International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (IJHSS) Vol. 16 (4)


CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES (IJHSS) VOL. 16 (4)

ISSN-1630-7276 (PRINT) MARCH, 2019

Published by:

Cambridge Research and Publications International,

Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle

(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,

Enugu State, Nigeria

Email: cambridgenigeriapublications@gmail.com

Copyright © 2019 Cambridge Research and Publications International.

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Papers:


CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS TO ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: CASE STUDY OF BOKO HARAM, FULANI AND FARMERS CRISES

SAJO, ABDULLAHI MUHAMMAD

Faculty of Arts Department Religion and Philosophy University of Jos

 

ABSTRACT

This paper set out to assess the challenges of Ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria, A detail investigation of the subject matter revealed that Boko Haram is a so-called Sunni Jihadist Organization based in the North East of Nigeria that has carried out violent attacks against the Nigerian public, taken hostage foreign workers, destroyed strategic installations and perpetrate other acts of terrorism.  The paper also revealed the root cause of Fulani Herdsmen conflict that they were denied their grazing land “Burtali and Mashekari: Lakes and rivers because of Dry season farming. The study’s findings include the conflicts are serious thereat to economic security in Nigeria, and the states affected have confronted with declining economic activities, industrial output, dwindling internally generated revenue, declining tourism industry and job losses.

Keywords: Conflicts, Challenges, Farmers Crises, Solutions, Boko Haram, Fulani.

 

 

THE DYNAMICS OF INTER-STATE RELATIONS AND THE CHALLENGES OF CROSS-BORDER CONFLICTS: THE NIGERIA-BENIN EXPERIENCE*

*MUHAMMAD M. NURUDEEN Ph.D AND **ABDULRAHMAN DANGANA LUKMAN*

*Department of Political Science and International Studies Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, **International Relations, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Interstate relations between Nigeria and the Republic of Benin centered much on the issues of cross-border security; illegal migration; porous border arrangement; and the harmonization and integration of states policies toward national development. However community cross-border conflict between Lolo and Madecali straddling the two states present a challenge to both interstate relations and socio-communal interactions. Even though, all the ethnic groups in the border lived in varying degrees of cross-cultural cooperation and ethno-linguistic integration, border conflict erupted in 2009 over the disputed area of Tungan-Kungi. The conflict was based on territorial claim over boundary and a competition over scarce resources. This paper analyzes the nature of inter-state relations between the two states and the impacts of the border conflict to the borderlands communities. The study employs the qualitative research method which involves In-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). While FGDs were conducted in each community; primary data was collected from the officials in the Benin Embassy, Nigeria. The paper adopts the Functionalist theory of international boundaries which assumes that, local informal networks allow local authorities to coordinate common regional goals while reducing bi-national tensions between states. Finding shows that, the conflict witnessed mass displacement, upsetting of civilians, miserable life condition and deplorable situation as people of Tungan-Kungi were forced to flee their homes, land, and resources. This study recommends that authorities should establish a joint-mechanism for peaceful coexistence in collaboration with traditional/ local authorities in the mediation and negotiation process.

Keywords: Interstate Relations, Border Conflicts, Border Security, Economic Cooperation, Lolo and Madecali

 

 

PSYCHO-CRIMINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF FEAR OF CRIME IN IGBESA COMMUNITY OF OGUN STATE

MATTHIAS OLUFEMI DADA OJO (PhD)

