INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOL. 15 NO.2 (IJETR)
ISSN-2329-7309 (PRINT) DECEMBER, 2018.
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2018 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
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APPLICATION OF LOWER GRADE BIOMASS TO COMMERCIAL COOKING AND HEATING
ODIA, O. OSADOLOR
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
The study focuses attention on the application of lower monocots – grasses and sedges, the annual, biennial and perennial dicots, and the leaves, of some higher deciduous dicots to cooking and heating. A burner that will use the fuel was designed, constructed and tested by using it to boil 10 litres of water under comparable conditions with other contemplary burners using conventional fuels. The results showed that the burner boiled the water in 19 minutes, domestic gas cooker in 18 minutes, the kerosene stove in 30 minutes and the local fire place in 30 minutes. This new fuel can, therefore, replace wood in most domestic and commercial activities like heating, cooking, etc.
Keywords: Grasses, Leaves, Fuel, Burner, Renewable, Cooking, Heating.
DEVELOPMENT OF LATENT HEAT STORAGE(PCM) BASED SOLAR WATER THERMAL COLLECTOR FOR INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC UTILIZATIONS
ABASIAFAK N. UDOSEN 1*& EMMANUEL C. UMEH1
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Solar energy, unlike energy from other fossil fuels is not available all the time, but it’s cheap and available during the day which poses a challenge for night time solar energy harvesting, storage and utilizations. Typically, many homes use electric water heating system most times when the demand arises, thereby consuming more grid power and incurring costs. This study is derived out of the need to achieve sustainable solar heat production and storage for domestic and industrial utilizations, which when perfected may possibly in the near future become a replacement technology for the conventional electric water heaters. The construction of the LHS based heating system consisted of an absorbed plate, glazing material, insulation material, wooden casing, insulated tank and phase change material (PCM) packed in-situ. The system configuration has the PCM (paraffin wax) poured in liquid phase into the hollow spaces of the selected copper tube array while the working fluid (water) is conveyed throughout the annulus spacing of the embedded steel pipes with pump power. The mass flowrate of the working fluid is 0.00123kg/s and the total mass of PCM-paraffin wax poured into the cylindrical steel pipes is 0.216kg. Tests were conducted for 1 day and results showed the maximum collector temperature of 72.6oC. At the PCM tube test-point 6, the maximum sensible heat gained from the PCM was achieved at 75.5oC;3pm. While the maximum heat discharge by the PCM was achieved at 40.7oC;9pm. The melting phase which indicates latent energy storage phase lasted for about 3hrs (4pm-7pm) at constant temperature of oC. All experimental data were collected using solarimeter and 13 type K thermocouples connected to a programmed Arduino Uno instrumentation package.
Keywords: Latent heat; Paraffin wax; Collector, Arduino Mega; Enthalpy; Solar insolation.
EFFECT OF AUTOMOTIVE SYNTHETIC ADDITIVE PACKAGE ON LOW TEMPERATURE AND OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF JATROPHA BIOLUBE
JAAFARU, A., 1* HAMISU J. 2 , DANJUMA M.N.3
1 Mechanical Engineering Department. Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna; 2. Agric and Bio- Engineering Technology Department, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna;3 Chemical Engineering Department Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
This paper analyses the effects of automotive synthetic lubricant additive package on low temperature and oxidative stability of jatropha biolubricant. A Jatropha biolube was produced by two stage transesterication; the first is aimed at producing an intermediate product-methyl ester of the jatropha oil, while the second uses the methyl ester as a reactant to produce a polyol ester (biolubricant) using Trimethylolpropane (TMP). The effects of the additive on Pour point and Total Base Number (TBN) of the Jatropha biolube were determined. The results show that, the additive has positive effects on the low temperature performance and oxidative stability of the biolubricant.
Keywords: additive, Jatropha, oxidative stability, pour point
EFFECTIVE WAYS OF ENERGY AUDIT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIES
Abubakar, M. A., Bisu, D. Y., Salako, I., Orisanaiye, B.A.,
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi Nigeria
Energy is an essential production factor in the long run, it is expected that, the future development in the energy situation in Nigeria Textiles industries will reduce expenses. Energy audit serves to identify all energy streams facility and quality energy use according to discrete functions. This paper present energy audit as valuable tool for determining cost – effectiveness and feasible energy saving measures, and also integrate renewable energies with energy audit and how industries could used energy audit to understand and analyse its energy utilization, identify areas of energy waste and decide how to budget its energy use, plan and practice feasibility energy conservation methods that will enhanced their energy efficiency and substantially reduced energy cost, energy intensive units such as electrical energy consumption, oil consumption and boiler which were observed. A method of Analysis of energy consumption was proposed using tables and charts.
Keywords: Energy audit, Textile, Implementation, Energy waste, Industries.
DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBUST H-INFINITY CONTROLLER FOR A DC MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM WITH A DEAD BAND NONLINEARITY
1R. S. Shehu, 2Suleiman Musa and 3 Ibrahim F. I.
