BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE & APPLIED SCIENCE (BJPAS) (VOL 9 NO. 1)
ISSN: 1939-8466 MARCH, 2019
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
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STABILITY ANALYSIS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF TWO INTERACTING PLANT SPECIES: A CASE OF WEED AND TOMATOES
- ISOBEYE GEORGE
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt.
A nonlinear mathematical model is proposed to study the stability analysis of the coexistence steady-state solution of two interacting plant species, using a computational approach. A control mechanism was introduced by applying the growth inhibitor (herbicide) parameter to the weed, , while a growth enhancer (fertilizer) parameter, , was applied to the food crop (tomatoes), . The analysis shows that increase in while keeping fixed or vice versa, gradually increases the density of and gradually decreases the density of . The result also reveals that the simultaneous increase in and and at the same rate hastens the growth rate of and hastens the rate of decay of . The result further shows that, irrespective of the variations, the system remains stable.
Keywords: Stability analysis, interacting plant species, growth enhancer, growth inhibitor, intrinsic growth rate.
THE LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF HETEROTIS NILOTICUS (CUVIER, 1829) IN LAKE ALAU, MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE
1MSHELIA, M. B., 1AMINA, A. A. AND 2GARBA, U
1Department of Fisheries Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno state 2Federal Department of Fisheries, Lagos, Lagos state
The length–weight relationship and condition factor of Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier,1829) was studied in Lake Alau.The aim was to find out whether the fish are living in good condition in the Lake.The data was collected from three sampling Stations.(Abari, Dabar-Ali Zaki and Dam site). A total of one hundred samples of Heterotis niloticus were studied. Fourty seven (47) were males and fifty three (53) were females. Female Heterotis niloticus obtained ranged from 200g-3000g and total length ranged from 261mm-700mm, the male used had weight ranging from 200g-2800g and total length ranged from 202mm-663mm. Result showed that the males, females and combined sexes had b value of 2.8823, 2.8667, and 2.8745 respectively, both sexes exhibited negative allometric growth. Condition factor (CF) of the population varied from younger Heterotis niloticus 1.528-1.934 and older Heterotis niloticus 0.859-1.10. The younger Heterotis niloticus were in better condition than the older ones, differences between the condition factor of older and younger fish were much significant. Therefore Lake Alau is a good environment for the survival of younger Heterotis niloticus during the period of this study.
Keywords: Heterotis niloticus, Condition factor, Length-weight relationship, Allometric growth, Isometric growth
EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF TELEMEDICINE ADOPTION IN NIGERIA
1ISMAILA FOLASADE. M, 2ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI, 1OLADOYE S. FEMI
1Department of Computer Science, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria
The possibilities for using Information and Communication Technologies , in form of telemedicine, to improve healthcare delivery is increasingly being recognized in both developing countries with weak or unstable economies and in the industrialized countries like Nigeria. Several factors contribute to the need of telemedicine in Nigeria. This work aims at investigating the extent at which current challenges affect the effective adoption of telemedicine in Nigeria hospitals. A questionnaire of four sections was designed and distributed to healthcare professionals in eight states. 1100 sample questionnaires were supposed distributed but 731 were retrieved which is about 70%. The data collected was analyzed based on various parameters viz; sources, occupation of respondents, quality of telemedicine services, y using percentages, cylindrical chart, pie-chart, reliability coefficient-cum-Cronbach’s Alpha of Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results of findings shows that 100% of respondents ticked inadequate funding, inadequate infrastructure, inadequate technical personnel, fear of Job Security and fraud in reimbursement, about 90% picked poor power supply and maintenance of facilities while people that picked culture belief were below average can be a problem facing telemedicine. The Cronbach’s alpha of the entire system is 0.962 which indicates a high stake testing.