Department of Sociology, Federal University Gashua, P.M.B. 1005, Gashua Yobe State Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Fear of crime is an important aspect of study in criminology and victimology because of its implication on lives of the citizenry. Several studies have examined the problem of fear of crime in urban areas with negligible focus on semi-urban and rural communities. This study, therefore, investigated crime and fear of crime in semi-urban of Igbesa community in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through quantitative method. It involved questionnaire survey of seventy-two community residents. The data were analysed using frequency distribution and percentage tables, Spearman’s rho at 5% and Pearson’s at 10% test. Age of the respondents ranged from 15 years to 64 years and above; 50% were male; 86.1% were Christians; 29.2% were bachelor degree holders and 84.7% were full time workers. The findings in the study show that 29.2% of respondents feared being victims of crime while using public transport; 45.8% were worried on having their homes broken; 27.8% feared their houses burgled; 29.2% were worried having their cars stolen or items in their cars taken away; 45.8% were very worried about illegal drugs being sold and used in their neighbourhoods and 30.6% were very worried from being robbed or mugged on the streets. A total of 22.2% of respondents agreed they worry too much being victims of crime and 31.9% agreed they sometimes change their everyday behavior because of crime. The study shows significant relationships between gender and fear of crime (Spearmans’, rho at .240*at significant level of 0.05 test and age and fear of crime (Pearson’s  – 079c at significant of 10% level of test. The study recommends good police-community relations, installation of Closed Circuit Television, regulation of access to public places, territorial reinforcement, government genuine intervention in provision of security to life and property and proper counseling for people with excessive phobia for crime to solve the problem of fear of crime.

Keywords: Fear, Crime, Worry, Neighbourhoods and Community.

 

 

IMMIGRANT’S INFORMATION BEHAVIOR IN NIGERIA: A LITERATURE REVIEW

*SAHABI, MUHAMMAD KABIR **FASANU CLEB IDOWU ***DAUDA ADAMU BAKUM

*University Library, Kaduna State University, Kaduna **Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Salawu Abiola Memorial Lib. PMB 2210 Abekuta, Ogun State ***University Library, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauci

 

Abstract

The concept of immigrants has broad outlook; international, continental, and national perspectives. This study is not unmindful of the impact of the national and continental dimensions, but emphasis shall be placed on information seeking behavior of Nigerian immigrants with the view to identify their information needs, information seeking patterns and hindrances to access and use of solution- based information materials. The study looked at different socio- cultural background, values and beliefs of this group of users as a vital point in appropriate information provisions. Librarians and information professionals are therefore advised to provide relevant, useful and appropriate services to immigrants by organizing equitable resources through equitable service policies and equitable access to immigrant’s related information.

Keywords: Immigrants, Information needs, Information seeking, Information behavior and Information seeking behaviour

 

 

LEADERSHIP AND NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY: AN ANALYSIS OF PRESIDENT GOODLUCK EBELE JONATHAN’S ADMINISTRATION (2011-2015)

MUSTAPHA, AYODELE HARUNA

Department of Social Sciences, Rufus Giwa Polythecnic Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The amalgamation of Nigeria, its subsequent emergence as a political independent and sovereign nation emerged with it her foreign policy objectives, principles and directions. It started from being afrocentric/conservative to radical, pan-africanist, pro-west, concentric, economic diplomacy, area-boy diplomacy, constructive engagement, beneficial constructive concentric circle policy, citizen diplomacy and now investment diplomacy. All this pattern in administrative style of different regimes did not change the guiding principles/objectives of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy. The changes in outlook and disposition have been midwifed and piloted by one independent element/variable-the leadership personality of the head of state or the President of Nigeria. This is a central point in determining the foreign policy focus and its manifestation as it affects domestic politics. President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan’s leadership personality and foreign policy is examined between 2011 and 2015, the Transformation Agenda of his administration in the areas of economic/investment diplomacy, insurgency, security challenges, bilateral/multilateral, energy and power, technology, peace-making and peace-keeping, regional and international organizations that require serious attention. Leadership theory was adopted as theoretical framework to x-ray the subject of the work. The study investigated his administration’s leadership in six states of the federation representing the six geo-political zones were selected using purposive non-probability sampling method in states like Lagos, Rivers, Kwara, Kano, Enugu and Adamawa. To gather data, both primary and secondary sources of data were used. For primary data, nine individuals were interviewed drawn from Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, student, politician, professional lawyer, business tycoon, academic and the press. Also, a total number of 450 questionnaires were administered across the six selected states. Data collected were analyzed and interpreted using frequency count; simple percentage scores and bar chart method. Results showed that the president’s leadership has not attracted foreign investors into the country for foreign investments; official corruption increases unabated; insecurity and insurgency challenges were unchecked and unresolved; poor funding of Nigerian missions abroad, power and energy supply could not be restored to the expected capacity for domestic consumption, lack of political will to allow local investors to grow, insufficient diplomatic skill for Nigeria to secure permanent seat at the United Nations Security Council and his unwillingly inability to shoulder leadership role and responsibility in west Africa, Africa and the world in peace keeping operations. At the end, it was concluded that if Nigeria’s vision is to be ranked among the 20 economies of the world going by the vision 2020 roadmap, deliberate, proactive and more purposeful actions must be taken in order to efficiently articulate and aggregate the leadership of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan on his transformation agenda policies vis-a-viz Nigeria’s Foreign Policy. Recommendations were made including putting an end to insecurity and insurgency challenges, adequate management of the nation’s economy, provide conducive economic/investment environment for business (foreign and local) to flourish.

