BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE (BJMBPS) (VOL. 12 NO. 3)
ISSN: 1211-4401 MARCH, 2020
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
ANTIBACTERIAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF Entada africana EXTRACTS.
*1MUHAMMAD, I. L., 2OLONITOLA, O. S., 2AMEH, J. B., 3OLAYINKA, B. O. AND 4SULEIMAN, L. A.
1Department of Microbiology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, University, Lapai. 2Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 3Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 4Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bida.
The study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity, phytochemical and toxicological studies of Entada africana extracts against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeal stool of children (0-5) five years. The antibacterial activity was carried out using agar well diffusion method, while phytochemical screening was conducted using Sofowora, Harbone and Hassan’s methods. The acute toxicity (LD50) test was also carried out using Lorke and Hassan’s methods. The phytochemical screening of Entada africanaleaf extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, tannins and glycosides, while stem-bark extracts indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, saponins and tannins.The antibacterial activity of methanol leaf and stem-bark extracts of Entada africana indicated highest activity against Escherichia coli, while hexane leaf and stem-bark extracts exhibited lowest activity against the test isolates. Based on the result of acute toxicity (LD)50 test greater than5000mg/kg body weight, showed that the plant extracts are safe for consumption. The result has justified their utilization by the traditional medicine practioners for the treatment of diarrhoea and other related ailments associated with Escherichia coli strains. Keywords: Diarrhoea, Extract, Phytochemical, Toxicity, Entada africana
ASSESMENT OF RISK FACTORS OF URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA
USMAN, M1., IMAM, T.S2.,YAHAYA, G.M.,1 MOHAMMED, A.S1., MOHAMMED, T1., BASHIR, A.M., AMINU, M.A1., HAMZA, A1., LAWAL, N., AND BELLO, T.A.1
1Department of Biology, School of Basic and Remedial Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 2Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano
The research was conducted on risk factors associated to Urinary Schistosomiasis infection in some selected Primary schools in Katsina State. A researcher administered questionnaire was used to obtain the information from the respondents. Odds ratio analysis was employed to determine the interaction between exposure and occupational and water contact activities as risk factors of the disease. In Kaura primary school, the respondents admitted to engaged in both occupational and water contact activities, and was therefore exposed to the risk factors. The analysis on exposure with occupational and water contact activities produced an Odds ratio (OR) of 5.04 and 4.0(OR>1), indicating that the exposure associated high with the risk factors and produced Schistosomiasis at a higher rate of 26.55%. In Bardayya primary school, the respondents engaged in occupational and water contact activities. Odds ratio analysis on exposure with occupational and water contact activities produced OR of 0.32 and 0.33(OR<1), indicating that the exposure and risk factors associated less, and produced Schistosomiasis at a lower rate of 13.33%. In Iyatawa primary school, no subject was engaged in any occupational and water contact activities. In light of the above findings, it was observed that higher interaction between exposure and risk factors produced higher rate of Schistosomiasis, while low interaction produced low rate of Schistosomiasis.
Keywords: Urinary Schistosomiasis, Occupations, Water contact activities, Odds ratio, Exposure, Risk Assessment
ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN ZEBU CATTLE (Bos taurus) KIDNEY
A BELLO; 2M.A UMARU; 1 M. L SONFADA; 1S.A. SHEHU; 1A. DANMAIGORO; 3ABDULLAHI, A.U.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria 2Department of Theriogenology and Animal production, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 3Department of Animal science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, , Sokoto, Nigeria.