Keywords Telemedicine, reliability coefficient, Cronbach’s Alpha, Likert scale
SECURE MULTI-AUTHORITY DATA ACCESS CONTROL SCHEME IN CLOUD STORAGE SYSTEM BASED ON ATTRIBUTE-BASED SIGNCRYPTION
1ISMAIL ZAHARADDEEN YAKUBU, 2LELE MUHAMMAD, 3ZAINAB ALIYU MUSA
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Nowadays, secure data access control has become one of the major concerns in cloud storage system. As a logical combination of attribute-based encryption and attribute-based signature, Attribute based Signcryption (ABSC) can provide confidentiality and anonymous authentication for sensitive data and is more efficient than traditional “encrypt-then-sign” or “sign-then-encrypt” strategy. Thus, ABSC is suitable for fine-grained access control in a semi-trusted cloud environment and is gaining more and more attention in recent years. However, in many previous ABSC schemes, user’s sensitive attributes can be disclosed to the authority, and only a single authority that is responsible for attribute management and key generation exists in the system. In this paper, we propose PMDAC-ABSC, a novel privacy-preserving data access control scheme based on Ciphertext-Policy ABSC, to provide fine-grained control measure and attribute privacy protection simultaneously in a multi-authority cloud storage system. The attributes of both the signcryptor and designcryptor can be protected to be known by the authorities and cloud server. Furthermore, the decryption overhead for user is significantly reduced by outsourcing the undesirable bilinear pairing operations to the cloud server without degrading the attribute privacy. The proposed scheme is proven to be secure in the standard model and has the ability to provide confidentiality, unforgeability, anonymous authentication, and public verifiability. The security analysis, asymptotic complexity comparison and implementation results indicate that our construction can balance the security goals with practical efficiency in computation
Keywords: Attribute Authority (AA), Central Authority (CA), Chipertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE), fine grained, Data Access
OPTIMAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THREE INTERACTING POPULATIONS
- C. NWACHUKWU1, E. N. EKAKA-A2, A. MUSA
1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Testing the optimal stability of three interacting populations due to a variation of two model parameter values that affect biodiversity conservation and fisheries management is a challenging mathematical problem. To tackle this problem, we have utilized ODE45 numerical simulation to observe the optimal stability of the dynamical system in question. The novel results which we have obtained are presented and discussed.
Keywords: optimal stability, sensitivity analysis, steady-state solution, interacting populations
MODELLING THE EFFECT OF POISSON RANDOM NOISE INTENSITY OF 2.8 ON THE VIRAL LOAD OF THE VIRIONS.
1PETERS NWAGOR, 2A. O. NWAOBURU, AND 3E. N. EKAKA-A,
2,3Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education. Port Harcourt, Nigeria
In this study, a non linear mathematical model with fractional order inclusion is adopted to examined the deterministic effect of a POISSON random noise intensity of 2.8 and its expected percentage increase on the viral load of the virions as a response to the dependent variables of the number target cells, the infected cells and the viral load of the virions that are subject to a modifying viral load. We have utilized the ODE45 numerical scheme to discuss the implications of our results for HIV/AIDS interventions. Our novel results that we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed quantitatively.
Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Randon Noise, Poison, Viral Load, Fractional Order.
THE METAPHYSICS OF CAUSALITY: COMPARATIVE HERMENEUTICS IN WESTERN, EASTERN AND AFRICAN PHILOSOPHIES
NICHOLAS, OSHIOKEDE & FRANCIS, IKHIANOSIME
Central to the problems of philosophy is the question of cause and effect. This is at the heart of physics and metaphysics. The issue of causality is both transdisciplinary as well as transcultural. The ubiquity of the issue however, does not resolve the problem as it has different interpretations and understandings. This paper therefore undertakes a comparative interpretation of the issue of causality from Western, Eastern and African philosophical traditions. This work argues that much of what is understood as the principle of causality are largely influences from Western tradition and follows the principle of necessary connection. This is clearly seen with the Buddhist understanding of Causality. This paper further argues that the Africa notion of causality does not follow a western logic. Rather, it argues that the conception of cause does not follow a situation of necessary connection, and that correlatedness is sufficient to establish a connection. The synopsis is that our understanding of causality regardless of the weakness of whatever position held, regulate our understanding of the physical world.
Keywords: Causality, Western philosophy, Buddhism, African philosophy, causal connection
DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS LEVEL IN THREE DIFFERENT SAMPLE LOCATIONS IN LOCALLY PREPARED DRINKS (ZOBO AND KUNUN ZAKI) WITHIN BAUCHI METROPOLIS.
