BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE (BJMBPS) (VOL. 10 NO. 3)
ISSN: 1211-4401 September, 2019
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHIC FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC AND N-HEXANE LEAVES EXTRACT OF Senna occidentalis AND Boswellia dalzielii ON SOME CLINICAL FUNGAL ISOLATES
Hauwa Bello Abubakar and Aisha Umar
Faculty of Science, Sokoto State University, Sokoto
Plants notably Senna occidentalis, and Boswellia dalzielii, have been documented to be effective against fungal species, this work is aimed at separating various fractions of the selected plants leaves extract using chromatographic techniques and to also assess the column chromatographic fraction of each of these plants for antifungal activities. The chromatographic fractions of methanol and n- hexane leaves extracts of Senna occidentalis and Boswellia dalzielii was determined. The column fractions revealed five fractions in each extracts of both plants (n- hexane fractions 1to 5 and methanol fractions 1 to 5). The antifungal activity of column chromatographic fractions of n- hexane leaves extract of Senna occidentalis indicated that, both the fractions were active against C. albican, and C. pseudotropicalis at concentration of 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml, and showed little effect against A. flavus with no activity against A. niger. Analysis of variance was conducted and the results indicated that there was no significant difference between the different fractions of the plants tested against organisms. The result of the antifungal activity of column chromatographic fractions of methanolic extracts of Senna occidentalis indicated high antifungal activity against C. albican, C. pseudotropicalis at both concentrations of 10, 20, and 30mg/ml, with little effect against A. niger and A. flavus especially at 10mg/ml concentration. The result of the antifungal activity of column fractions of n- hexane extract of Boswellia dalzielii indicated that n- hexane fractions 1-5 showed highest activity against C. albican and C. pseudotropicalis but with little activity against A. flavus and no activity against A. niger. Analysis of varience was conducted which reveal that there is no significant difference between the tested plants against organisms.The antifungal activity of column chromatographic fraction of methanol leaves extract of Boswellia dalzielii revealed high activity against C. albican and C. pseudotropicalis at various concentrations used. High activity was also recorded against A. niger at concentration of 20 and 30 mg/ml, with less activity recorded against A. Flavus. Analysis of varience was carried out and the results revealed that there is no significant difference between the plants tested against organisms. From the results obtained in this work, it is apparently cleared that both the fractions of the two plants were active against the tested isolates especially the methanolic extract of both plants.
Keywords: Medicinal Plants, ANTIFUNGAL, Senna Occidentalis, Boswellia Dalzielii
FFECTS OF pH AND PROCESSING ON THE CYANOGEN POTENTIALS OF IRISH POTATO (Solanum tuberosum) USING METHAEMOGLOBIN COMPLEX
B.M. OLANREWAJU1, J. MOHAMMED1*, I. JIBRIN1, K. S. MADAKI2, K. IDRIS, I.A. MOHAMMAD
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural & Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State. University, Keffi, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Natural & Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.
This study was aimed at investigating the effects of pH and processing on the cyanogen potentials of raw, cooked, parboiled, roasted and baked Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) using methaemoglobin. The investigation was carried out at pH values ranging from 5.6 to 9.0 at intervals of 0.2 using a colorimeter. The results showed that the cyanide concentrations fell within the range of 1.18 ± 0.2316 mg/kg to 0.26 ± 0.034 mg/kg with raw potato having the highest concentration(1.18 ± 0.2316 mg/kg) at pH 8.6 and boiled potato having the lowest cyanide concentration (0.26 ± 0.034 mg/kg) at pH of 6.2. Among the processed samples, the roasted Irish potato recorded the highest value of cyanide concentration (1.12 ± 0.0289 mg/kg) while boiled potato maintained its position with the lowest value of cyanide concentration (0.26 ± 0.034 mg/kg) at pHs of 8.6 and 6.2 respectively. These values are low when compared with the maximum accepted value of 10 mg of HCN /1 kg body weight recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and International Standard Organization (ISO). However, the study, provides information on the toxicity level of cyanide in raw and processed potatoes and therefore, suggests that the Irish potatoes may be safe for consumption using any of the above processing methods. It also shows that the processing methods can further reduce the cyanogen potentials of Irish potatoes which is in line with other literatures.
