CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (IJETR) VOL 17 (5)
ISSN-2329-7309 (PRINT) SEPTEMBER, 2019 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International
Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle,
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria.
Copyright © 2019 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ELECTRONIC ENTERPRISES IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA
OGENYI, OGABA SUNDAY, DR. RAYMOND, E., DR. T. M. SABA
Industrial and Technology Education Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna
The study is focused on Performance Management Practices Among Small and Medium Scale Electronic Enterprises in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Two objectives and Two research questions guided the study. Mixed method of research design was adopted. The Population of the study comprises of Four Hundred and Twenty-one (421) Technical Personnel and One Hundred and Seventy-Nine (179) Managers of the major electronics SMEs in Abuja, Nigeria, this includes those located in Wuse, Kubwa, Garki, and Abuja Municipal Area. This amount to 74 enterprises that are registered with the Cooperate Affairs Commission (CAC). Simple random sampling technique was used to sample a total of Ninety-three (93) managers and one hundred and fifty-six (156) technical personnel for the study. The total sample population is, therefore, two hundred and forty-nine (249) respondents. Quantitative data was obtained from descriptive survey research design which involves the use of questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained from interviews of Managers and Technicians. Copies of the drafted instruments was validated by three experts two from the Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna and one from SMEDAN. Data collected was analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and Z-test to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. It was thus found among others that; Employees are rarely train on the main purpose of performance management as well as to improve their capacity, employees are rarely involved in the planning process and that their work progress is seldom monitored. Thus, it was recommended that Electronic SMES owners should organize a series of workshops and training for all staff at all levels on the main purpose of the performance management system. Performance management is associated with the creation of a shared vision and aims of the organization and that Organizations should ensure active participation of staff in target setting for the performance management system at all department levels depending on job profiles, strengths of employees and resource availability.
Keywords: Performance, Management, SMEs, Practices, and FCT.
EFFECT OF CYCLIC CORRECTION ON SOLAR QUIET GEOMAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION
1T.Y. KOLADE-OJE*, 2I. A. ADIMULA AND 3E.T OMOTOSO
1, 2University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
3Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
In analyses of the solar quiet field, it is necessary to determine and remove the non-cyclic variation, which is regarded as an after effect of magnetic storms and not part of the true solar quiet variation. For this study the cyclic correction method was used to correct for the non-cyclic variation in the horizontal components during solar quiets days of year 2007-2009 for seven stations along the 210MM. Five of the ten observed relatively quiets days were selected for each month of each year to study the geomagnetic intensity of the horizontal H component. The Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) data recorded in minutes was converted to hourly values using codes written with MATLAB program. The baseline (BL) value was deduced by calculating the hourly average value of the 4 hours from the local midnight (0100, 0200, 2300 and 2400 LT). The obtained values were further corrected for non cyclic variation. The results revealed that the corrected and uncorrected solar quiet horizontal field shows the same pattern for diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation with observable differences most dominant at the peaks and minimum points between 5LT to 14LT. The non-cyclic variation field obtained was seen to be latitudinal dependent with equatorial stations having the highest values and Ashibetsu, Culgoora , Camden, and Cooktown showed irregular variation which is due to their latitudinal position. The Seasonal variation shows semi- annual pattern with maximum during the equinoctial season which is due to enhanced electron density at the equinox seasons. The result of this study confirm that the cyclic correction method used to correct for non-cyclic variation shows that the non-cyclic variation has the same pattern as the solar quiet variation and the difference between the corrected and uncorrected values of the solar quiet variation is more prominent at the minimum and maximum points between 5lt to around 14lt.
Keywords: [solar quiet, non-cyclic variation, cyclic correction, geomagnetic horizontal component]
ASSESSMENT OF THE ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MODIFIED WITH PLASTIC WASTES
GANA A. J., ATOYEBI O. D. & ADEKUNLE A. E.