HASSAN1, A. MUSA, U .N1. AND SHITU2, F.A.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi -Nigeria 2Department of General Study, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi -Nigeria
Nine Heeavy metals were quantified in locally prepared drinks namely Zobo and Kunun Zaki using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).The samples were collected from three different locations which are sample area A, B and C all within Bauchi metropolis. The results obtained show the presence of Zinc, Iron, Copper, Manganese, Magnesium, Silver and absence of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium from the samples. Sample A has the value of Zn(1.0zb,3.3kz), Fe(0.1zb,2.0kz), Cu(0.01zb,0.01kz), Mn(2.2zb,1.2kz), Mg(12.6zb,13.5kz), Ag(0.1zb). Sample B has the value of Zn(1.5zb,1.5kz), Fe(0.6kz), Cu(0.05zb,0.06kz), Mn(1.1zb,1.6kz), Mg(12.8zb,13.9kz), Ag(0.1zb,0.2kz) and Sample C has the value of Zn(0.7zb,2.5kz), Fe(0.3zb,3.8kz), Cu(0.03zb,0.08kz), Mn(2.0zb,1.8kz), Mg(12.7zb,12.7kz) all in mg/l. From the findings obtained show that local drinks (Zobo and Kunun Zaki) were not suitable for consumption due to the high level of the Heavy metals present.
Keywords: Zobo (zb), Kunun Zaki (kz), Heavy metals,Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).
MODELING THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED KEY HUMAN FACTOR ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE POLYTECHNIC OTEFE-OGHARA)
ELUGWU FELIX1, ODIOR ANTHONY2
Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Nigeria.
The study is aim at examining and investigating the influence of selected key human factor on academic performance of students in Delta state Polytechnic Otefe – Oghara. The statistical tool of multiple regression was employed to model the relationship between academic performance of students in terms of the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) as function of hours spent per week in reading, age of student, class attendance and feeding allowance. The data utilized in the study was collected using structured questionnaire that were distributed to students randomly selected from different Departments of the Delta State Polytechnic Otefe-Oghara using SPSS 16.0. The fitted multiple regression model is specified as. The findings revealed that hours spent in reading per week, attendance to class and feeding allowance are statistically related/associated with academic performance while age do not. It was equally revealed that X1, X3 and X4 are statistically significant while X2 is not statistically significant at the given level. The coefficient of determination of of 55% suggest the model is fairly adequate which establish the fact that at least one of the independent variable is redundant.
Key words: Academic performance, hours spent week in reading, age, feeding allowance, multiple regression model.
MATHEMATICS FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT THE ROLE OF NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS
ADAMU ABDULKADIR TATA AND JA’AFAR ALIYU
Dept. Of Pre – Nd And Remedial Studies, School Of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
The social needs have led to the development of mathematics and computer sciences in the recent times. Mathematics and computer have been the basic tools in the development of technology and engineering, the close inter – relationship that existed between it on the one hand and technology on the other, give rise to this paper, which highlight the impact of mathematics in the Nigerian polytechnics. It is concluded that little has been achieved by the Nigerian Polytechnics towards the Technological development of our nation, and for better achievement in the 21st century, the recent and existing development in mathematics which give birth to the numerical analysis should be the major mathematics courses for the Nigerian Polytechnics.
A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVES IN ADDRESSING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DECISIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN
ORISANAIYE BRUNO AKINJIDE
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
This paper highlights the statistical analysis of plastic containers in a design and manufacturing company, primarily for kitchen and household use. The products are recognized for high quality and sold through merchandise retailers. This can help the active R&D unit to continuously work to develop new plastic material and product designs and can aggressively look to increase brand recognition and market share. Based on a recently developed plastic material, the R&D group had recently developed a new plastic material that tolerates rapid change in temperature, from heating to deep cooling. The material could be used to make containers for kitchen use that could immediately be moved from oven to refrigerator. Unlike glass containers with this capability, the plastic containers would not break or chip. The marketing department was eager to promote sales of containers made with the new material. Marketing department believe the new material could revolutionize the industry, so they push for rapid production to maintain their market lead. They argued that sooner the new products were available to customers, the sooner the company could corner the market. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the new plastic material and also discusses its potentials compared to the standard material.
Keywords: Plastic materials, Defectives, R&D, Pareto chart, Statistics,
DIETARY PATTERN AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ADOLESCENTS IN URBAN L.G.AS OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA.