Keywords: Foreign Policy, National Interest, Diplomacy, Leadership and Personality.

 

 

EFFECT OF TRAINING AND WORK PERFORMANCE TO ENHANCE HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

*SANI MUSTAPHA KURA **MOHAMMED ALHAJI YUSUF *AISHATU MUSA

*Department of Social Work, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri **Department of Business Education, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri

 

ABSTRACTS

Training strengthened persons to attain how to be current at job by transforming knowledge, skills and mind-set during education put into practice to attain efficient practice. individual reserve theories ropes the importance of teaching in which measured as one of the procedure in completing executive goals through creating a centre of attention and sustaining workforce, and also handling them effectively. Previous learning promised that employee support is an important forecaster of workforce job routine. On the job training on employee performance the study showed that in general training enhances employee performance in change processes. It was recognized to assist convenient be positive strong association linking teaching with routine of workforce. Suggested that all workforce have to be implicated in one means then the prior teaching to improve worker familiarity, talent, capability, competencies and conduct. This article explores the creative writing re-examine on the relationship between training and job performance.

Keywords: Training, job Performance, Knowledge and Resource Development

 

 

ENHANCING THE ROLE OF THE SECRETARY IN AN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ERA TOWARDS MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF VISION 20:2020

IRORAKPOR, HELEN .T. (MRS.) AND IFESI CECILA

Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

 

ABSTRACT

This study examined enhancing the role of the secretary in and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) era towards meeting the challenges of vision 20:2020. A total of 41 respondents comprising 28 female and 13 male students from the target population were used for the study which was designed as descriptive survey design.Three research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a 23 item validated questionnaire. The mean of the collected data were ascertained while the null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using students’ t-test statistic on Minitab computer software. The findings reveal that while the respondents attest to their preparedness to take on new challenges in the core secretarial and administrative duties, they are deficient in ancillary duties. It was therefore recommended among other that secretaries should find time to enhance their capability to perform ancillary services as training institutions might consider such courses an encumbrance on their core curriculum.

Keywords: Enhancing, Secretary, Information, Communication, Technology.

 

 

SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF NEGATIVE POLITICAL ADVERTISING/ PERSONALITY ATTACKS DURING 2015 NIGERIA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS.

*BELLO MADAKI BELI. AND **MOHAMMED HASHIM SULEIMAN 

*Department of Mass communication,  Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi **Department of Mass Communication, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

 

ABSTRACT

The consistent personality attacks and negative advertisements observed during the 2015 Nigeria presidential elections were unsurpassed in the history of Nigeria’s political campaigns. The development led to many political observers to ask about neutrality and morality of the mass media that carried such personality attacks and negative advertisements. Therefore, this paper is aimed at analyzing negative advertisement and personality attacks from a theoretical, not moralist perspective. Thus, the Social Representation theory was used as a pedestal upon which the analysis was grounded. To this end, this paper conducted a Conceptual content analysis of some selected newspapers to ascertain the existence and frequency of negative advertisements and personality attacks during the presidential campaigns. Also, findings from the study indicated that the two contending parties employed the use of negative advertising and personality attacks to campaign for votes, though the then ruling party used it in more proportion than the opposition. The paper concluded that rather than condemning the development, it should be taken as a sign of democratic maturity in Nigeria because when observed through the prism of social representation media theory, personality attacks and negative advertising in the media is a process of naturalizing social thinking that tend to generate collective acceptance of a new phenomena and deepening the democratic values of x-raying each and every candidate contesting for an electoral office.