A Histomorphological study was conducted on the kidney of 25 fetuses of the African zebu cattle (Bos taurus) collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of one month at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the fetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. Out of the twenty five (25) fetuses at different gestational age used for the study, 12 (48%) were females while 13 (527%) were males. 10(40%) fetuses belong to first trimester, 10(40%) belong to second trimester and 5(20%) belong to third trimesters of pregnancy respectively. The mean crown vertebrate-rump length (CVRL) ranged from 14.60 ± 2.0 cm at first trimester to 100.50 ± 3.0 cm at third trimester. Histological observation shows that the kidney appeared to have two zones via cortex and medulla right from first to third trimester. The development of renal tissues were found to be in succession, from the stage of mesenchyme cells, developing glomerulus and finally to fully developed glomerulus with advancement of gestational age among the three groups. The duct system also followed the same trend of development from immature to matured duct system. The cortex of the first trimester kidney was found to have numerous mesenchymal cells and connective tissues with few developing glomerulus. At second trimester few fully developed glomerulus were found, moderate number of mesenchyme cells and immature developing duct system. Numerous developed glomerulus and matured duct system with moderate developing glomerulus and connective tissue were seen at third trimester. The medulla at first trimester shows only various types of connective tissue (collagen, reticular and elastic) fibers and mesenchyme cells. At second trimester the medulla was found to have numerous developing collecting ducts, few developed collecting ducts and few mesenchyme cells. Developed collecting ducts were predominant in the medulla at third trimester with few mesenchyme cells. The histological differentiation of the Bovine kidney is similar to that of ovine, caprine, equine, Llama, and guanaco but differs from that of the feline, canine and porcine. Mean while, considering the histological features observed in the study, the Bovine kidney may become fully matured and functional at post-natal age.
Keywords: Anatomy, Bovine, Kidney, Prenatal development, Northern Nigeria.
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF NAIRA NOTES AMONGST MARKET TRADERS IN MAKURDI METROPOLIS, BENUE STATE NIGERIA
OBISIKE, V. U1., ONOJA, B.E2, AKOR. J.O2 AND ATU, B. O2
1Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia Nigeria. 2Department of Microbiology, Benue State University Makurdi. Benue Nigeria.
Money is very important in the everyday activities of man. Money as a means of exchange of goods and services are contaminated through handling process. Thus, this study was carried out to assess the bacteria contamination of Nigerian currency notes. A total of thirty two (32) samples of different naira notes from three occupational groups which consist of traders, meat sellers and food vendors. The controls were mint currency obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Makurdi branch. The swabbing method and serial dilution of sample culture was employed. A total of six (6) bacteria genera was isolated which are, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Eschericia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella typhi, Shegella and Proteus. Staphyloccoccus aureusi had the highest bacteria occurrence of 7(31.8%), Shegella and Proteus had the lowest each with 2(9.1%). The mean bacteria load shows that the highest bacterial contamination of the currency notes was observed in #100 across the entire occupational group and there was a significant difference in the contamination (P<0.05)as complained to control of the currency in relation to occupation. The highest bacteria frequency among the denominations was observed in #100 and #200, while #5, #10 with the lowest occurrence. Paper notes had the highest occurrence of bacteria 14 (63.63%) and polymer notes were less contaminated with 8(36.36%). It was concluded from this study that Nigerian currency are contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms which are of Public Health importance. Thus, it was recommended that good hygienic measures should be practiced and Nigerian currency notes should be coated with antimicrobial properties.
Keywords: Naira, notes, Bacteria, food, vendors, Public Health.
DETECTION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SHIGA TOXIN ESCHERICHIA COLI AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS WITHIN KADUNA METROPLOLIS, NIGERIA.
1TIJJANI, R. J., 2YAHAYA, O. , 2INABO, H. I.
1Departmemt of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Departmemt of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli was investigated among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in selected hospitals within Kaduna Metropolis. A total of 400 urine samples were collected and analysed for Shiga toxin E.coli . E.coli strain was isolated using Eosin methylene blue agar, sorbitol Mac Conkey agar (CT-SMAC) and preserved on Nutirent agar slant. The isolates were identified base on cultural characteristics. Molecular identification using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with stx1,stx2 and uidA primer was carried out. Out of the 400 samples collected, 85 (21.3%) were positive for Escherichia coli. While two (2) out of these isolates were confirmed to be Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Keywords: Shiga toxin, Escherichia coli O157:H7,CT-SMAC(cefixime tellurite-Sorbitol MacConkey and Gel electrophoresis.