1,2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineeering, Kadpoly, 3Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi,
Motion drive mechnaisms are known to be highly noninear and widely used in manufacturing industries. In this paper, a robust H-infinity controller was develped for a dc motor drive with g nonlinear dead band. Using the frequency spectrum of the drive system the H-infinity robust controller was developed by minimizing system gain, the developed controller was then tested on the linear model cascaded with the nonlinear model of the dc motor model. Results of the system transient and steady state performances are generated that showed capability of the controller in mainaining desirable system behaviour despite nonlinear effect and disturbances.
Keywords: H-infinity Controller, Dead band, Nonlinearity, Transient, Tracking error.
FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF A MOTORIZED POUNDING-YAM MACHINE
1O.B. OLOGUNYE, 2*M.A. ADEDEJI, 1AKINJOGBIN, O AND 1OKPARA I.N.
1Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.
The main aim of this study is to fabricate and evaluate a portable, functional and durable motorized pounding yam machine in order to eliminate the drudgery associated with the local method of using pestle and mortar. The machine was also fabricated in order to enhance the hygienic processing of pounded yam for both domestic and possibly commercial purposes. Pounded yam is one of staple foods in Nigeria. Research has shown that yam has a daily nutritional food requirement necessary for healthy living and growth of man. Pounded yam is usually prepared and cherished by many tribes in Nigeria and visually across West African countries, hence the need for this study This Pounding Yam machine was fabricated and evaluated in the Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. Locally available and suitable engineering materials for processing yam tubers for human consumption such as stainless steel, mild steel, angle bar, etc. were used for the construction. Engineering processes such as cutting, welding, machining, grinding, drilling, etc. were used for the fabrication. The functional component parts of the machine were, 3.7285 kW electric-motor, pulleys, bearings, V-belts, stainless steel pot volume of 7.871 x103 cm3containing about 3.0 kg of boiled yam tubers, stainless steel shaft, and a rigid frame which housed the functional component parts. After the construction, the machine was tested using two locally available varieties of yam. The processed yam was fed into the machine manually, 2.6 kg of the yam was pounded within 15 minutes. Results obtained showed that the efficiency of the machine is 86.67%.
Keywords: Yam, pounding-machine, hygienic processing, fabrication and efficiency
FIVE YEARS OF PRIVATE INVESTORS IN POWER SECTOR: EPILLEPTIC POWER SUPPLY STLL PERSIST IN NIGERIA, THE WAY FORWARD
1MUSA, A. J, 2 SHAMSUDEEN, A. U. and 3IBRAHIM ADAMU
1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State 3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State
Epileptic power supply is a situation whereby there are consistent power outages in an area over a given period of time. At times it may take the form of low voltage, when there is supply at all. The power demand in Nigeria is increasing at an accelerated rate due to increase in population, infrastructural development and socio-economic activities. And it is imperative that adequate attention should be paid to the prospect of the power industry by planning effectively to put an end to the problems. One of the plans suggested by federal government is to disintegrate the power sector, and to be managed by private sector or investor. Electricity is an essential commodity for modern people and very important for future development of the society. These goods must be supplied on a continuous basis in order to cover the daily requirements. Power plants are the only way to insure the daily production of electricity. However, they contribute significantly to environmental pollution, since they consume fossils fuel. This paper, therefore, looks at the overall causes of epileptic power supply on Nigeria after 14 months of private investor and proffers lasting solution to the problem
Keywords: Power, Epileptic, generation, Transmission, Distribution, Private investor, Vandalism and Economic development.
TECHNIQUES IN LAPTOP COMPUTERS
VINCENT O. FACHE AND IJAFIYA J. MEDUGU
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi
This study provides a comprehensive review of existing literature on electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure and offers techniques for reducing exposure to safe limits in laptop computers (LTCs). Qualitative and analytical survey of relevant reports and research data from secondary sources were used to examine how exposure to EMR in LTCs occurs and to outline evidence of the effects and hazards that have been observed with users, in particular children. Standard guidelines available from expert organizations for limiting exposure to EMRs were used to reveal safe limits and related risks. In conclusion, the precautionary principle was applied to recommend techniques for minimizing EMR exposure from LTCs. Recommendation for further research are, assessing the level of EMR exposure of LTC user from Wi-Fi antennas and access points and comparison of the level of exposure between fully wired and fully wireless options of using the laptop computer.
Keywords: Electromagnetic field, radiation, exposure, safe limit
PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES DETERMINATION ON WASTE TO WEALTH CONVERSION OF DISCARDED SAWDUST AND USED NYLON (PURE WATER SACHET) TO PARTICLE BOARDS
(1) Salaudeen,Sikiru, and (2) Dahunsi, B.I.O.
