, AND A. RASHID A. AZIZ2,B
1Federal Polytechnic, PMB 1012, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria 2Centre for Automotive Research and Electric Mobility (CAREM) Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia.
Large percentage of natural gas fields in Malaysia have sour gas consisting of high percentage of CO2 and possibly hydrogen sulfide (H2S), thus rendering it uneconomically viable. Despite this, the little heat energy therein can be harnessed for energy sustainability. This paper, therefore, investigates the effect of CO2 variation in a mixture of NG and CO2 as a way of imitating the natural gas fields of different CO2 composition, on the performance of a gas engine. The baseline fuel and different CO2 percentages (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) in the mixture of NG-CO2 were used to conduct tests on a single-cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) engine. The engine was run at 180oCA BTDC, stoichiometric, and at various engine speeds. At wide open throttle, the ignition timing was regulated to obtain the maximum brake torque (MBT). The results of the tests revealed that brake torque (BT), brake power (BP), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreased as the CO2 percentage was increased. While brake thermal efficiency (BTE) increased with an increase in CO2 percentage. And for all the CO2 percentages in the mixture, BT, BSFC, and BTE increased as the engine speed was increased up to peak value occurring at 3000 rpm and then decreased. While a direct relationship exists between brake power and the engine speeds. These outcomes suggest that at 3000 rpm, the NG-CO2 mixture can be utilized up to 20% CO2 percentage to achieve optimal engine performance. This finding, if applied, will help in energy sustainability development.
Keywords: Natural gas; high carbon dioxide; direct injection; emissions; engine performance.
FABRICATION AND MEASUREMENTS OF MEMORY DEVICES
1MAJIN RACHAEL NNAGANA 2ADEWARA D. OLANREWAJU, 3GARBA MUSA DOKO, 4ENOCH JIYA
1,2,3, 4Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru – Nigeria.
Flash memory is nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices that do not need voltage to hold information or data. Nanostructures such as Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are used as a medium for charge storage. In this laboratory experiment, SiNWs are grown, the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process is used in the deposition of the SiNWs which is sandwich between the metal contact and the P-type substrate, and the deposition of 100nm thickness of silicon nitride is used as the insulator layer. The fabrication of the memory device will be performed in accordance with the laboratory experiment procedure, the current – voltage and capacitance with varying frequencies measurement will be carried out, and the characteristics behavior will be analyzed and discussed.
Keywords: Memory, Volatile, Non – volatile, Retention, Flash memory, Silicon Nanowires, Floating gate.
EFFECTS OF POOR MAINTENANCE OF ELEVATORS IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA CASE STUDY FEDERAL SECRETARIAT COMPLEX ILORIN NIGERIA.
1WOLI, T. O., 2IBRAHIM, L. A., 3OGUNDELE, S. O, 4SANNI, M. K. AND 5YAKUBU, O. H.
1,2,3,4 and 5Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Offa, P.M.B 420, Kwara State
One of the features of a developed country is the presence of cosmopolitan cities. The landmark of cosmopolitan cities all over the world is the prevalence of high-rise buildings and these help to overcome the challenges of urban over population, as status symbol and to make optimal use of the scarce land resources. As Nigeria prepares to be amongst the developed nations, the development of high-rise buildings in Nigeria has been experiencing setbacks. The data used in this research was obtained through physical inspection and careful observations of the elevators (lifts) in the Federal Secretariat Complex, Ilorin, Kwara State. The building is an 8-storery government building within the area of study which contains 16 Government ministries and agencies and numerous civil servants. Questionnaires were administered within the building. The sampling procedure used includes; purposive sampling to ensure that all ministries and agencies are covered, and random sampling technique in selecting the civil servants and visitors alike. Result shows that all the elevators studied have one problem or the other which rendered it not convenient for the passengers use. It was recommended that all elevators problems should be properly and effectively attended to as soon as the sign of failure is noticed before it causes further damages that will increase costs. There is a need for the property managers to consider periodic inspection and system diagnosis of the elevators by professionals to verify its conditions and advice on the way forward. It was concluded that with adequate maintenance policy, adhering to manufacturer’s instructions, use of skilled and highly trained manpower in the maintenance of elevators and by ensuring only standard and approved spare parts are used majority of the problems hindering effective use of elevators in high-rise commercial buildings in Nigeria will be overcomed.
