CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES (IJPAS) VOL.17 (9)
SEPTEMBER, 2019 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International
Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle,
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria.
Copyright © 2019 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
USING HETEROSCEDASTICITY COVARIANCE CONSISTENT ESTIMATORS IN PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF LINEAR REGRESSION: A BAYESIAN APPROACH
1OSENI, B.A., 2OLUBUSOYE, O.E AND 3ADEPOJU, A.A
Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
In this paper, we derived the posterior density function of parameters of linear regression model when various structures of heteroscedasticity consistent covariance estimators developed in the earlier research in frequentist. We specify uniform distribution as out-of-sample information for the models’ parameters. We obtained the marginal densities for model’s parameter via Gibbs Sampler. A posterior simulator known as Gibbs Sampling and Metropolis-Hasting algorithms was employed to obtain the parameters estimate. As shown in the earlier research where the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator was used, we recommend that Bayesian estimator is more robust and reliable for making inference for small and large sample sizes.
Keywords: Heteroscedasticity, Posterior, Bayesian, Gibbs sampling, Noninformative prior.
SOFT COMPUTING: INVESTIGATION OF TWO-STEP APPROACH TO IDENTITY THEFT DETECTION IN ELECTRONIC PAYMENTS
1ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI, 1FALOHUN A. S., 2ISMAILA FOLASADE. M., 1OGUNJINMI TEMITOPE O., 1BABALOLA O. RICHARD
1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2Department of Computer Science, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria.
Identity theft and identity fraud are terms used to refer to all types of crime in which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another person’s personal data in some way that involves fraud or deception, typically for economic gain. In e-commerce, the growing number of credit card transactions provides more opportunity for thieves to steal credit card numbers and subsequently commit fraud. Despite significant efforts by merchants, card issuers and law enforcement to curb fraud, online fraud continues to plague electronic commerce web sites. In this research work, Communal detection (CD) and Counter Propagation Neural Network (CPNN) were employed for fraud detection in identity theft in credit cards online transactions. Three thousand credit cards transactions were simulated. The selected simulated applicants attributes were worked on by CD to produce whitelists and blacklists. The result-cum-applicants data were preprocessed and passed to the CPNN to performed classifications. The results showed that CD-CPNN system produced average false positive rate, average false alarm rate, average detection rate and average prediction accuracy of 26.3, 2.7, 93.6, and 92.5%; CD system generated 67.2, 6.8, 90.4 and 85.3%; while CPNN system gave 64.8, 7.4, 90.5 and 88.7% respectively.
Keywords: Identity theft, Whitelists, Blacklists, CD, CPNN
MODELLING INTERDEPENDENCE OF SOME NIGERIAN INDUSTRIES USING A NUMERICAL METHOD.
PETER, ONYEDINMA CHINEDU, E. N EKAKA-A & N. M NAFO
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Port Harcourt University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt
While a technological matrix is not a recent construction in the theory of linear algebra, its effective application due to the variation of the demand elements and its impact on the gross productions of agricultural products, steel and coal can be considered as a mathematical problem that requires a MATLAB algorithm solution. The novel results of this study that we have not seen elsewhere are clearly presented and discussed quantitatively.
Keywords: Modelling, Interdependence, Industries, Numerical, Method.
CONSTRUCTION AND SIMULATION OF DUAL AXES AUTOMATIC SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM
1 YUSUF S. J. AND 2 ROMANUS I.O.
1Department of Pure and Applied Physics Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
This research work presents construction and simulation of dual axes automatic solar tracking system. With the rising cost of conventional energy and the effect it has on global warming, there is a need to develop an alternative way of generating energy. The solar tracking system was designed to align the solar absorbing surface (photovoltaic panel) perpendicular to the direction of sun for maximum absorption of solar radiation. Proteus circuit design software was used to design and simulate the circuit. PIC16F1939 microcontroller programmed in C programming language was used as the control unit; to receive signals from the sensors (light dependent resistors) and to drive the appropriate servo motors. Result of the simulation shows that a pulse modulated waves was obtained at the control terminal of the servo motors. The hardware of the circuit was then constructed and tested. Results of the experiment performed observed an efficiency of 44.08% compared to a fixed photovoltaic system. With such efficiency, the system can be recommended for generating maximum energy from the sun.