(1) Department of Civil Engineering, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo State, Nigeria (2) Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) was used as melting aid to pure water sachet (N-LDPE) at 145oc to 180oc and used as binder to homogenous sawdust to produce particles boards (PBs). The PBs were then evaluated for strength – physical properties such as specific gravity, % Water Absorption, % Thickness Swelling and Fire Resistance and mechanical properties such as Modulus of, Rupture, Elasticity, and Impact Strength. The proportion of N-LDPE to DPK was 50g to 100ml. Three levels of N-LDPE to sawdust; 1 : 1, 1½ : 1, and 2 : 1 were used. The production was replicated ten times to have 30 boards of 250mm x 250mm x 9mm. The mean specific gravity of the boards with 2 : 1 N-LDPE to sawdust mixing ratio was 1.14 and the density was 1100kg/m3and had the least water absorption and thickness swelling, respectively 12.72% and 3.63% compared to the other two mixing ratios which had 20.93% and 5.03% for ratio 1 : 1 and 16.51% and 4.37% for 1½ : 1 respectively. The boards at the three levels were poor fire resistant as applicable to wood generally and thus requires fire retardant. The boards with 2 : 1 N-LDPE to sawdust mixing ratio had the highest mechanical properties; impact bending strength (0.18m), Modulus of Rupture (23.75N/mm2) and Modulus of Elasticity (4114.50N/mm2) compared to the 1 : 1 mixing ratio with respectively, 0.08m, 0.91N/mm2, and 309.60N/mm2 and the 1½ : 1 mixing ratio with respectively 0.12m, 1.72N/mm2 and 632.20 N/mm2. The quantity of N-LDPE in the production line had significant effects on all the boards’ properties. The proportion with the highest N-LDPE (2 : 1) produced the best results in terms of boards Strength and Dimensional Stability. The two major constituents used which are mostly regarded as ‘waste’ but are abundantly available should be used in PB production and the PB should be used in Engineering and Furniture applications.
Keywords: Particleboards, Sawdust, Kerosene, Mixing Ratios, properties, Strength.
DEVELOPMENT OF BRAKE PAD USING LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS AS INCLUSIVE AND INTEGRATED STRATEGIES FOR AFRICAN SUSTAINABILITY IN ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT
J. WADAI, C. NATHAN, A.E. ZIRA AND A’ARON J. ZIRA
Department of Mechanical Engineering Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State
The major component of brake pad lining material is asbestos fibers which is dangerous to health. The aim of this research work is to develop a brake pad which is free from asbestos materials and can perform similar function. Coconut shell, Periwinkle shell, egg shell, cashew nut shell, Graphite, mild steel brass, and epoxy resin were used as composition mixtures. The composition was grinded, mixed and compressed in a hydraulic press (Model Pi00ch-Type at 50 KN/cm3) and heated in a furnace at 15000c. The brake pads were removed and cured at 12000c for 8 hours. The brake pads were evaluated for different properties of samples A, B, C, and D and were found to give compressive strength (87MPa, 98MPa, 100MPa, and 113Mpa), Wear rate (0.16mm/min, 0.15mm/min, 0.13mm/min, 0.11mm/min), Water absorption (0.5%, 0.9%, 0.6%, 0.8%), Hardness test (120HRC, 140HRC, 169HRC, 172HRC) and co-efficient of friction (0.30, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.42) respectively. The results obtained were found to compare reasonable with the results produced when a brake pad of a Toyota high lander was used.
Keywords: Asbestos, Brake pad, Periwinkle shell, Fibers, Graphite
SMART HUMAN – COMPUTER TOUCH SCREEN INTERFACE FOR RESTAURANT ORDERING MENU
AMINU R LADODO1, SAGIR LAWAN2
1&2 Electrical/Electronic Engineering Department, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna
Human – computer interface screen menu is closely linked with the desire to exploit Information Technology (ICT) resources in restaurants and other congested public and private services. The aim is to enhance faster and better services to customers and eliminate waste of valuable time. The method involve use of microcontroller to transmit customers request for via Zigbee wireless networking system. At the receiving end, the customer’s request is displayed on the waiters computer/tablet. As communication is established between the waiter and the customer, selection of the type of menu and pricing is negotiated easily. The result of simulation conducted indicated 89% efficient performance of the device. The proposed deivice can be used in restaurants, airports, hospitals and places where large number of people demands services at the same time. The device is user friendly that anybody can use it satisfactory.
Keywords: Touchscreen, Microcontroller, Zigbee Modules, Arduino, Restaurant
VALIDITY OF CFD MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CROSS-VENTILATION OF A GENERIC ISOLATED BUILDING WITH ASYMMETRIC OPENING POSITIONS. A REVIEW
1SHERIFF, B., 2BABAGANA M., 2ZARA, K.K., 2JATO, H.B., 3MOHAMMED, A.U.
1Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. Borno State Nigeria 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. Borno State Nigeria 3Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria
The position of window openings and roof inclination are important parameters determining the effectiveness of wind-driven cross-ventilation in buildings. Many studies on natural ventilation have been performed in the past, however, a detailed review of the literature indicates that the majority of these studies focused on flat roofs with symmetric opening positions. Therefore, in this study, validity of CFD model used with reference to the Peren, et al., (2015). CFD analysis of cross-ventilation of a generic isolated building with asymmetric opening positions: impact of roof angle and opening location and other related papers were reviewed and results indicated that the CFD simulation model used can properly predict the most significant flow features including standing vortex upstream of the building and air flow pattern inside the building. The validation study showed that SST k-ω turbulence model indicated an outstanding and precise results.Keywords: Building, Cross-ventilation, Model, Opening and Validity