Keywords: Property manager, Elevator, High-rise Buildings, Civil servants, Government ministries and Agencies
EFFECT OF POLYPROPYLENE FIBRES ON THE INDEX AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOILS.
1MBAMALU C.F , 2OYELAKIN, M.A, 3OKEKE E.C, 4UMAR L.
1,2,4Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara state, Nigeria 3Department of Civil Engineering, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi state, Nigeria
The effects of polypropylene (PP) fibres on the index and compressive strength properties of cohesive soils have been studied. The PP fibres were sourced from open dump sites in Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. They were cleaned and diced to an average size of 50mm by 50mm. Two cohesive soil samples were collected, dried and deflocculated. The index properties of the soils and that of the soil mixed within PP fibres in the percentages of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% was determined. Subsequently the test samples were moulded into cubes of 100mm x 150mm x 45mm (WBH) and subjected to compression test with an initial load of 1.0 N and a penetration speed of 2.5mm/min. From the results obtained, both samples were classified as sandy clay (SC) according to the Unified soil classification system (USCS) and A-6 according to the AASHTO classification system. The PP fibres had a negative effect on the plastic and liquid limits of the soil samples as their values continued to decline on the addition of PP fibres and at 2% addition of PP fibres, the sample could no longer be moulded. The PP fibres improved the compressive strength of the soil samples to a peak value of 1.3N/mm2 from 0.3N/mm2 and 1.12N/mm2 from 0.29N/mm2 for samples one and two respectively. These peak values were attained on the addition of the PP fibres at 0.5%. The young modulus (stiffness) and the applied load during penetration followed similar trends on the addition of the PP fibres. The force required to make the samples yield upon loading rose from 5056.1N to 19,322N for sample 1 and rose from 4877.5 N to 18562.1N for sample 2 on the addition of the PP fibres at 0.5%. This value started decreasing as the volume of the PP sample was increased. The findings gotten from this research suggests that PP fibre is a good stabilizer for soils classified as SC or A-6 and 0.5% should be used to achieve optimal strength. However, it can be added up to 2% in cases where the intent is to re-use or safely dispose the PP.
Keywords: Polypropylene (PP), AASHTO classification, compression test.
SCHOICE AND CALIBRATION OF MULTIPHASE FLUID FLOW METER SYSTEMS (MFFM’S) IN OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INDUSTRY
UMAR MUAZU TADAMA1, MOHAMMED MURTALA ALFA2 BIRDLING AMTAGU IJUDIGAL3 AND ALIYU ADAMU BABA4
1, 2&3Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State – Nigeria. 4Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State – Nigeria.
The downstream, midstream and upstream projects in the oil and gas industries each have specific measurements requirements for the exploration and production activities. The driving force for such requirements solely depends upon hardware device, cost and quality of information gotten from such measurements. Multiphase fluid flowmeters (MFFM’s) were investigated in this study as an alternative to the conventional multiphase test separators (MTS). The MFFMs installations significantly save cost and are more feasible at larger scale, the multi orifice metering nature of MFFMs enable it accurately measured gas wells with multi-production streams containing gas, condensate and water. This study is an attempt to investigate factors responsible for the choice and selection of MFFMs, calibration of the MFFMs and finally monitor the flow rate from a comingled stream to vent and flare chambers.
Keywords: Calibration, Fluid, Flowmeter, Oil, Flare Gas, Reservoir, Exploration, Production.