Keywords: Microcontroller, photovoltaic panel, solar tracking, light dependent resistors and servo motors.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS TREATMENT OF THE INVESTMENT OPTION OF PREDATION AS A TYPE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO STOCK EXCHANGE INVESTORS
N. M. NAFO
Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
The stock exchange investors with a relatively higher initial investment tend to observe consistent growth of their dividends than the investors with a lower investment scenario. In terms of the quantified increase in the dividends, the dividends of the investors with a lower initial investment (0.2, 0.2) in the units of millions of naira do better than the dividends of the investors with the initial investment values (0.3, 0.3) and (1.2, 1.4) under the simplifying assumption of the predation interaction between two stock exchange investors. We utilized the ODE 45 numerical method to investigate this daunting investment problem. The novel results that we have obtained have not been seen elsewhere; these are presented and discussed in this present pioneering numerical simulation study.
Keywords: Stock exchange, investment, dividends, predation, numerical method
MODELING OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS: A REVIEW
1*Howard, C.C., 2Howard, I. C. and 1Etuk, E. H.
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2 Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria
The management of water quality is a major environmental challenge. Monitoring different sources of pollutant load contribution to the water body is quite difficult, laborious and expensive process which sometimes leads to analytical error also. The modeling of water quality parameters is quite challenging because of its complexity, nonlinearity, and contributory variable, but it is important since water of low quality causes health- related and economic problems which have a considerable impact on people’s daily lives. The feasibility of using models to understand processes, predict and/or simulate, control, monitor and optimize water quality parameters has been explored by a number of researchers. Mathematical modeling provides a powerful tool for design, operational assistance, forecast future behavior and process control and optimization. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. This paper reviews the application of different modeling techniques to water quality parameters in surface water and wastewater treatment plants in the past few years.
Key words: environmental management, monitoring, modeling, water quality, process control, waste water.
CORE ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SKILLS REQUIRED BY MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS FOR TROUBLESHOOTING ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM OF MODERN AUTOMOTIVE IN NIGER STATE
ALABI, JAMES OLUFEMI1, IDRIS ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED2, OWODUNNI AYANDA SAMUEL3
1Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna 2Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna 3Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna
The era of depending solely on trial by error method and the experience of motor vehicle mechanics when troubleshooting various systems and subsystems of modern automotive is gradually coming to an end. This study was therefore carried out to identify the core on-board diagnostic (OBD) skills required by motor vehicle mechanics for troubleshooting engine performance and transmission system of modern automotive in Niger State. A survey research design was employed for the study. The population for the study comprised 833 motor vehicle mechanic master craftsmen and 29 automobile technology lecturers. A structured questionnaire which was designed by the researcher was used for collecting data from the respondents. The instrument was validated by three experts. Cronbach alpha reliability method was employed to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire items and reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained. Two research questions guided the study while the two null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 levels of significance. It was found out that all the forty skills suggested are required by motor vehicle mechanics for troubleshooting engine performance and transmission system of modern for modern automotive. It was therefore recommended that all the skills identified in this study be included in the training given to motor vehicle mechanics apprentices in Niger State. \The state government should come to the aid of the motor vehicle mechanics by providing funds to enable them undertake the training as well as procure OBD scan tool.
Keywords: Diagnostic, Skills, Required, Performance, Transmission.
ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMOBILE WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA
DAUDA ADEDOKUN1,*, RUFAI AUDU2
School of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna
The purpose of the study was to assess automobile waste management practices in Osun State, Nigeria. The study answered two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and population for the study was 388 respondents comprised of 208 registered automobile mechanics master craftsmen and 180 officials of all waste management regulatory agencies in Osun State. A structured questionnaire which contains 37 items designed to obtain information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and z-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses 1 and 2. Based on the data analyzed, the following findings among others revealed that hazardous automobile waste are not usually stored in closed containers neither collected by licensed agencies, used refrigerants from vehicle are not collected in approved recovery equipment for off-site reclamation, the used oils generated from mechanics workshop are disposed around their workshop to control dust and weeds, battery charger discharge used acid anywhere around their shop. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made: environmental agencies should introduce public enlightenment and education on the consequences of indiscriminate disposal of automobile wastes, periodical monitoring and assessment of automobile waste management by environmental agencies should be conducted as stipulated by law, and shops alleged for environmental pollution be sanctioned.
Keywords: Assessment, Automobile, Waste, Management
IMPACT OF VARYING THE INITIAL DATA ON THE TYPE OF STABILITY IN GLUCOSE- INSULIN REGULATORY SYSTEM USING NUMERICAL METHOD
AMADI & E. N. EKAKA-A
Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt Nigeria
In this study a robust MATLAB ODE45 is designed for the stabilization of glucose-insulin regulatory system utilizing the variations of the initial data. We have ascertained that as the initial data increases in its multiples, the bifurcation interval occurs beforehand and stability sets in earlier. The results of this novel contribution have not been seen elsewhere. These are presented and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: stability, impact, glucose-insulin, numerical method, initial data, regulatory system.