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Landmark University Omu-Aran, Kwara State
Recycling is considered to be one of the most important bases of sustainability. Almost all the products we make use of, whether they are metal, wood glass or even plastic, will eventually turn into waste that must be disposed. The best way to deal with this waste is recycle and reduce them as modifiers. This will reduce the drain on the natural resources of the raw materials, and it will reduce the spaces used as landfills. Among these wastes are plastics, which are widely used in our daily life. Waste plastic has been used in the road construction as a substitute to bitumen in the hot asphalt mix in many countries so as guarantee the sustainable management of the plastic waste. The aim of this study is to assess the engineering properties of asphaltic concrete modified with Plastic waste. Two types of plastic were used which are Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and High Density Polythylene (HDPE). Aggregate properties were conducted using Sieve analysis, Aggregate crushing test, Aggregate impact test and Abrasion test. The plastics were gathered, shredded, heated and blended into various proportions such as 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for both LDPE and HDPE. Bitumen tests such as ductility test, penetration test and softening point test were carried out to compare the effect of HDPE had better properties from its less penetration and its increase in temperature for the softening point. 56% coarse aggregates, 24% fine aggregates, 15% filler and 5% bitumen was used for mixture. Marshall stability test was carried out to find out the Marshall properties of the bituminous concrete mixtures. The stability values for HDPE were higher than the values of LDPE.
Keywords: Assessment; Engineering properties, Asphaltic concrete, modified, plastic wastes.
CORE ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SKILLS REQUIRED BY MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS FOR TROUBLESHOOTING ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM OF MODERN AUTOMOTIVE IN NIGER STATE
ALABI, JAMES OLUFEMI1, IDRIS ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED2, OWODUNNI AYANDA SAMUEL3
1Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna 2Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna 3Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna
The era of depending solely on trial by error method and the experience of motor vehicle mechanics when troubleshooting various systems and subsystems of modern automotive is gradually coming to an end. This study was therefore carried out to identify the core on-board diagnostic (OBD) skills required by motor vehicle mechanics for troubleshooting engine performance and transmission system of modern automotive in Niger State. A survey research design was employed for the study. The population for the study comprised 833 motor vehicle mechanic master craftsmen and 29 automobile technology lecturers. A structured questionnaire which was designed by the researcher was used for collecting data from the respondents. The instrument was validated by three experts. Cronbach alpha reliability method was employed to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire items and reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained. Two research questions guided the study while the two null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 levels of significance. It was found out that all the forty skills suggested are required by motor vehicle mechanics for troubleshooting engine performance and transmission system of modern for modern automotive. It was therefore recommended that all the skills identified in this study be included in the training given to motor vehicle mechanics apprentices in Niger State. The state government should come to the aid of the motor vehicle mechanics by providing funds to enable them undertake the training as well as procure OBD scan tool.
Keywords: Diagnostic, Required, Mechanics, Troubleshooting Engine Performance.
ASSESSMENT OF THE AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF PREPAID METERS IN ABUJA ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY (AEDC) IN LOKOJA METROPOLIS
ISAH USMAN MUAZU, DR. SAMUEL AYANDA OWODUNNI & DR. DAUDA IBRAHIM
Federal University of Technology, Minna
The study was able to assess the availability and utilization of prepaid meters in Abuja Electricity Distribution Company (AEDC) in Lokoja metropolis. In order to attain the pertinent information of the study, six research questions and six hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Survey descriptive design was adopted with the administration of three hundred sixty eight (368) items questionnaire was developed and use to obtain data from respondents three hundred and thirty-five (335) consumer of Abuja Electricity Distribution Company (AEDC) and thirty-three (33) AEDC staff of Abuja Electricity Distribution Company (AEDC) respectively. The data was analysed using frequency, mean, standard deviation and z-test statistics. The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 levels of significance. The study reveals that level of availability of prepaid meters in Lokoja metropolis, the ‘Single phase (2Wire) 5(60) AMPS credit Static meter, 3Phase 4Wire 5(60) AMPS Electronic credit meter among others were moderately available. Indicating that prepaid meter are not fully available to the consumers. It was also discovered that the consumers are highly impressed with the extended of suitability of the use of prepaid meter. The findings depicted that lack of presence of local meter manufacturer, corruption, lack of quality consultation and education, high level of electricity consumption, experiencing difficulty while trying to change tariff, high cost of meter acquisition are factors impeding the provision of prepaid meter, among other are challenges faces provision of prepaid meter. The researcher also recommended that the government should set policies that will enhance local meter manufactures to be productive which will in turn increase its availability, proper regulation should be made on the tariff charge on the prepaid meter in order to enhance its utilization. Consumer should be enlightening on the use of prepaid meter as well as it relevance importance over any other means.