MODELLING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF 0-15 VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY USING PSPICE SIMULATOR
1 OLADOSU, D. A.,2FOLAMI, F. T. 2OLAYIWOLA, S. O
1Department of Computer Engineering Technology, the Polytechnic, Ibadan. 3 Department of Elecrical Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan
This work summarized the usefulness of the circuit simulator spice in the design and construction of electronic device, it was employed through mathematical model to generate the values of the components needed in the circuit, followed by step by step simulations of components using pspice simulator before total simulation of the whole circuit, so as to observe the versatility of the 0 to 15volts Variable Power Supply before construction. Moreso, some other routine tests such as AC sweep, DC sweep, and Fourier Analysis and Transient Analysis were carried out and the results obtained were compared with that of Laboratory Bench Oscilloscope after the device construction. The simulation results and test carried out in the laboratory shown very good dynamic and static behavior of the proposed device. This shown probe is like a theoretical oscilloscope that can be used as a laboratory bench to view the waveforms of a designed circuit and can assist to have a constructed circuit well-tailored to the design.
Keywords: Simulation, fourier, analysis, transient, stability
HEAT TRANSFER DUE TO IMPINGING FLAMES ON PLANE SURFACES
SIBEUDU CHIWETALU EMENIKE
Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Oko
A theoretical model of both premixed and diffusion turbulent flames impinging normally and obliquely on plane surfaces have been developed. It is based on the equations for conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Methane and air have been considered as fuel and oxidizer respectively. The RNG k-ε model has been used to compute the turbulence, and the Discrete Ordinate model has been used for radiative transfer in the flame. Regarding heat transfer characteristics of flame impingement, parametric studies have been made to predict the plate heat flux distribution and average Nusselt number Nu as functions of jet Reynolds number, ratio of plate separation distance to nozzle diameter (H/d) and equivalence ratio (ER). Plate surface heat flux attains a maximum value at a location little away from stagnation point and then decreases gradually with the radial distance from the plate centre. With an increase in the value of separation distance of the plate from the nozzle, the peak in the local heat flux comes closer to the stagnation point. The average Nusselt number Nu over the plate increases with an increase in Re and ER and a decrease in H/d for both premixed and diffusion flames.
Keywords: Premixed flame, Diffusion flame, Heat transfer, Nusselt number, Reynolds number.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PC-BASED HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM USING USB PROTOCOL
*ADEJUMOBI, O.K., **SADIQ, M.O., **AYENI., M.O., **FAWOLE, A. O AND **FAKUNLE, A. O.
*Computer Engineering Department, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State. **Department of Electrical Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo Stat.
In our day to day life every electrical appliance is to be controlled manually or automatically. For example, an electric fan needs a regulatory system to control its speed or a switch to turn it ON or OFF as required. In such circumstances, one may forget to turn it OFF which could lead to wastage of electricity since the control of such appliance or device is manual. The problem can be solved using PC control technique where the user can get to know the status of each appliance whether OFF/ON as well as switching operation using Home Automation Technique. This Paper therefore presents, ‘the Development and Implementation of a PC-Based Automation System’ with the use of the Computer’s USB Port Protocol. This design is divided into two parts; the first part is the Hardware development where all the electronic components used are built around the Microcontroller which is the main controlling component. The second part is based on the Visual Basic programming to operate all the hardware structure. The Objective of this design is to design and implement a system that will interface pre-existing home appliances with the PC’s USB Port using simple Graphical User Interface (G.U.I) which is provided on the Visual Basic Platform. The interfaces are easy to use and provide the user with a more accessible interface. The devices are also very easy to integrate into existing applications and require only a little knowledge of computer to install. Since this development is limited to a PC based home automation via USB protocol however, it is recommended that the design be modified to incorporate voice recognition and other wireless networked systems.
Index Terms– Automation, USB, Protocol, Microcontroller, Electrical Appliances.