Keywords:  Advertisement, Democracy, Politics, Political Advertising, Negative  Advertisement

 

 

ZONING, POWER ROTATION, FEDERAL CHARACTER COMMISSION AND NATION BUILDING

SADEEQ LAUNI, PhD, ABIDEMI OGIDAN & INUWA ABDU IBRAHIM

Public Administration Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.

 

ABSTRACT

Zoning, Power Rotation an Federal Character Commission are policy attempts that seek to develop a broad and universally accepted framework for crises free and equitable distribution, transfer of power as well as ensuring political participation by all. The paper started with a brief historical antecedent of clamor of equal participation in Nigeria politics. The study examines the impact of zoning, power rotation and federal character commission on nation building in Nigeria. It further tries to clarify issues regarding federal character and merit in the society. Also, the relationship between affirmative action in USA and Nigeria federal character principle. Data were drawn from secondary sources such as journals, books, newspaper, online publications and articles. The national accommodation theory of pluralist societies was adopted to explain the dynamics of zoning, power rotation and federal character commission in Nigeria.  The paper concluded that, wrong and selfish application of federal character principle is the reason for the rancor and perceived sense of injustice by some groups. This paper therefore posits that, federal character principle and merit based system can work harmonious if properly applied.

Keywords: Quota system, Zoning, Power Rotation an Federal Character Commission.

 

 

THE IMPLICATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ON TAX COMPLIANCE AMONG SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, BAUCHI STATE

AYANWUYI JOHNSON, FARAYOLA, AYO ADE, EMMANUEL UAREME IRIABIJE, EIKHOMUN EHI DANIEL

Department Of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

 

ABSTRACT

This paper is titled “The Implication of Financial Performance on Tax Compliance among Small and Medium Enterprises in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State”. The objective of the paper is to determine the effect of Profitability, Market share and Customers satisfaction on Tax compliance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Bauchi metropolis. The study employed the descriptive research design, a simple sampling technique was used to collect primary data from a population of 364 SMEs registered with Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) in Bauchi metropolis. The study applied the regression and correlation statistical models to analyze the data (using SPSS version 21.0). The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between Profitability, Market share and Customers satisfaction on Tax compliance among SMEs in Bauchi metropolis. The study recommends that SMEs in Bauchi metropolis should adopt organizational policies that encourage market turnout in their businesses, as this will bring about not only larger profit margin but will also give room for Tax compliance in the case of expansion.

Keywords: Financial performance, Tax compliance, Profitability, Market share, Customers satisfaction, Small and Medium Enterprises.

 

 

NIGERIAN DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITIES & PRIVILEGES ACT, 1990; AN ANALYSIS OF ITS CONTEMPORARY RELEVANCE

*UMAR IBRAHIM WUNTI, ESQ. **AUWAL IBRAHIM, ESQ. ***MAHMUD MUSA, ESQ. ***YUSUF MAHMOOD YAKUBU, ESQ.

*Department Of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi **School of Legal Studies, A. D. Rufai College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State. ***Department for Shariah And Civil Law, A. D. Rufai College For Legal And Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State.

 

ABSTRACT

Nigerian role as a sovereign state in the diplomatic circle commences with the promulgation of Diplomatic Immunities and privileges, the Act which was later amended and became Nigerian Diplomatic Immunity and Privileges Act, 1990. The Act is divided into three (3) part and several schedules contains among other thing; the Immunity of foreign envoys and consular officers, waivers of immunity of foreign envoys, immunities of chief representative of common wealth country, representatives attending international conferences in Nigeria and other states immunities of Nigerian citizens’ exemption from taxation and immunities of international organization. Those clothed with such privileges includes foreign envoys, foreign consular officers, members of their families and members of the family of their official staff and their families, common wealth representatives attending conferences in Nigeria and certain international organization. This paper focused on the analysis of the Nigeria Diplomatic immunities and Privileges ACT, 1990, its contemporary relevance and made some recommendations for its improvement. The methodology adopted is doctrinal method, as the main source of materials used is legislation i.e. Nigerian Diplomatic Immunity and Privileges Act, 1990.