Keywords: Availability, utilization, prepaid meters, AEDC staffs and customers
ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMOBILE WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA
DAUDA ADEDOKUN1,*, RUFAI AUDU2
School of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna
The purpose of the study was to assess automobile waste management practices in Osun State, Nigeria. The study answered two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and population for the study was 388 respondents comprised of 208 registered automobile mechanics master craftsmen and 180 officials of all waste management regulatory agencies in Osun State. A structured questionnaire which contains 37 items designed to obtain information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and z-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses 1 and 2. Based on the data analyzed, the following findings among others revealed that hazardous automobile waste are not usually stored in closed containers neither collected by licensed agencies, used refrigerants from vehicle are not collected in approved recovery equipment for off-site reclamation, the used oils generated from mechanics workshop are disposed around their workshop to control dust and weeds, battery charger discharge used acid anywhere around their shop. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made: environmental agencies should introduce public enlightenment and education on the consequences of indiscriminate disposal of automobile wastes, periodical monitoring and assessment of automobile waste management by environmental agencies should be conducted as stipulated by law, and shops alleged for environmental pollution be sanctioned.
Keywords: Assessment, Automobile, Waste, Management
RESPONSE OPTIMIZATION APPROACH OF BIO-OIL PRODUCTION PARAMETERS USING SHEA BUTTER SHELL.
MOHAMMED B. I.*1 AND GARBA M. U.2
1,2Department of Chemical Engineering Federal University of Technology, Minna
This paper focus on the response optimization approach of Bio-oil production operating parameters from shea butter shell. The optimization of the pyrolysis thermal conversion of biomass was carried out using 23 Response Surface Methodology (RSM) experimental design of experiment studying the effect of Temperature (265-685 °C), Residence Time (7min-77 min), and Heating Rate (3-36 °C/min) at constant feed mass of 100g per run. The results of operating variable effects shows that bio-oil yield depends on significant variables of the process. Temperature and Heating Rate were found to be significant to obtain optimum bio-oil yield experimentally. Optimum yield off the study was 51.50 ml against 71.00 ml of the predicted model. The results of effect of process variables revealed that an optimum condition for the bio-oil synthesis was at a temperature of 600 °C, heating Rate of 30 °C/min and residence time of 20min of the parameters are values which optimum was obtained. The statistical analyses of the data lead to development of the second order quadratic polynomial regression model which establishes the relationship between bio-oil yield and the process variables. The model was able adequately to predict the bio yield with a co efficient of determination (R) of 0.7992.
Keywords: Optimization, Approach, Bio-Oil, Parameters, Shea Butter Shell.
DEVELOPMENT OF SPIN DRYER MACHINE
1ALHASSAN T. YAHAYA, 2MUHAMMADU M. M.
1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology P.M.B 65, Gidan Kwanu Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
A spin dryer is a dryer that uses centrifugal force and air interaction to dry BSG at ambient temperature, it is independent of sunshine. The major problem facing breweries in the country is how to utilize the spent grains after brewing due to its high moisture content. A spin spent grain dryer machine capable of drying 3kg of spent grain in 30min was designed, fabricated and evaluated. Fundamental design analysis and calculations were carried out to determine the selected materials for appropriate strength and sizes of the machine elements. The major parts of the machine include; internal basket with mesh diameter of 0.5mm, 2hp electric motor, the outer drum and the frame assembly. The results obtained after testing the machine shows the drying rate of the machine was 27.7g/min at a speed of 2840rpm and moisture content of 27.7% on weight basis. The efficiency of the machine was evaluated to be 72.3%. The operation of the machine is simple and its maintenance is also easy. It is thus found useful in the small scale spent grain processing industry.
Keywords: Spin, Spent grain, Basket, Centrifugal force, Development.