OPTIMIZED COMPENSATION TECHNIQUE FOR VOLTAGE SAGS/SWELLS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN) ALGORITHM FOR DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR)
1HAMISU USMAN 2AHMED AHMED ABUBAKAR AND 3MOHAMMED MUSTAPHA SALEH
1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria. 3Department of Electrical Technology, School of Secondary Education Technical, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau, Zamfara State Nigeria. 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Nile University of Nigeria, Plot 681, Cadastral Zone, Airport Road Jabi Abuja, Nigeria.
Good electrical power system is an issue that is concerned to most of the electrical utilities and consumers in general. Since in an ideal situation, all sensitive and non-sensitive electrical equipments should assumed to operate with the supply voltage, and should obey the ohms law, that is current is directly proportional to the applied voltage the current/voltage wave forms should be purely sinusoidal, but contrary to that, the current/voltage wave forms should be non-sinusoidal in nature. However, with the introducing of customs devices, the viable solution for mitigating voltage sags/swells is the dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). In this paper, Widrow-Hoff (W-H) weight updated algorithm is employed for the generation of voltage sags. In the same vein, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used based on Leas Square Estimation (LMS) which mitigate the problem of voltage sags/swells in order to have a good sinusoidal sine wave. MATLAB environment is employed for the complete simulation model in this work. However, this proposed algorithm gives better control strategy and optimization in selecting (DVR) among the various customs devices for enhancing good mitigation technique.
Keywords: Custom device sags swells and literature review.
MULTI-PURPOSE COMPOUND DIE DESIGN: A CASE STUDY
*1USMAN JIBRIN RUMAH,2 ABDULMALIK MUSA GUSAU AND 3MOHAMMED SULEIMAN LIMAN
1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 3 Department of Agric Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Compound die is a single-hit dies that blanks and perforates a part at the same time in the same station. It is one of the cold working processes of sheet metal where components in Mechanical industry are manufactured. This paper presents a design of a compound die for mass production of drum/blower plate, by combining blanking and piercing operations.
Keywords: Compound die, Mass production, blanking
ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION THROUGH SINGLE WIRE EARTH RETURN (SWER) SYSTEM.
ARIYANNINUOLA, ANTHONY, ALE OLUWAFEMI SOLOMON & APONJOLOSUN JOHNSON KAYODE
Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria.
The principle of implementing Single Wire Earth Return System in power distribution was explained in this paper. The conditions which favour the use of this distribution system were discussed. The basic electrical equipment necessary for implementing this system were mentioned. The features of the transformers needed for this type of distribution were discussed. A detailed circuit diagram of single wire earth return system was illustrated and explained. The advantages and set backs of this system of power distribution were enumerated. The author emphases the need for employing Single Wire Earth Return System in the developing countries as its aids fast connection of the rural communities to the grid. The comparion between the conventional grid and single wire earth return system was carried out which revealed that single wire earth return system uses lesser electrical conductor for its transmission hence less expensive. The author also found out that Single Wire Earth Return System is a means of improving socio-economic activities in the rural communities where the conventional grid system cannot be reached. The author concluded by stating the need to embrace the use of Single Wire Earth Return System. Apart from rural electrification, the author stated other areas where Single Wire Earth Return System is useful. Recommendation were giving on the nature of soil where the earth electrode should be installed and how best to improve Single Wire Earth Return System [SWER] output voltage.
Keywords: Distribution, Earth, Grid, Power, Single and Wire.
AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR SOLVING FIRST ORDER DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
*ZAHID IBRAHIM SHUAIBU & **YAKUBU SALIHU YAKUBU
*Mathematics, University of Jos, Jos-Nigeria **Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria
This paper considered the hybrid numerical method for the solution of first order delay differential equations. The continuous formulation of the method was derived through collocation method by matrix inversion technique. The convergence analysis of the method was carried out in which found to be both consistent and zero-stable. The region of P and Q-stability were plotted. The method was implemented in block form which tested the efficiency of the method on some numerical examples.
Keywords: Efficient method, continuous formulations, delay differential equations, P-stabilty, Q-stability and Multi-step Method.