HAEMOPARASITES OF SLAUGHTERED CATTLE IN BAUCHI CENTRAL ABATTOIR, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Nursing and Midwifery, Bauchi state, Nigeria
This study was conducted to screen for haemoparasites and some haematological parameters of slaughtered cattle in Bauchi central abattoir. Cattles are very important economically because they are source of animal protein and income. They contribute 10% of the Nigerian livestock and accounts for about 40% total livestock revenue of Nigeria in monetary terms. Cattle disease affects the quality and quantity of dairy products as well as that of the meat produced. A total of 316 blood samples were randomly collected from cattle between August 2016 and January, 2017 at the Bauchi central abattoir. The samples were screened for haemoparasites through examining them by Giemsa stained thin blood films, thin blood smear and buffy coat. Microhaematocrit centrifugation technique was used for determination of the packed cell volume (PCV). An overall haemoparasite prevalence of 50% was recorded. Anaplasma spp accounted for the highest prevalence followed by Babesia bigemina. Sex-related parasitemia revealed that females had higher prevalence 86(53.8%) than males 72(46.2%) which was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Breed-specific prevalence showed 52.0%, 50.0% and 49.6%, for Red Bororo, Sokoto Gudali and White Fulani, respectively, which was statistically significant (P<0.05) and more prevalent in Red Bororo breed. All the haematological parameters were within range of normal values and there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean haematological values between infected and un-infected slaughtered cattle. This study provides information on the haemoparasitism status of cattle that are slaughtered in Bauchi central abattoir and calls for more control/preventive measures to eradicate haemoparasites to enhance more wholesome beef for the general populace. It is of public health importance because haemoparasitic infections can affects the quality and quantity of dairy products and meat produced as a result of reduction of the animal’s body weight, reduce milk production, abortions and death.
Keywords: Haemoparasites, cattle, abattoir, slaughter, Bauchi, Nigeria
EVALUATION OF THE PRESERVATION POTENTIAL OF POTASH (KANWA) ON SHELF LIFE OF PASTEURISED MILK INOCULATED WITH 2% LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM AND LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTUM
1ADAMU, A. & 2ABDULLAHI, S.M.
1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi state Nigeria. 2Department of Microbiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State.
The study aimed at evaluating the potency of potash (kanwa) on shelf life of pasteurised milk. Following inoculation of milk with 2% L. fermentum and L. plantarum, the milk was divided into seven portions designated as A-G each containing 50ml of the sample. They were treated as follows; A= untreated, B= 0.2% v/v potash, C=0.4% v/v pot ash, D=0.2%v/v sodium benzoate, E= untreated refrigerated, F= 0.2% v/v potash G=0.2% v/v sodium benzoate. Samples A-D were stored at ambient temperature (mean=35oC) while E-G were stored at refrigerated temperature (10oC). All the samples were analyzed for physicochemical, bacteriological and organoleptic properties at 24hours interval for 5days. The results revealed that the mean pH ranged from 7.21±0.01 – 4.41±0.01. Highest decrease (p>0.05) in pH (4.41±0.01) was observed in sample A while lowest decrease (p>0.05) was observed in F (6.89±0.01). The titratable acidity (T.A) ranged from 0.22±0.02-1.19±0.06%, highest increased in T.A (1.19±0.06%) was recorded in A while lowest increased (0.23±0.01%) was observed in F. The viscosity ranged from 57±5.77 -10±0.00Cp, highest increase (57±5.77Cp) was observed in A while lowest increase (14.0±0.00) was recorded in E, D and F at 24hrs of storage. The LAB count was 5.08 log cfu/ml at 0 hour. LAB count reduction was observed in all samples except A. Highest (0.82 log cfu/ml) and lowest (0.01 log cfu/ml) reduction were recorded in samples G and B respectively at 4 days of storage. The results of organoleptic scores showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the overall acceptability in all samples as the storage progress. Highest score (8.7±0.9) was recorded in G while sample A showed lowest score (5.3±1.7) at 5days. Refrigeration at 10oC in combination with additives (0.2% sodium benzoate and 0.2% kanwa) were shown to be the most effective means of preserving pasteurised milk.
Keywords: Potash, Pasteurised milk, Shelf life, L. plantarum L. fermentum, Preservation
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE PROXIMATE AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF LOCAL CONDIMENT PRODUCED FROM SOYA BEAN AND LOCUST BEAN SEEDS (DADDAWA)
HASSAN*1, A. MUSA1, N. U. AMBI1, A. A. AND SHITU2, F. A.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi –Nigeria 2Department of General Study, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi –Nigeria.