REACTIVE AND RELIABILITY-BASED MAINTENANCE PRACTICES ADOPTED IN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION LINE NETWORKS OF ABUJA ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY
USMAN IBRAHIM, USMAN GARBA ALIYU (PHD), AND BALA M. MOHAMMED (PHD)
Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
The study sought to identify Reactive maintenance (RM)) practices adopted in electrical distribution line networks of AEDC. Two research questions guided this study and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument for data collection was a 25 items Reactive Maintenance Practices Questionnaire developed by the researcher. The instrument was validated by three experts. The population for the study was 702 subjects. Simple Random Sampling Technique (SRST) was adopted to select four out of the six regional offices to represent the entire population of 245 respondents for the study. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was obtained using split-Half Method and Pearson Product Moment Correlation and yielded an index of 0.86. Data collected for this study were analyzed using Mean and z-test statistics. Mean was used to answer the research questions while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings for research question one revealed that, 10 out of 15 items were the reactive maintenance practices adopted in electrical distribution line networks of AEDC. Findings for research question two revealed that all the 10 items are the challenges faced in reactive maintenance practices adopted in electrical distribution line networks of AEDC. Findings for hypotheses one and two revealed that, there was no significant difference between the mean responses of distribution line engineers and technicians/technologists based on each research question. It was therefore concluded that AEDC must move away from the traditional maintenance mode to modern and improved reactive maintenance practices.
Keywords: Reactive, Reliability-Based, Maintenance, Practices, Electrical.
INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF BENZOTRIAZOLE AND AMINE MIXTURES ON THE CORROSION OF GREY CAST IRON IN 0.1M POTASSIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS
ALAGBE AND D.A. ADEGBITE
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria
Inhibitory effects of triethanolamine [(CH2CH2OH)2], triethylamine [(CH3CH2)3N], triethanolamine [(CH2CH2OH)2] + benzotriazole [C6H5N3] and triethylamine [(CH3CH2)3N] + benzotriazole [C6H5N3] on the corrosion of grey cast iron in 0.1M potassium chloride (KCl) solutions have been investigated using the weight loss immersion and polarization methods. The inhibitive potentials of the four inhibitors were evaluated based on a determination of the corrosion rates in the presence and absence of the inhibitors at room temperature. The results obtained indicate that benzotriazole + triethanolamine and benzotriazole + triethylamine were observed to be more efficient than triethanolamine and triethylamine by providing corrosion inhibition at molar concentrations of 10-3M and 10-2M respectively. It was also observed that triethanolamine, triethylamine, triethanolamine + benzotriazole and triethylamine + benzotriazole showed considerable potentials with inhibition efficiencies of about 71.2%, 78.4%, 84.9% and 88.4% respectively in 0.1M potassium chloride solutions for grey cast iron. Polarization data revealed that benzotriazole is acting mainly on the anodic process rendering the passive film more stable and less susceptible to attack by the chloride ions. However, benzotriazole increased the pitting potential, but has a marginal influence on the behaviour of the grey cast iron under cathodic polarization. The results of this work are expected to be used to improve the corrosion resistance of cast iron for automobile and chemical industries in Nigeria.
Keywords: corrosion, chloride, cast iron, inhibition efficiency, polarization.
DELINEATION OF SHALLOW GAS RESERVOIR USING SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES: IMPLICATION IN RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
RIGHTEOUS. E. OMBU, ORITSEBEMIGHO.O. ULORI, JUSTIN IKIRIGO, ALVAN WARIEBI KIGHIGHA
Department of Physics with Electronics, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
In the interpretation of 3D seismic data for hydrocarbon reservoir delineation, low-frequency shadow zones are observed both at shallow depths from reflectors below gas sands, condensates and in much deeper oil reservoirs on seismic reflections. These low-frequency shadow zones are important in reservoir characterization studies, geohazard analysis and drilling of boreholes, because, they depict the likelihood of hydrocarbon reservoir units in the subsurface. In this study, we have used seismic attribute assisted technique and theoretical approach to delineate a low-frequency shadow zone such as shallow gas reservoir (amplitude anomaly) in a 3D seismic data and predict reservoir properties. The result of seismic attributes analysis delineates an amplitude anomaly (bright spot) at an approximate depth of 525ms close to a major fault line. We interpreted the amplitude anomaly (bright spot) as a major hydrocarbon reservoir at shallow depth in the study area, probably due to the presence of biogenic gas pockets that may have migrated to the reservoir zone from the gas formed by thermogenic process at depths well below 1000ms. In addition, thin bed reservoir thickness is estimated at 12.02m which is under seismic resolution. With the available sonic log data of the well passing the reservoir zone, we estimated the porosity of the reservoir zone at 29%. Thus, the reservoir is highly porous and could vary along the reservoir zone. The most negative curvature seismic attribute delineates shallow channel geometry with strong negative anomalies along channel axis in the reservoir zone capable of trapping shallow gas. These strong negative curvature anomalies are interpreted to be sand filled channels that have probably undergone differential compaction.