Keywords: Nigerian, Diplomatic, Immunities, Privileges, Contemporary.

 

 

THE IMPLICATION OF PASTORALIST/FARMER CONFLICT TO NATIONAL SECURITY.

INUWA ALIYU BOBO

Department of History A.D.R College for Legal and Islamic Studies Misau Bauchi State.

 

Abstract

The pastoralist and farmers conflict is as old as agriculture itself. The conflict causes as well as the stakeholders responses and management varies from the country to the other. However in Nigeria, it is very contentious with the daily increase in incidents of attacks as well as spreading to almost all nooks and crannies of the country. Many lives were lost and being lost, many properties destroyed and being destroyed at many communities sacked and displaced. The pattern of attacks was deadly as sophisticated fire arms are used. The poor government and relevant stakeholders’ response and management of the pastoralist farmers’ conflict had the proclivity of degenerating to full conflict that will threaten the national stability and security.  This paper based on textual examination of relevant literatures, current media and non-media source as well as personal observation of policy and practice of the stakeholders in an attempt to bring to fore the causes of the pastoralist farmers conflict, some notable incidents of the attacks, the implication to national security and also proffer some suggestions recommendation on how to contain the menace.

Keywords: – Pastoralist, farmers, Threat and Security.

 

 

A REVIEW OF NIGERIAN TERTIARY EDUCATION TOWARDS OVERCOMING SECURITY CHALLENGES AND THE QUAGMIRE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

*CHRISTINA T. AUDU & **AJIBOLA A. LUKMAN

*Integrated Science Department, COE, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State. **Educational Foundations Department, COE, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State

 

Abstract

This paper examines the nexus within tertiary education, security challenges and sustainable development in Nigeria. It is not doubtable that the tertiary education could be engaged and integrated in the issues of security challenges and the quagmire of sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper posits that tertiary education is central to shaping attitudes and social interaction and both are critical to addressing insecurity challenges and sustainable development. It could be affirmed that government alone cannot provide sustainable development. The paper emphasizes developed economies where tertiary education is an engine for development in which individuals, religious groups, communities, and businesses must contribute in important ways to provide education that leverages development. To this end, the paper submits that tertiary education could be a functional tool in curbing social vices and ensuring development that is sustainable in Nigeria provided the curriculum is properly implemented and monitored towards blending and interfacing local wisdom with global knowledge, values and skills, which will develop the students to become citizens of Nigeria as well as citizens of the global village.

Keywords: Tertiary Education, Security, Nigerian Education, Economic Development, Sustainable Development.

 

 

GLOBAL PEACE AND SECURITY IN THE 21st CENTURY: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN PROMOTING PEACE AND SECURITY IN NIGERIA

HAFSAT USMAN KASIM

Department of Languag^ Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic, Zaria

 

ABSTRACT

Language is the focal point around which every human activity revolves. It is in recognition of the ‘unbreakable bond’ between language and security that motivates our professional implicit commandment that, “thou shalt not teach language without infusing security”. It is in this light that this paper examines the concepts of peace, security and language. It further identifies security threats as abject poverty; biting hunger, ignorance and disease etc. it also looks at how language through its structural and functional properties could be used in tackling security challenges. It recommends solutions to the basic threats to peace and security. It concludes by advocating for English language to be lifted beyond basic proficiency level to the high-order level.

Keywords: Global, Peace, Security, Century, Promoting.