Key words: Irish potato, Processing, pH, Cyanide, Methemoglobin.
SONOCHEMISTRY AND ITS APPLICATION; A REVIEW
*EZE, SUNDAY ONYEKWERE AND ORJI JOSHUA NKECHUKWU
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University Uturu
Sequel to the pervasive nature of chemistry and the need to arouse renewed interest in some rare branches of chemistry, the field of sonochemistry and its applications was reviewed. The effects of ultrasonic waves on chemical reactions such as initiating disrupting or hastening chemical processes was highlighted. The use of sonochemistry in medicine, agriculture, pharmaceuticals and in industries were discussed. The application of ultrasound in analytical chemistry especially its use in sample preparation and acceleration of sample digestion were mentioned. It is hoped that this review will help in directing studies and research interest in this field of sonochemistry which may open up major breakthrough and major technological leap in science and technology in the future.
Keywords: Sonochemistry, Piezo-electric effect, ultrasonics, sonication, ultrasound, acoustics.
THE DOSIMETRY OF X-RAY LINE SOURCE IN TISSSUES
AREMU S.O and HAQUE M.F. ODELAMI K.A. NDAWASHI M.
The absorbed doses in tissues due to X- ray line sources was computed as a function of exposure time, Photon energy, attenuation angles and the length of the source. The absorbed dose is found to increase linearly with exposure time and attenuation angles while it increases gradually and approaches towards a stationary value as the length of the source is increased. With the increase in Photon energy, the absorbed dose is found to increase almost linearly while it decreases exponentially as the distance between the source and the target is increased.
Keywords: Osimetry, X-Ray, Line. Source Tisssues.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GUINEA PIG (Cavia porcellus) USING PROCEESSED AND LOCAL FEEDS
Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.
A research conducted on the growth performance of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) using processed and local feeds was carried out to compare the effect of feeding pattern and growth performance of C. porcellus under laboratory condition. A total number of 9 guinea pigs (C. porcellus) were obtained from Lokuwa behind prison yard Mubi and were divided into 3 groups of 3 each which were used for this study. the results showed that there is increased in body weight and body length of the C. porcellus for those that were fed with processed feeds group ‘’a’’ while there was decreased in body weight of C.porcellus that were fed with local feeds group ‘’b’’ and those in group ‘’c’’ (control group) showed a rapid increased in the body weight and length of the C.porcellus that were fed with both the processed and local feeds. The body weight of C. porcellus increased from 298.0 g to 650.0g and statistically there is a significant difference (p< 0.05) of the body weight and length of C. porcellus under laboratory condition. the length of C. porcellus increased from 22.0cm to 26.0cm and the statistical mean of the length was ± 23.74 and there is a significant difference at (p<0.05) of the body weight and length of C. porcellus under laboratory condition. Therefore, it is recommended that both the processed and local feeds should be used to feed the C. porcellus.
Keywords: Guinea pig, (Cavia porcellus), Processed, Local Feeds, Growth performance, Mubi
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PREFERENCE STUDIES AND SHORT TIME INTAKE OF VARYING MIXTURES OF GMELINA ARBOREA AND FICUS POLITA LEAVES FED TO GROWING BUNAJI BULLS.
1OYEWO, T. O., 2LAMIDI, O.S., 1ABDU, S.B., 1IBRAHIM, T.A., 1ZAKKA, T., 1IDOWU, W. AND 1KPERUN, N.T.
1Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 2National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika- Zaria.