AUTOMATED DEBUGGING SYSTEM
ANTHONY UMUKORO & JOSEPH OKORODUDU
Computer Science Department, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe.
This research work is centered on the appraisal of the concept of Automated Debugging System. Computer programs often contain defects, or bugs, that need to be found and repaired. This manual “debugging” usually requires valuable time and resources. To help developers debug more efficiently, automated debugging solutions have been proposed. One approach goes through information available in bug reports. Another goes through information collected by running a set of test cases. Debugging ranges in complexity from fixing simple errors to performing lengthy and tiresome tasks of data collection, analysis, and scheduling updates. The debugging skill of the programmer can be a major factor in the ability to debug a problem hence this research work raises awareness for this topic and gives an overview of automated debugging system which are typically associated with the use of dedicated software technologies in the digital world.
Keywords: Computer Program, Debugging, System, Data Collection, Programmer
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NUTRITIVE VALUES OF TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum) , ONION (Allium cepa) , GREEN LEAF (SPINACIA OLERACEA) AND OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus)
*E. I. ADULOJU ** OMACHI A. B.
*Department of Science Technology, School of Applied Science,Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 420 Offa,Kwara State. **Nutrition and Diestetics Department, School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55 Bida, Niger State.
This study attempt to investigate the comparative nutritive value of some selected edible vegetables, Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), Green leaf (Spinacia oleracea) and Onion (Allium cepa) grown and consumed daily by all classes of the population in western Africa generally and Nigeria specifically. These vegetables are consumed fresh during its season and dried during off-season. In this study some nutritional content of the oven dried samples of tomato, okra, Green leaf (Spinacia oleracea) and onion were analyzed. The nutrient profile analyzed are carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture, ash and fibre. The results showed that Green leaf (Spinacia oleracea) recorded the highest percentage of protein (41.3%), tomato (25.7%), Okra (13.1%) and Onion (6.3%) respectively,. Their mineral analysis shows the presence of Ca2+, Zn2+, K+, P+, Na+ and Fe2+ in varying proportions. This shows that these leafy vegetables are good sources of nutrient for bone, teeth and muscle growth and development for humans especially children.
Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum, Abelmoschus esculentus, Green leaf (Spinacia oleracea) oleraces, Nutritional content and Mineral analysis.
PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BREAD PRODUCED FROM MALTED MAIZE –SOY FLOUR BLENDS
EJIM1, M.N., OMACHI2, A.B., ODOR3, C.B., ABIODUN4, M.A., OBAFEMI5, J. K.,
1,2,4,5 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida 3 Department of Hospitality Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida
The presence of gluten in wheat has been reported to cause problems in people with celiac disease (allergy to gluten) which is now of public health concern thereby causing an interest in gluten-free (GF) products. The study aimed at producing gluten-free bread using malted maize and soy bean flour in varying proportion and evaluation of the proximate and sensory properties using 100%wheat flour bread as control. Findings showed that the formulated bread samples had the following results; moisture (24.80%- 33.80%), ash (1.70%-0.25%), crude protein (11.38%-34.88%), crude fiber (0.50%-2.00%), oil extract (29.50-32.03%), carbohydrate (4.59%-24.57%) and energy value (409.28K/Cal-446.15 K/Cal). The sensory evaluation results of the bread samples showed that the highest total score was obtained from sample D (bread sample containing 85% malted maize: 15% soy flour). In conclusion, nutritious and acceptable bread was successfully produced using malted maize and soy flour blends. This study however recommends sample D (85% malted maize and 15% soy bean flour) because the product was the most nutritious and acceptable.
Keywords: Proximate, Composition, Sensory, Properties, Produced.
STORAGE EFFECTS ON CASSAVA PLANTING MATERIAL QUALITY AND SUBSEQUENT VIABILITY AND GERMINATION.
OLADEJO A.O. AND SIKIRU G.K.
Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Nigeria.