The proximate and mineral analyses of Soya bean and Locust bean seeds were carried out according to the standard methods. The proximate were found for Soya bean sample contained protein content of 32.2%, moisture 26%, ash 5%, fat 3.9%, crude fibre 21.3%, carbohydrate 11.6% while that of the Locust bean sample had protein content of 26.3 %, moisture 6%/ ash 2.5%, fat 4%, crude fibre 4.8%, carbohydrate 56.4% respectively and the minerals were found for Soya bean seeds had potassium 21.95mg/L, calcium 19.68mg/L, magnesium -0.10mg/L, lead -0.14mg/L, iron 0.53mg/L while that of Locust bean sample had potassium 0.99mg/L, calcium 20.94mg/L, magnesium -0.05mg/L, lead -0.02mg/L, iron 0.83mg/L respectively. From the findings show that production of local condiment using Soya bean seeds is rich in protein than Locust bean seeds (Daddawa) therefore it is recommended to consume Soya bean than locust bean seeds (Daddawa).
Keywords: Soya bean, Locust bean, Proximate, Mineral, Daddawa.
TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TERPENOID FRACTION OF PHYSALIS AGULATA ON LIVER AND RENAL FUNCTION BIOMARKERS
BAWA A., ABDULKADIR Y., AND ABRAHAM E. A.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi.
The aim of the research was to investigate the toxicological effects of terpenoid fraction of Physalis angulata on male albino rats. Acute toxicity of the extract was determined according to the OECD guideline No.425 (Acute oral toxicity-Up and Down-procedure). The effect of the fraction on liver function was determined by analyzing the serum level of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using standard methods. Also, the effect of the extract on kidney function was determined by analyzing the serum level of urea and creatinine. The results of the acute toxicity studies showed that the fraction is safe for consumption (to be used as drug). The results of the fraction’s effect on liver function biomarkers showed that there is no significant (P>0.05) increase in the serum levels of AST and ALT in groups treated with the fraction compared to the normal control, but there was significant (P<0.05) decrease in the serum level of ALP in fraction-treated group compared to the normal control. The effect of the fraction on kidney function biomarkers revealed that there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the serum level of urea and creatinine in the fraction-treated group compared to the normal control. All these results suggest that the terpenoid extract of Physalis angulata has no negative effects on the function of liver and kidney, and is also safe for use as medicine.
Keywords: toxicological effects, terpenoid fraction, Physalis angulata, Albino rats, biomarkers
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF AFRICAN BLACK SOAP PREPARED FROM PALM KERNEL OIL.
HASSAN*1, A. MUSA1, N. U. AMBI1, A. A. AND SHITU2, F. A.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi -Nigeria 2Department of General Study, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi -Nigeria
The efficiency of African black soap commonly used for the treatment of infection associated with Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli were studied. The soap was extracted using water and the antibacterial activities of extracts were investigated using chemical isolation of the organism. The Agar well diffusion method was employed for sensivity test of the organism. The zone of inhibition for the test organism staphylococcus Aureus obtained against concentration of 0.05g/ml, 0.10g/ml, 0.15g/ml and 0.20g/ml are 0.7mm, 0.8mm, 0.8mm and 0.9mm. and for Escherichia Coli are 0.3mm, 0.2mm, 0.4mm and0.6mm respectively. From the results obtained due to increase in concentration of the samples, it leads to an increase in zone of inhibition of the test organism, Therefore, the results show that the soap has antibacterial activity on the test organism.
Keywords: African black soap, Agar well diffusion method, Zone of Inhibition, Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia Coli.
THE DOSIMETRY OF X-RAY LINE SOURCE IN TISSSUES
*AREMU S.O **HAQUE M.F. *ODELAMI K.A. *NDAWASHI M.
*Federal polytechnic Bauchi **Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.
The absorbed doses in tissues due to X- ray line sources was computed as a function of exposure time, Photon energy, attenuation angles and the length of the source. The absorbed dose is found to increase linearly with exposure time and attenuation angles while it increases gradually and approaches towards a stationary value as the length of the source is increased. With the increase in Photon energy, the absorbed dose is found to increase almost linearly while it decreases exponentially as the distance between the source and the target is increased.