In the North western part of Nigeria, there are two distinct seasons viz rainy and dry. Forage availability is seasonal. Rainy period is known with forage abundance while scarcity is experienced during the dry season. Therefore, in order to broaden the feed base for ruminants in Nigeria, Preference study was carried out on graded Gmelina arborea and Ficus polita foliage combination. Relative Preference Intake(RPI) and Short Time Intake(STI) trial was conducted for six (6) days with five (5 days) adjustment period using six (6) growing Bunaji bulls in a cafeteria feeding system. The bulls were fed 2 kg of Gmelina and Ficus leave combination for three (3) hours daily in a cafeteria system. Results shows that lowest crude protein of 13.81% was observed in Combination 4 of 20:80 Gmelina arborea and Ficus polita foliage while the highest CP of 18.63% in Combination 1 of 80:20 Gmelina arborea and Ficus polita foliage and Combination 2 of 40:60 Gmelina arborea and Ficus polita foliage. The content of ADF and NDF ranged from 10.60 to 23.82% and 18.90 to 31.77%. Combination 1 had the highest value of RPI and STI of 0.93 and 1.87(Kg DM/3hrs while Combination 4 had the lowest values of 0.49 and 0.98(Kg DM/3hrs). It was concluded that growing Bunaji bulls preferred 80:20 Gmelina arborea and Ficus polita foliage combination; thus maybe vital composition for supplemental feeding of growing Bunaji bulls.
Keywords: Relative Preference Intake, Short Time Intake, Cafeteria feeding, Bunaji bulls, Gmelina arborea and Ficus polita.
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AMONG LACTATING MOTHERS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER LEMU, NIGER STATE.
EJIM1, M.N., OMACHI2, A.B., ODOR3, C.B., ABIODUN4, M.A., EFFIONG5, E. E.
1,2,4, 5Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida 3Department of Hospitality Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida
Exclusive breastfeeding(EBF) refers to the exclusive intake of breast milk or expressed breast milk by an infant without the addition of any other liquids or solids, however, the decline in exclusive breastfeeding rates in Nigeria is worrisome, and has become of public health importance therefore, this study aim at investigating the knowledge, attitude and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among lactating mothers attending primary health care centre in Lemu, Gbako Local Government Area, Niger state. A cross sectional study was conducted using well-structured questionnaire administered to 80 lactating mothers and data collected were analysed using SPSS version 20.0 while A five-point Likert scale was used to measure the knowledge and attitude of the respondents. About two-third (60.0%) indicated that exclusive breastfeeding is for 6 months while 8.8% disagreed that exclusive breastfeeding is for 6 months. Three-quarter (78.8%) of the mothers strongly agreed that exclusive breastfeeding can help to enhance parent-child intimacy while few (6.2%) disagreed. Majority (65.0%) strongly agreed on the practice of exclusive breastfeeding, 31.7% agreed on combining breastfeeding with infant formula while only 1.2% did not agree on exclusive breastfeeding. Few (6.3%) believed exclusive breastfeeding is an outdated fashion while 62.2% did not accept the fact that exclusive breastfeeding is an outdated fashion. Majority (81.2%) of the mothers exclusively breastfed their infants, almost one-third (42.5%) of the mothers gave breast milk to their infants immediately after delivery while majority (57.5%) breastfed few hours after delivery, majority of the civil servant mothers could not practice exclusive breast feeding for the stipulated period of time ,Thus, it is recommended that maternity be extended for this group of people and policy makers should ensure that crèche are provided within government parastatals or workplace to improve compliance level of mothers.
Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, primary health care, Lemu, Lactating mothers, Niger State.
COMPARISON OF pH VALUES IN SELECTED WATER TREATMENT PLANTS OF PLATEAU STATE.
1ADEDIRE Oludare., and 2POPOOLA, A.S..
1,2Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria P.M.B 2019, Jos.
Investigation for comparison of pH values in three water treatment plants of Plateau State Water Board is carried out in this research work. The aim is to ascertain whether all Plateau State residents receive the same range of water pH values in their drinking water. Main analyses are also centred on determining whether there is statistical significant difference in the acidity or alkalinity of drinking water in the selected water treatment plants. Shapiro-Wilk test shows that the data follows normal distribution and the application of the Levene’s test shows that the validity of homogeneous assumption holds. One Way ANOVA confirms that the difference between monthly pH values of the three selected water treatment plants are statistically significant. To be sure, we applied non-parametric independent Kruskal-Wallis test since the sample size is small and the assumption of normality and homogeneity of variances are not required. The p-value obtained is 0.001 at 0.05 significance level hence there is statistical significant difference in the pH of the three water treatment plants. This result agrees very well with that of One-Way ANOVA. The Tukey-Kramer test and its homogeneous subsets for monthly pH value of the three water treatment plants confirm that water treatment 1 and water treatment 2 are significantly different in monthly pH values from water treatment 3. The mean plots for the three water treatment plants shows that treatment 3 has highest mean pH value compared to the other two.