ADEBUSOYE, MICHAEL SUNDAY1, LAWAL RUKAYAT AJOKE 2, SAMUEL .O. EMMANUEL2, FASAN, TEMITOPE3
1The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Department Of Nutrition & Dietetics, Bauchi State. 2The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Department Of Food Science And Technology, Bauchi State. 3Our Lady Of Apostles Catholic Hospital, Oluyoro, Oke-Offa, Ibadan, Oyo State.
Food consumption and nutritional status of 500 young adolescents were selected using systematic sampling from the class registers, in three randomly selected urban areas. A pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. Data on anthropometric measurement, 24- hour dietary recall and clinical observation were collected. Anthropometric data were analysed using epi-info software to obtain BMI-for-age and height-for-age. Data generated were analysed using SPSS (version 16).The result showed that 13.08% males were stunted, 6.69% females were underweight while 3.15% females were overweight. Nutrient intake results showed that the mean intake of energy for males was 2555kcal (102.2% RDA) and females 2471kcal (112.3% RDA).Mean intake protein for males was 63.0g (140.0% RDA) and females 65.1g (144.3% RDA). Iron intake for males was 26.0g (173.3% RDA ) and female 24.0g (160.0% RDA).However, Clinical observations revealed that 10.1% males and 3.8% females exhibited signs of Protein-Energy Malnutrition while 13.4% males had signs of palor in the eyes. The study showed that respondents met RDA for energy, protein, and iron while Vitamin A and Calcium among others did not meet RDA. Young adolescents are therefore advised to consume more dairy products, fruits and vegetables.
Keywords: Dietary pattern, nutritional status, adolescents, urban areas
A DETERMINISTIC MODEL OF COUNTER-INSURGENCY DYNAMICS
ABDULKAREEM AFOLABI IBRAHIM1, ABIDEMI AFEEZ2, UMORU A, YAKUBU3
Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda Nigeria1,3, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria2.
Counter-insurgency operation is not an end but a means to a strategic end of the insurgency. However, the determination of counterinsurgency metric is a big challenge in counterinsurgency operations. In light of this challenge, we proposed a deterministic model of counterinsurgency dynamics and incorporated all the players and their mechanics in the counterinsurgency dynamics. Analysis of the model yields two equilibrium states, namely insurgency-free equilibrium which is stable when the rate at which the potential insurgency group loss members is greater than their recruitment rate and the existing local security is not threatened. The Insurgencypresent equilibrium state is stable if the rate at which the government combined forces intercept the evasion of the community by insurgence is greater than the rate at which insurgence force subdue the government force to overrun the community, and thus lead to the decay of the insurgency group. Numerical analysis validates our analytical findings.
Keywords: Deterministic Model, Insurgency, Counterinsurgency and Stability Analyses
EBOLA EPIDEMIC AND THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION: LESSON TO WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES
- SAIDU ISAH, SANI BUBA & ZAKARI ABUBAKAR
Department of Physical and Health Education Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria
This paper critically examined the 2014 dreaded Ebola epidemic which started in Guinea and later spread to some west African countries and some countries across the globe. It has affected so many lives particularly in some west African countries across which resulted in significant morbidity and mortality with reported fatality cases of up to 71% and specifically 57- 59% among hospitalised patients. On the other hand, study the examined the effort made by the World Health Organisation with which one of its primary function is controlling communicable diseases and the effort made in containing the virus. The paper gives highlights on the role of WHO in controlling diseases, concept of Ebola, modes of transmission, control measures, sign and symptoms, an overview of the epidemic in some west African countries, prevention and control measures, strategies for its containment and the lesson to be learn for west African countries. It was recommended among others that west African countries should allocate adequate resources to strengthen their healthcare delivery systems so as to enable them to manage the reoccurrence of this or any other related epidemic by empowering some healthcare facilities through putting sound diagnostic equipments and trained personnel at strategic places in their countries to manned the centre when such need arises with minimal or without relying on international assistance.
ASSESSMENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN MAKARFI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE
Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State.