Keywords: Dosimetry, X-Ray, Line, Source Tisssues.
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS COUNSELLING AND TESTING FOR PREGNANT WOMEN IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN GROWTH IN THE MILLENNIUM ERA (A CASE STUDY OF NIGER STATE HIV MANAGEMENT SERVICE), NIGERIA
SABA, ABDULRAHMAN MUHAMMAD
Educational Psychology Department, Niger State College of Education, P.M.B 39, Minna
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is responsible for more than 90% of the cases of HIV infection in infants and children in sub-Saharan Africa. Accurate data on the knowledge and perceptions of HIV among women attending antenatal clinics in Nigeria are scarce. A cross-sectional survey of 338 women attending antenatal clinics in Niger State, North-Central, Nigeria was done using structured questionnaires. This sample size was derived from a population of 2800 using Krejcie and Morgan table for determining sample size for a definition population. The consistency test of the instrument was validated using Cronbach Alpha formula at 0.72 acceptable level. Some women respondents had heard of HIV, while some knew that HIV could be transmitted from mother to child; others believed in the reality of HIV disease; in contrast, the majority believed they were not at risk of HIV infection, and a slightly greater proportion did not understand the benefits of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT). Nonetheless, almost about half of respondents were willing to know their status following health education about VCT. Those that were older, attending public hospitals, and with a higher level of education had more knowledge and better perceptions about HIV. The results suggest an urgent need for public health education on HIV and the benefits of VCT to control MTCT, particularly targeting young pregnant women and those with little or no education.
Keywords: Antenatal, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Mother-to-Child Transmission, Sub-Sahara and Voluntary Counselling and Testing
EFFECTS OF NOISE ON HUMAN HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR
Noise is a commonly misconceived environmental pollutant. It is often not classified with other pollutants because it seems to lack some of the general characteristics that other pollutants have, i.e. it cannot be seen, felt, smelled or tasted. It has however been recognized as a pollutant since 1972 by the WHO. Noise is a nuisance which is often imposed on us against our will and in ways and volumes over which we have no control. This review looks at noise as an environmental problem with detrimental effects on both human health and behavior. Several health and behavioral risks associated with noise have been considered in this paper which include hearing impairment, cardiovascular problems, sleep disturbance, interference with cognitive ability and annoyance. Noise disturbance in buildings is often caused by sounds from both within the building and from without. Various solutions to control and prevent noises have thus been proffered in this paper which can go a long way in controlling the detrimental effects of noise.
Keywords: Sound, Noise Effects, Human Health, Human Behavior, Noise Control
SOCIO-BEHAVIOURAL INDICES OF HEALTH AS CORRELATES OF MENTAL HEALTH STATUS OF NURSES IN AKURE METROPOLIS, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA.
ARIYO AYODELE OLUWAKAYODE (Ph.D)
Department of Physical and Health Education, School of Science, Adeyemi College Of Education, Ondo, Nigeria.
The attitude of nurses to patients in the hospitals and health centers is so worrisome that concerned individuals begin to look at causes responsible. Hence, this study was designed to examine whether socio-behavioural indices of health will significantly be correlates of mental health status of nurses in Akure metropolis. Four hundred participants were selected who took part in the study. A self- developed questionnaire of 4-points Likert type rating scale with reliability coefficient of 0.84 was used to collect data from 400 nurses selected through a multi-stage sampling technique; The statistics of frequency counts and percentages were used to analyse demographic data of the respondents, statistics of mean (X) scores, standard deviation, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and multiple regression were used to analyse responses. The results of the hypotheses showed that there was significant relationship with each of the socio-behavioural indices of love, friendliness, confidence and empathy and the dependent variable of mental health with calculated value of 0.000 which is less than each of the coefficients at (P<0.01). All the hypotheses were rejected.