Keywords: pH values, water treatment, acidity, alkalinity, disinfectant, Water Board, Plateau state.
EFFECTS OF KASHIN KUDA (LANTANA CAMARA) ON FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TOMATOE FRUITS FROM FARIN-GADA MARKET, JOS NORTHERN NIGERIA.
Olori-Oke, O. E., and H. M. Yahaya.
Pest Management Technology Department, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria.
The experiment was conducted in the Biology Laboratory of Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria during 2017/2018 session. It was carried out to determine the antifungal effect of different concentrations of aqueous extract from Lantana camara leaves on the most two occurring fungi on tomato fruits. The treatments consisted of plant extract with four varying concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200g/l) evaluated alongside the control. The treatments were laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The result of the experiment showed that, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer at 50% and 33% respectively were found to be most prevalent than the other fungi tested. The result further revealed that, Lantana camara leaves extract was significantly (p0.01) in controlling Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer at 50g/l and 100g/l respectively at both preventive and curative methods. It was observed that treating tomato with varying concentrations of Lantana camara leaves extract significantly (p<0.00) inhibited radial mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger and also reduced weight loss of tomato in curative and preventive methods of control. Based on the result of this study, it is recommended that farmers should use Lantana camara at 50g/l for post-harvest treatment of tomato as control measure for Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus. stolonifer.
Keywords: Lantana camara, tomatoes, Fungi, In-vivo, isolation.
PRODUCTION OF WINE FROM PINEAPPLE AND WATERMELON USING YEAST ISOLATED FROM BURUKUTU
*UDOSEN, I. E.; OLISA, C., MUSTAPHA, H. G., HAMZA, I. S. AND ISA, A.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Pale yellow wine was produced from watermelon and pineapple mixture using yeast isolated from burukutu. Three yeast strains, (Kloekera apiculata, Candida tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were isolated and subjected to various biochemical and potency estimation tests. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to possess the essential characteristics for wine production and was employed in the production of wine at regulated temperature of 15oC ± 2oC and the brix level was raised to 20o. The final result gave a wine with an alcoholic content of 8.3%, final pH 4.19, titratable acidity of 0.85 and brix level of 8.0o sensory evaluation conducted by panel of judges showed that the wine was not well accepted.
Keywords: Wine, Pineapple, Watermelon, Yeast Isolated, Production.
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS USING AN SEIR EPIDEMIC MODEL WITH DEMOGRAPHY FOR EXPOSE AND INFECTIVE; TUBERCULOSIS DISEASE IN BALI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE.
MUKHTAR SUNUSI HASSAN & 2USMAN ABDULLAHI SANI
*General Studies Department School of General Studies and Management Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, P. M. B 05 Bali, Taraba State **Statistics Department, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, P. M. B 05 Bali. Taraba State.
A SEIR model for the transmission of an infectious disease (tuberculosis) that spreads in a population through direct contact of the hosts is studied. The force of infection is of proportionate Mixing type. A threshold which determines the outcome of the disease; if , the infected fraction of the population disappears so the disease dies out, while if > 1, the infected fraction persists and a unique endemic equilibrium state is shown, under a mild restriction on the parameters, to be globally asymptotically stable in the interior of the feasible region, case study (Bali, LGA Taraba State). Two other threshold parameters and are also identified; they determine the dynamics of the population sizes in the cases when the disease dies out and when it is endemic, respectively.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, Epidemic models; Endemic equilibrium; Latent period; Global stability; compartment and Compound matrices; Basic Reproduction Numbered
Area of study: Mathematical Modelling
INVESTIGATION ON FISH CULTURE STRATEGIES AND DISEASES IN FRESH WATER AQUACULTURE (POND) IN AFIJIO-WEST, EAST AND OYO WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF OYO STATE, NIGERIA
FATIMA AJIBIKE TALIAT
Biology Department, the College of Education, Lanlate.