 

 

LE    STATUT DU FRANCAIS ET LA POLITIQUE LINGUISTIQUE AU NIGERIA

*OYEWALE SULAYMAN RAMAT **ADEYINKA MODUPE BEATRICE

*Department Of French, Michael Otedola College Of Primary Education, Noforija-Epe, Lagos State **Department Of French, Federal College Of Education, Osiele Abeokuta, Ogun State

 

Résumé

En 1996, l’ancien et défunt chef d’état nigérian Sani Abacha a déclenché une sorte de ‘bombe linguistique’ en proclamant le français en tant que seconde langue officielle au Nigéria. Cependant depuis la fameuse proclamation, rien de tangible n’a  été fait pour promulguer cette déclaration en fait accompli ! Pire, la situation de la langue française au Nigéria continue de se détériorer vu l’opposition grandissante de jour en jour des adeptes des langues indigènes contre l’invasion par les langues étrangères. En tant que pays anglophone-ayant naturellement adopté la langue de son colonisateur-le Nigeria se débat encore dans une bataille interlinguistique : un pays à plus de 500 langues locales, typifié par une pléthore de cultures et de croyances, est en quête d’une identité homogène sur le plan social, politique, et surtout linguistique. Le Nigéria aurait-il réellement besoin d’une autre langue étrangère, hormis la langue anglaise ? A quoi servirait donc l’adoption d’une autre langue européenne dans un milieu déjà linguistiquement saturé, où trois langues locales majoritaires-hausa, yoruba et igbo-se disputent une place de choix nationale ? Sinon, à quels niveaux le français devrait-il être utile ? Ce sont-là les quelques questions auxquelles cette communication tenterait d’apporter quelque éclairage.

Mots-clés : statut du français, politique linguistique au Nigéria.

 

 

TOWARDS A DESIRABLE PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE NIGER DELTA: THE ROLE OF URHOBO PROVERBS

UDI, PETER OGHENERIOBORUE,

Department of English, College of Education, P. M. B. 2090, Agbor, Delta State.

 

Abstract

The discourse of peace and development will continue to receive attention globally because scholars are conscious of the fact that the absence of peace and security hinders economic growth and development. Besides security agencies that are entrusted with the maintenance of law and order, individuals and communities should also show a sense of commitment since a society that lacks peace is bound to experience economic retrogression. This paper therefore examines the role of proverbs in sustainable peace and development particularly in Urhobo society and Niger Delta in general. The study adopted the qualitative method of data collection and analysis. The data were gathered from direct interactions with participants who have profound knowledge of peace and development related proverbs in traditional society. Apart from the in-depth interviews which were conducted in the field, some data were also collected from audio recordings which were later transcribed and translated from Urhobo language into the English version. A total of twenty-seven proverbs that are thematically relevant to this work were purposively selected, codified and qualitatively analysed. The study found that proverbs contain themes and images that can activate mental consciousness of hearers to maintain peace and harmony in society. Some of the proverbs help in inhibiting the hormonal glands responsible for violent reactions of people especially the youth in every Urhobo community and their infusion into social discourses on regular basis help to de-escalate tension and promote peace and security for societal growth and development. They are suitable for addressing the causes and consequences of conflicts, averting looming security threats or re-occurrence of conflicts, and promoting peace and harmonious co-existence in a traditional society, hence they are often infused into peace and security discussions by elders and conflict facilitators in traditional African societies, particularly Urhobo.

Keywords: proverbs, peace, violence, development, society.

 

 

STABILITY ANALYSES OF TWO PARTIES IN DIRECT ELECTORAL COMPETITION

ABDULKAREEM IBRAHIM AFOLABI1, UMORU A, YAKUBU2, NURUDEEN O. LASISI3,

Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria1,2,3.

 

Abstract

Electoral competitions are the instrument provided by democracy to ensure accountability and change of government. The continuous domination of one party in government overtimes might erode the significant of political democracy. In the light of this, we study the stability of two parties in direct electoral competition with aim of determine what determine the strength of these parties for effective electoral competition and as well their longtime co-existence. The dynamics of the model yields non-partisan and partisan equilibriums states. . The stability analysis of non-partisan yields an unstable scenario which might either leads to continuous nonpartisan electoral competition or gradual emergency of political awareness and subsequent formation of political parties. Partisan equilibrium analysis suggested a complex spiral which always leads to oscillation in electoral success of the parties depending on their electoral reinforcement strategies. It is revealed from our findings that the parties will continue to be electorally relevant and co-exist as long as their electoral reinforcement strategies is effective to stimulate voters’ interest.