This study focused on assessment of rural development strategy in Makarfi local government area, Kaduna state. Four research questions and objectives guided the study. The study employed descriptive survey method and the population of the study was one hundred and forty six thousand two hundred and fifty nine (146,259), while a sample of four hundred (400) respondents was drawn through proportionate sampling technique. The instrument titled “Assessment of Rural Development Strategy Scale (ARUDSIS)” was used for data collection, while Cronbach alpha was used for the analysis and reliability coefficient of .87 (section a); .88 (section B); .82 (section C); and .78 (section D) were obtained respectively. Mean and standard deviation were used to present the descriptive data and the null hypotheses were tested using t- test of independent sample at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that, several rural development programmes are carried out and this contributes to socio-economic well being of the people in the aspect of job creation, portable water, education, health care services, poverty eradication, irrigation farming and skill acquisitions to mention just a few. However, lack of a well articulated rural development strategy, poor implementations of programmes, inadequate monitoring and supervision of projects, corruption and embezzlement of funds, absence of a reliable database, inability to optimize local resources among other were found to be some of obstacles to effective rural development strategy in the study area. It was therefore recommended that, community development associations and cooperative societies should collaborate with banks and other Non Governmental Organizations in order to provide support for entrepreneurs and venture creators; Effort should be geared towards helping the rural populace to effectively tap and utilize the available natural and materials resources in order to accelerate even rural development in Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna state.
Keywords: Rural Development Strategy, Contributions, Problems and Possible Solutions
ANALOGOUS SURVEY OF MULTIPLE-SERVER MARKOVIAN MODELS AND SINGLE-SERVER
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria)
This research paper compares M/M/1 and M/M/N Markovian queuing models to determine a more suitable one for the enhancement of the system’s performance. Data traffic was collected from the wireless MikroTik router at the Senate Building of Ahmadu Bello University Main Campus using “Winbox” software monitoring tool for a period of 11 months from 31th January 2011 to 30th December 2012. The computation of this collected data gave the average arrival rate of 176.5 kilobits per second, the average service rate of 746 kilobits per second. By using these values in the analyses, M/M/1 was found to be better than M/M/3 because of lesser (86%) number of entities in the system and lesser number of entities (91%) in the queue waiting for service, as well as faster (5%) response time and lesser (20%) waiting time.
Keywords: Analogous, Multiple-Server, Markovian, Models nd Single-Server
EXPLORING THE INSTRUMENTALITY OF CIVIC AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION FOR BOLSTERING POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION AND PARTICIPATION AMONG STUDENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
*UTHMAN SHEHU, LAWAL (PH.D) **SHUAIBU BAWA, JAJA ***HALILU IDRIS (PH.D) ****FOLARANMI, ABIKE
*Department of Social Development, School of General and Applied Sciences, Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi **The Executive Chairman, Kudan Local Government, Kaduna state ***Department of Early Childhood Education, Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education Kumbotso, Kano state ****Department of Social Studies, Federal College of Education, Zaria
This paper explored the instrumentality of Civic and Citizenship Education for bolstering political socialization and participation among students for sustainable democratic development in northern Nigeria. The study was delimited to Kaduna and Kano state. Descriptive survey method was used and the target population was twenty thousand three hundred and forty-five (22,345) persons. Sample of four hundred (400) respondents was selected through proportionate and stratified sampling techniques. Three (3) Self developed and validated instruments were used for data collection based on 4-points Likert scale. Mean and standard deviation were employed to present the descriptive data, while the null hypotheses were tested using t- test of independent sample at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that, there was no significant difference between the mean opinion scores of teachers and lecturers as well as that of male and female students of tertiary institutions on the instrumentality of Civic and Citizenship Education for bolstering political socialization and participation among students for sustainable democratic development in Northern Nigeria. However, significant difference was found between the mean opinion scores of SSS male and female students. Based on findings, it was recommended among others that, Civic and Citizenship Education instructors should as a matter of fact include themes on advocacy, decision making process and strategy for organising political discourse and media campaign as part of enriching topics in the course of their teaching. This will help equip students with skills in making the right choice, avoid bribery, resist the temptation to sell votes and political violence as well as defend their votes and protest within the ambit of the law when necessary for sustainable democratic development in Northern Nigeria.