Keywords: Delineation, shallow gas, seismic attributes, and reservoir characterization.
DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC DISC WATER FILTER FOR DOMESTIC USE
ALIYU, M.M USMAN, N AUDU
Chemical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria
This research aimed at to develop ceramic water filters and evaluate their performance with respect to flowrate, turbidity, hardness, and microbial removal efficiency from unclean water. The filters were developed from wood sawdust (SD) and rice husk (RH) (combustible materials) by proportionating the quantity of clay to the combustible materials. The volume ratios of the materials used were 15C:15SD, 20C:10SD, 23C:9.5SD, 25C:10RH and 30C:11.5RH. The filtered developed was pressed in a disc shaped container to the final shape, dried and fired at 850°C for six hours (6) in a furnace. The developed ceramic disc water filters were tested for their performance with respect to flowrate, turbidity reduction and bacterial removal efficiencies. The flow rates of 15C:15SD 20C:10SD, 23C:9.5SD, 25C:10RH and 30C:11.5RH filters were 12 ml/hr, 8 ml/hr, 6 ml/hr, 8.5 ml/hr and 7 ml/hr, respectively when the water level was maintained at its maximum height. These filters reduced turbidity to <5 NTU. Total coliform and fecal coliform were used to quantify bacterial removal effectiveness. The filters showed an average removal efficiency of 98.5% and 100% for total coliform and fecal coliform indicator bacteria from unclean water. Ceramic water filter development is a good House water treatment and safe storage system for Nigeria. Hence, the information collected in this study provides a basis for future work. Therefore, further study and scale – up of the ceramic water filter is needed for providing microbiologically improved household drinking water to avert and control waterborne diseases.
Keyword: ceramic water filters, fecal coliform, total coliform.
OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PLACEMENT CONSIDERING VOLTAGE PROFILE IMPROVEMENT AND LOSS REDUCTION: CASE STUDY ON 11KV MINNA DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
1MUSA DOKO GARBA 2MAGIN RACHEAL NNAGANA 3OLANITE OLANRENWAJU AJE 4ABDULLAHI A. YANDA
1Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Niger, State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Nageria. 2,3Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Nigeria 4Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nageria.
Distributed generation (DG) devices can be strategically placed in power systems for grid reinforcement so as to minimize real power losses, improve bus voltages and increase the efficiency of the distribution system. The optimal DG placement (OPDG) method is used to provide the best locations and sizes of DGs to optimize electrical distribution network operation taking into account DG capacity and voltage constraints. This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique for the optimal allocation of Distributed Generation (DG) units in the network. Three types of DGs are considered and the distribution load flow is used to calculate exact loss. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with PSO to access acceptable results of this operation. Objective function is formulated for determining the optimal location and sizing of distributed generation (DG) units in the distribution network for active power loss reduction and voltage profile enhancement. The suggested method is programmed under ETAP Version 12.6.0 (2012) software.
Keywords—Distributed Generation (DG), Optimal Placement of DG, Distribution Network, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Power Loss Minimization, Voltage Profile Improvement.
ANALYSIS OF BALANITE AEGYPTIACA (ADUWA) OIL USED AS A BRAKE FLUID IN MECHANICAL BRAKE SYSTEM
ORISANAIYE BRUNO AKINJIDE
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria.