 

 

INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE ON CHEMISTRY AND MATHEMATICS ON THE FINAL YEAR STUDENTS’ OF FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, ZARIA

ANYIFITE SYLVESTER DORCAS

Department of General Studies Education, Federal College of Education Zaria

 

ABSTRACT

The study attempts to investigate the effect of English Language on Chemistry and. The results of graduating students 2017/2018 academic session of Federal College of Education (FCT) Zaria who combined Chemistry and  were sampled to find out the effect of English language on chemistry and . The sampled results of general English and communication skills, chemistry and Mathematics were analysed using ANOVA and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. From the findings it was discovered that there was strong correlation between students’ performance in chemistry and, while English language had no significant influence on the students’ performance in chemistry and. Recommendations were also provided in line with the research findings.

Keywords: English and Communication Skills, Academic Performance, Achievement.

 

 

AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF HOUSING ATTRIBUTES ON HOUSE RENTAL PRICES IN MINNA, NIGERIA

1USMAN MUSA, 2GWAMNA EMMANUEL

1,2Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Nigeria

 

Abstract:

Examination and the analysis of the impact of housing attributes on house rental prices over the years, has been a major challenge in the global housing market. This is attributed to the complexity, uniqueness and heterogeneity of housing commodity coupled with the diverse socio- economic characteristics of housing locations in various residential neighbourhoods of different geographical regions. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of various housing attributes which includes dwellings, location and neighborhood attributes on house rental prices in Minna, Nigeria. Three (3) residential neighborhoods were randomly selected each from high density, medium and low density areas of the metropolis for the study. Questionnaires were administered randomly to three hundred and eighty five (385) respondents across the three neighborhoods. A total of three hundred and thirty seven (337) questionnaires were returned out of which three hundred and twelve (312) questionnaires were considered valid for the analysis of the data obtained from the field survey. Three (3) categories of residential properties which include one bedroom, two bedroom and three bedroom apartments respectively were adopted for the study. Hedonic house price model using the Standard Multiple regression analytical techniques was employed in analysing the research data. Results from the analyses indicated that the entire independent variables are statistically significant to the prediction of house rental prices in Minna metropolis. The results also revealed that 79.5% of variability on rental values of residential properties in Minna metropolis is attributed to the combined effects of the said housing attributes with condition of building components and services being the strongest and unique contributor to the prediction of house rental prices in Minna, Nigeria. The findings of this study will be useful to the practicing estate surveyors and valuers, town planners and the government agencies responsible for property rating assessment as well as property owners and users; and other related stakeholders in housing investments and management.

Keywords: Housing, Housing Attributes, Impact, Multiple Regression, Housing Prices, Rental Values.

 

 

DUTY OF CONFIDENTIALITY AND OFFICE ADMINISTRATION; A MORAL CONSIDERATION

*ADEPOJU, BANJI MARCELLINUS (PHD) AND **AKINOLA, OLANREWAJU VICTOR

*Department of Local Government and Development Studies, the Polytechnic, Ibadan **Department of Philosophy, University of Ibadan

 

Abstract

The paper attempts a moral consideration on confidentiality and office administration. Confidentiality is seen as a major theme and ethical code in office administration cum public administration; it is a duty an administrator not to disclose or relate some confidential information to public or third party without receiving the consent of the higher or topmost officer (issuer of the information) of the organization. It could be infer from the foregoing that duty of confidentiality constitutes a moral dilemma in office administration especially public office where conflict of interest emerges between the employer and employee, and the relationship between one employee and the other is of great essentiality. Now, the question is, what obligation an office officer/administrator has to protect the image of the organization? What role should one play on duty of confidentiality as an administrator where there is conflict of interest; for instance, a situation when an office secretary was asked to type a retrenchment letter for his husband who happens to be an employee in same organization? What should be an action of this officer? In this regard, this paper thrust is to critically examine the paradox of the duty of confidentiality and, the justification for the duty of confidentiality. Also, we will discuss various limitation to the duty of confidentiality on office administration. For methodological purpose, the paper shall employ critico-expository approach to examine the subject matter, since man is a product of his experience.

Keywords; Confidentiality, Office, Administration, Morality and Ethics

 

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