Keywords: Civic-Citizenship Education, Political Socialization and Participation, Sustainable Democratic Development
AVAILABILITY OF LABORATORY FACILITIES AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BASIC SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE
NWALA LONGINUS Ph.D
Department of Integrated Science, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt
The study examined availability of laboratory facilities and students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Junior Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 250 Junior Secondary students drawn from ten (10) public Junior Secondary Schools in Rivers central Education Zone constituted the sample of the study. Relevant data were obtained using two instruments, namely: Questionnaire on Laboratory Facilities (LF) and Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT). Results were analyzed using population t-test, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistics. It was found that the (1) laboratory facilities for teaching Basic Science in Junior Secondary Schools is significantly less than expectation. (2) The adequacy of laboratory facilities for teaching Basic Science in Secondary Schools is significantly less than expectation. (3) The extent of utilization of laboratory facilities for teaching Basic Science in Junior Secondary Schools is significantly less than expectation. There is no significant influence of (1) laboratory facilities for teaching Basic Science on students’ academic performance. (2) There is no significant influence of adequacy of laboratory facilities for teaching Basic Science on students’ academic performance. (3) There is no significant relationship between the extent of utilization of laboratory facilities for teaching Basic Science and students’ academic performance. Also, availability, adequacy and utilization of laboratory facilities do not significantly contribute to the students’ academic performance. In conclusion, variables other than these determine students’ academic performance. Based on the available facts, it was recommended that since variables do not significantly contribute to the variance in academic performance in secondary schools, government should ensure that examination malpractice is totally eradicated from our educational system which has gradually crumbled the system and killed the interest of both teachers and students in utilizing the available facilities.
Keywords: Laboratory, Facilities, Academic, Performance, Basic Science .
MINERAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF CANDY DEVELOPED FROM IMITATION MILK
KANU C. N.
Department of Food Technology, School of Applied Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State.
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the quality characteristics of candy developed from imitation milk (coconut and tigernut milk). Milk was extracted from coconut and tigernut and blended at different proportions: 100:0 – CCN, 0:100 – TTN, 50:50 – CTC, 70:30 – CBC, 80:20 – CTT, and 60:40 – COT. Three crowns liquid milk served as the control sample. Candies were developed from these milk and their blends. The samples had fair minerals including calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. The vitamin A content of all the samples were also significantly (P<0.05) high (237.03IU – 328.03IU). The mean scores for the sensory evaluation showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) and all the samples were highly acceptable. Sample COT (60:40 coconut-tigernut milk candies) received the highest (7.66) overall acceptability score and competed favourably with the control sample. The study showed that the candy produced from the blends of coconut and tigernut milk is a relatively good source of protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium and potassium; thus, it is of high nutritional and economic importance.
Keywords: Sensory, Evaluation, Candy, Developed, Imitation.
BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESERVATIVE ACTIVITY OF THREE CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES ON THE SHELF –LIFE OF KUNNU –ZAKI HAWKED IN OSOGBO METROPOLIS
1EFUNWOLE, O.O., 2OYEWALE M.O. AND 3ADEBAYO O.R
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun state polytechnic, Iree 2,3Department of Applied Sciences, Osun state polytechnic, Iree
The activity of three commonly preservatives used in prolonging the shelf-life of juices (sodium metabisulphite, sodium benzoate and benzoic acid) were compared on kunnu-zaki hawked in Osogbo metropolis. From each town (Ikirun, Iree, Dagbolu, Ifon-osun, Ada and Osogbo) three bottles of kunnu- zaki were randomly purchased making a total of 18 samples and were brought to the laboratory for analysis immediately. Microorganisms were isolated from the kunnu- zaki before and after storage for 2 weeks. They were analysed according to standard microbiological methods to determine the total bacteria counts and types. The bacteria loads, types and organoleptic status were determined, thereafter preservatives were added and stored at room temperature (25±27oC) for 2 weeks. The same analysis (type, microbial loads and organoleptic status) was repeated for each of the sample. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis were found in the samples before addition of the preservatives and the loads decreased on daily basis while the bacteria load increased from the 1st day to the last day in the unpreserved sample and ranged from 0.56 – 2.21 x 104 Cfu/ml. The antibacterial activity of the preservatives determined showed that benzoic acid inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis at 200mg/ml while others were not inhibited. It was revealed on the 14th day of the colonial counts that benzoic acid was the most active preservative followed by sodium benzoate while sodium metabisulphite was observed the least. Also, the organoleptic tests carried out on the samples showed that those ones preserved with benzoic acid was the best.
Keywords: Preservatives, Kunnu-zaki, Bacteria, Organoleptic tests, Antibacterial activity