Keywords: Social behaviour, Love, Friendliness, Confidence, Empathy and Mental health
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE WET AND DRY FLOWERS OF NIGERIAN GROWN CLOVE BASIL (Ocimum gratissimum)
1AZEEZ, G.O, 1LAWAL, I.A , 1IMRAN M.O AND 2ASIMI, M.A
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental Engineering, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria
The dry and wet flowers of Ocimum gratissimum were collected within the premises of Federal Government Technical College, Saki. The non volatile extracts were obtained by maceration cold method using water as extractant. The phytochemical analysis was done using classical method of analysis. Antimicrobial activity (sensitivity test) was carried out using the disc method on a dilute streaked culture media. Phytochemical screening of the non volatile extract obtained from dry flower showed the presence of alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, phlobathatin, terpenoid, flavanoid and saponin, while that of wet sample displayed the presence of alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, tannin, terpenoid and saponin. The non volatile extract of dry flower sample inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoneae. It was observed that non volatile extract of the wet flower sample inhibited Klebsiella pneumoneae, Escherichia coli but not Staphylococcus aureus, hence, the dry flower sample displayed better antibacterial activity than the wet flower extract. It is concluded that the aqeous extract of the plant flower is a potential source of antimicrobial that could be used in treatment of diseases caused by Klebsiella pneumoneae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
Keywords: antimicrobial, phytochemicals, staphylococcus, terpenoids,
HARNESSING THE POTENTIALS OF MICRO-ORGANISMS AND PLANTS AS CLEANUP AGENTS FOR PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY
TALIAT, FATIMA AJIBIKE & ADUBI, AMOS OLADIMEJI
Biology Department, the College of Education, Lanlate.
The environment has suffered many severe treatments as a result of anthropogenic activities resulting to contaminated environment. Environmental Biotechnology has the potentials of boosting healthy living, societal and economic development of a nation. This study focuses on how some micro-organisms and plants are engineered to cleanup contaminated environment to enhance sustainability of the occupants. Environmental remediation using microbiological and plant intervention in waste water treatment, solid waste treatment; soil treatment and waste gas treatment are examined. It is therefore, recommended that pollution should be prevented in order to provide unprecedented benefits and as well adopts production method that are more economic in energy and resource consumption for enhancement of a sustainable society.
Keywords: Anthropogenic activity, Environmental Biotechnology, Microbiological, Pollution.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL OF MEASLES INCORPORATING VACCINATION AND TREATMENT.
ENAGI, A. I.1 AND SHEHU, B.1
1Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
In this study, we carried out numerical simulations of a mathematical model for transmission and control of measles incorporating vaccination and treatment. We solved the model equations using Homotopy perturbation method. The results obtained were coded using Maple Mathematical Software and graphical profiles of each compartment generated in order to have a better understanding of the dynamic of the disease. Numerical simulations of the model show that, the combination of vaccination and treatment is the most effective way to combat the epidemic of measles in the community. The model strongly indicated that the spread of the disease largely depend on the contact rates with infected individuals within the population.
Keywords: Mathematical Model, Vaccination, Treatment, Numerical Simulation and Treatment.
GENDER RIGHTS, CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA
PROF. IKECHUKWU ANTHONY KANU & EMOIT PETER O. IMATARI
*Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State **College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Institute of Climate Change and Adaptations (ICCA), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
This paper in spite of delving into the impacts of climate change to differentiated gender, as already indicated, is biased on women. This is because the women are the most vulnerable to the extremes of climate change because of dependence on natural resources for their livelihoods. That is, they depend on water, food, wood fuel for cooking and land. However, this study would also relate in brief how men are affected by the impacts of climate change. This paper, therefore, inquired into in brief at the impacts of climate change on different gender with particular interest in the following areas: food production, land, access to water, social fabric, health, economic impacts. This would be succeeded by a brief critique and recommendations of the ways forward.
Keywords: Gender, Human Rights, Climate Change, Food Security, Africa, Nigeria
THE TOXICITY EVALUATION OF PREPARED Lantana camara EXTRACT AGAINST ADULT COWPEA BRUCHIDS (Callosobruchus maculatus) CHRYSOMELIDEA: BRUCHIDEA
1OLADEJO A.O., 1OLORUNDARE O.O., 2FRANCIS M. JR. AND 1OLORI-OKE O.
1Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Nigeria 2Forestry Technology,, Federal College of Forestry, Jos.Nigeria
Nigeria is the largest producer and consumer of cowpea in Africa however, Africa cowpea farmers suffer heavy loss as a result of insect pest. This work is therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of prepared Lantana camara extract against adult cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus). The work was done in the Entomological Laboratory of the Federal College of Forestry, Jos between June and July, 2019. Different samples of 250g clean dried white cowpea (TVU2027) were placed separately into 1000 mL plastic beakers and different concentrations of Lantana camara extracts [200mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 0.0mg/ml ( as control) labelled T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively] were applied into each of samples, the mixtures were thoroughly mixed with cowpea seeds. Ten newly emerged Callosobruchus maculatus (about 24 hours old) (ratio1:1) were introduced into each treatments and was covered with a muslim cloth of about 0.02mm held with rubber bands. The treatments were arranged in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Data were collected on dead adult bruchids only at interval of 24 hours for 5 days after the introduction into the treated cowpea seed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the transformed data. The result showed a progressive increase in bruchids mortality as the doses of the treatments increased with extended time, the mortality rate of the Cowpea bruchids was also increases with a maximum of 73.33% in 200mg/ml. It could therefore be concluded that the use of Lantana camara at concentration 200mg/ml is recommended for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus.
Keyworlds: Lantana camara, Extract, Cowpea grains, Callosobruchus maculatus, Mortality
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STRAINS OF SALMONELLA SP. PREVALENT IN POULTRY FARM IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITY DUTSE JIGAWA STATE NIGERIA.
SADIQ, A. A1., MUSTAPHA, I. A1. AND IBRAHIM A.2
Department of Biological sciences, Sule Lamido University, Kafin Husa Jigawa State.
This research work was conducted for the isolation and characterization of strains of Salmonella sp. prevalent in poultry farm in (FUD). A total 60 samples consisting of 20 –cloacal swabs, 20-droppings and 20–water were collected from poultry section in (FUD) farm and brought to Microbiology laboratory. Samples were propagated in nutrient broth followed by culture on Salmonella-Shigella Agar and sub-cultured on Eosin Methylene Blue Agar and Xylose lysine Deoxycholate agar. Biochemical properties of the isolates were studied and reaction in TSI agar slant was observed. Gram’s staining techniques were performed. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in the poultry farm was recorded 33.33% respectively. In cloacal sample the prevalence of Salmonella was 20% whereas in droppings is 45% and water sample it was 35%. The results suggest that poultry chickens can secrete Salmonella through their droppings, which can inter into their drinking water and transmited to the other chickens. The presence of Salmonella at the recorded rate in both the dropping and water pose significant alarming for the public health issue if not maintain proper hygienic steps in place.
Keywords: Poultry, Droppings, Water, Culture.
SINGLY AND COMBINED EFFECTS OF DENNETTIA TRIPETALA POWDER AND REDUCED RATES OF PIRIMIPHOS-METHYL IN MANAGEMENT OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS (F.) (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE)
SIKIRU GBENGA.K., OLADEJO AFOLABI O. AND AYORINDE JAMES O.
Pest Management Department, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), one of the grains that suffer postharvest losses most, is a warm season, annual, herbaceous legume. It suffers heavily from insects, both in the field and when grains are stored after harvest. Dennettia tripetala powder and reduced rates of pirimiphos-methyl dust were tested on cowpea against C. maculatus for their effective management. The study was conducted under ambient conditions of 250C – 280C and 65% – 75% relative humidity in the laboratory for a period of 3 months. Powder of D. tripetala and dust of pirimiphos-methyl were tested sole at 0.4g and 0.1g per 20g of cowpea seeds respectively while various combinations at 0.2g DT + 0.05g PM, 0.2g DT+ 0.025g PM, and 0.2g DT + 0.0013g PM were also tested on 20g of cowpea seed. D. tripetala powder was more effective at 0.4g when applied singly. Adult mortality of more than 80% occurred in less than 3 days. It also caused a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and weight loss after emergence. Effect of sole application of pirimiphos-methyl dust at 0.1g per 20g of cowpea seed was less when compared with 0.4g of D. tripetala. The combined treatments of D. tripetala and pirimiphosmethyl slightly reduce adult emergence and weight loss. This study revealed better performance of D. tripetala powder when applied singly over reduced rates or even when combined with pirimiphos-methyl against cowpea seed beetle.
Keywords: combined, effects, dennettia, tripetala powder, pirimiphos-methyl.