The research was carried out purposely to find out the culture strategies and the status of fish diseases in fresh water aquaculture in Afijio-West, Oyo-East and Oyo-West Local governments of Oyo State. Questionnaire interview and participatory rural appraisal tools were conducted interviewed and 60 farmers focus were group discussions were conducted. Monoculture of Clarias species was predominantly practiced by most farmers. The most prevalent diseases reported by farmers were white spot disease (48.33%), followed by Furunclosis (25%), Ascites (13.33%) Necrosis (6.67%), haemolytic syndrome (5%) and epizootic ulcerative syndrome (1.67%). Farmers applied some treatments like addition of antibiotics, salt and lime to cure fish diseases. However, consumer can only be protected through production of healthy fish, hence the need to put in place diagnostic laboratory hazard control programme and periodic training of farmers on how to prevent and control fish diseases.
Keywords: Aquaculture, Disease, Diagnostic, Laboratory, Hazard, Monoculture.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF BIODIVERSITY OF TWO COMPETING PLANT SPECIES DUE TO CHANGING PLANT DISEASES CONDITION
P.O. FELIX(1), E.N. EKAKA-A(2) AND N. EKE(1) , P. NWAGOR.(1)
(1)Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education. Rumuolumeni Rivers State. (2)Department of Mathematics, University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Rivers State.
This paper has discussed the numerical analysis of biodiversity gain of two interacting plant species with changing plant diseases conditions in a harsh climate like the Arctic. MATLAB ODE 45 was used to quantify the effect of plant diseases conditions on the two interacting plant species. It was observed that as the plant disease condition was decreased, the crop yields increased while as the plant disease condition increased, the crop yields decreased.
PLASMA FRUCTOSE AND CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN DIABETES
NWABUEZE, E.U1, NWABUEZE, N.O2
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Imo State, Polytechnic Umuagwo 2Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Imo State University, Owerri.
The main purpose of this work is to assess the different levels of fructose and cholesterol in diabetics and normal subjects, and to see if fructose can serve as substitute for glucose in diabetics. Fasting blood samples (12 hour fasting blood samples) were used to determine the different levels of plasma glucose, fructose and cholesterol in diabetic patients their mean concentration are as follows; total cholesterol is (337.17 ± 48.72mg/dl), plasma fructose (1.06 ± 0.06mg/dl), plasma glucose (294.13 ± 66.73mg/dl). Also plasma glucose, fructose and cholesterol levels were determined using fasting blood samples from individuals who are apparently normal and their mean values read as follows; Total cholesterol (154.55- 27.09mg/dl), plasma fructose (1,03 ± 0.09mg/dl), plasma glucose (74.35 ± 9.36mg/dl). The result of the assay revealed a high level of cholesterol in diabetic patients and the mean value 537.17 ± 48.7mg/dl) was significantly increased (p < 0.05) when compared with the reading154.05 ±27.9mg/dl) for normal subjects. Also the mean value for plasma fructose (1.06 ± 06mg/dl) were not significantly different, (P > 0.05) when compared with the values (1.03-0.09mg/dl) for normal. There is raised level of plasma glucose in diabetics and the mean value (294.01 ± 66.07mg/dl) differed significantly (p < 0.05) when compared with the reading 4.3 ± 9.03mg/dl) for normal subjects. The mean value (193 ± 20.0mg/dl) for total cholesterol in diabetic males showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared with (144.02 ± 17.00mg/dl) for diabetic females. A good correlation exists between plasma glucose and cholesterol (r = 0.82, df = 65, p < 0.001). While there is no correlation between plasma fructose and cholesterol (r = -0.069, df = 65, p > 0.05).
Keywords: Plasma, Fructose, Cholesterol, Levels, Diabetes.