The Hydraulic properties of Aduwa Oil and Dot 3 hydraulic fluid were determined experimentally using appropriate equipment and devices. The hydraulic properties of Aduwa Oil are; Viscosity at 40 ºC and 100 ºC are 168.23 cst and 16.15 cst flash point is 190 ºC, Compressibility is 1562 Mpa, PH value is 8.5, Boiling point is 68 ºC, Pour point is – 35 ºC, Actuating force is 3060N and torque absorbed is 306Nm. Whereas the hydraulic properties of Dot 3 hydraulic fluid are; Viscosity at 40 ºC and 100 ºC are 132 cst and 10.2 cst, flash point is 301 ºC, Compressibility is 1700 Mpa, PH value is 7.4, boiling point is 186 ºC, pour point is – 50 ºC, actuating force is 1830 N and torque absorbed is 183 Nm. Our investigation on the hydraulic properties of Aduwa Oil reveals that properties like pour point, PH value and flash point satisfied the requirement by ISO standard for hydraulic fluid, hence more work is needed to be done on viscosity, compressibility and boiling point of the oil under investigation.
Keywords: Flashpoint, viscosity, pour point, actuating force.
EFFECT OF LDPE SCRAP COMPOSITION ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED PVC
*A.T. SULE, M.I. ALIKO, K.S. ABDULLAHI and M.S. MATO
Department of Textile Technology and Fashion, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano – Nigeria
Plastic is a versatile and inexpensive material with thousands of uses, but it is also a significant source of pollution. Some worrisome emerging environmental issues involve plastics, including gigantic oceanic garbage parches and the micro beads problem. In an effort to combat these problems most plastics are being recycled today. Two common plastics, Low density polyethylene and Polyvinylchloride, were melt-mixed at different percentages of 10/90 – 50/50% of LDPE / PVC and tested. The sample with 10% LDPE composition showed higher tensile strength, moderate elongation and higher modulus. Results also indicate that the tensile strength decreases as the percentage of PVC is decreased. Sample 40/60 has the highest elongation property, however, samples 10/90 and 50/50 displayed higher modulus. The flexural strength, which is the ability of the specimen to resist deformation, generally decreased as the composition of LDPE was increased with 10/90 sample having highest value of 46.4Mpa.
Keywords: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), Blending Composition, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength.
IMPROVEMENT ON THE DESIGN OF A SMALL SCALE ANAEROBIC FLOATING DRUM BIOGAS DIGESTER
ALIBE MUSTAPHA ALI *, YUSUF MOHAMMED CHINDO, SHUAIBU AUDU YARO
Department of Mechanical Engineering Federal Polytechnic Damaturu
This project work is focused on improvement on the design and fabrication of a bio-digester and generation of biogas using cow dung and rumen fluid as substrate. A biogas digester with a capacity of 50litres was designed and fabricated, the substrate (cow dung and rumen fluid) were mixed in the ratio 3:2 and water to substrate ratio of 2:1 was used. The digester was stirred thoroughly to avoid scum formation in the digester and to allow for easy escape of the gas produced. The retention time used for this experiment was 42 days during which the daily internal temperature reading was taken in order to determine temperature variation and also to determine the effect of sunlight on the production rate. Result of this study showed that methane has the highest percentage and generally cow dung with rumen fluid easily subjected them to anaerobic digestion. From the project carried out on the improvement on the design and construction of the floating drum type bio digester (plastic) it was found out that the introduction of frames which prevent the gas holder from tilting and the black plastic drum and gas collector which has high heat absorption and retention have significant effect in the production of the biogas. It was found out that the initial PH value of the slurry is 8.5 and with the help of the heat adsorption and retention in 21days dropped the PH value to 6.5 which acidic and combustible. Recent research suggested that 1kg of cow dung will produced 0.264m3 of gas, but with the improvement made, 0.305m3 per 1kg of cow dung and rumen fluid was produced. This implies that for a design capacity of 25kg cow dung and rumen fluid it is expected that 8.75m3 of gas would be produced.
Keywords: biogas, digester, cow dung, rumen fluid, PH value.