Quality of stem is an important factor to determine the viability, germination and plant vigour, consequently the tuber yield of cassava. Storage of cassava stakes before planting can affect the quality of the cutting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the storage effects on cassava planting materials of different sizes as it affect viability and germination. The study was conducted between February to March, 2018 at the Crop production laboratory and the experimental farm of University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The experiment consisted of 3 treatments and each was replicated three times. Each of the treatment consisted of 3 cuttings of different sizes. These were kept in a force draft oven, maintained at a constant temperature of 350C. The percentage weight loss of the cuttings was taking every 24hours for 132 hours. At the end of the experiment the cuttings were planted in the green house to assess their percentage viability, germination and plant vigour. The cuttings with bigger girth (9.5cm) had the least percentage weight loss of 17.33% and highest percentage germinations (88.89%) and of good vigour, while cassava cutting with smallest girth (5.5cm) had the highest percentage weight loss of 32.12% which resulted in no germination at all. It is therefore concluded and recommended that mature cutting of about 9.5cm girth be store for future cultivation.
Keywords: cutting, cassava, girth, weight, pathogenic organisms and germination
PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS ON FACTORS THAT LEADS TO DIVORCES IN JOS NORTH, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
1HAMISU IDI, 2LUKA JOSHUA,3ISAH YAHAYA &4DELONG THOMAS GATA
1 2&4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 3Department of Basic Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
This research work “principal component analysis on factors that lead to divorce” is aimed at finding which factor(s) are responsible for divorce in Jos LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria. The primary source of data was employed via questionnaire method of data collection and the factors considered are Income, Love, Intercourse, Compatibility, No-trust, and Infertility. The researcher used principal component analysis through the help of SPSS and all factors eigen values of one and above are consider as factors that contribute mostly to divorce.
Keywords: Factors, Divorce, & Eigenvaues
EVALUATION OF VITAMIN C CONTENT AND CHEMICAL QUALITIES OF SOME PACKAGED JUICE DRINKS SOLD IN PARTS OF OWERRI, IMO STATE
*NWABUEZE E.U, **NWABUEZE N.O
*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo **Department of Animal and Environmental Bology, Imo State University Owerri
This work on vitamin C content and chemical qualities of some packaged juice drinks sold in parts of Owerri was conducted between the months of May to November, 2014. Different samples of packaged juice drinks were evaluated using standard biochemical methods. Each sample was subjected to vitamin (ascorbic acid) PH, titrable acidity, brix and refractive index evaluation. The result showed a vitamin C range of 18-31mg/100ml for five alive, Exotic, caparison, lucozade boost, ribena and mixed fruit juices. The brix content ranged from 10.01-16.04, while the refractive index varied from 1.3622-1.4632. The PH and titrable acidity varied from 4.86-6.24 and 1.02-2.06 respectively. Therefore, the result of the study shows that the samples evaluated are safe for human consumption.
Key word: Vitamin C, juice drink, Brix, Refractive index, Titrable acidity.
ON THE COMPLEXITY OF A DIGITIZED LOGISTIC MAP
1RAKIYA MK ADAMU, 2ALIYU DANLADI HINA, 3ISA YAHAYA
1,2,3Dept. of Mathematics & Statistics, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.
A topologically conjugate map that is equivalent to the well known logistic map with and is constructed. This constructed map’s domain is defined to be the integer domain [0, 2n). This domain has a one to one correspondence to the points in the interval [0, 1] with n-bits precision. The topological conjugacy of the two maps and the dynamics of the constructed map were found to define the same dynamics as that of the logistic map with very similar lyapunov exponents. With a view to be applied in cryptography as a Pseudo-Random number generator (PRNG), the complexity of the constructed map as a source of randomness is determined using both the Permutation entropy (PE) and the Lempel-Ziv (LZ-76) complexity measures, and the results are compared with numerical simulations.
Keywords: Leveling Network, LSE, MATLAB, Weighted, Unweighted.
LEVELING NETWORK ADJUSTMENT USING MATLAB
1LAWALI RABIU, 2UMAR BARDE, AND 3MOHAMMED BALA G.
1& Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, P.M.B. 1006, Yobe State, Nigeria. 3College of Agriculture Gujba, P.M.B.1104, Yobe State, Nigeria.
We currently live in what is often termed the technological age. Aided by new and emerging technologies, data are being collected at unprecedented rates in all walks of life. For example, in the field of surveying, digital level instrument, total station instruments, global positioning system (GPS) equipment, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital metric cameras, and satellite imagery systems are only some of the new instruments that are now available for rapid generation of vast quantities of measured data. . In this research the leveling network consist of six stations was analyzed, using weighted and unweighted observation equations of LSE. The aim of this analysis is to find out, if leveling network can be realized and the reliability of the methods via MATLAB. The results obtained from these methods are compared. The results showed that an accuracy of sub-centimeter level could be obtained from the two methods. Conclusion was drawn concerning the suitability of the methods for leveling network adjustment via MATLAB program.
Keywords: Leveling Network, LSE, MATLAB, Weighted, Unweighted.