JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY (JAAT)
Vol 10 (8) September, 2018 ISSN 2318-9315
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P/ O/ Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State,
Nigeria, West-Africa. +2348025604997
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EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION ON N PARTITIONING TO SUNFLOWER PARTS IN WAMDEO, NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA
J.W. WABEKWA AND J.A. BASSI
Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 rainy seasons on effects of phosphorus application on N contents of sunflower parts at Mararaba Wamdeo (10o 30’N, 13o 09’E; 523m) in Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The phosphorus treatments consisted of five levels of ssp (0, 20 , 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1) in factorial combination with five levels of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1). These two factor treatments were fitted in randomized complete block design and arranged in three replications. Seeds were sown in June at 75cm x 25cm spacing and fields were kept weed-free, and all other cultural practices were timely observed. Samples of roots, stems, leaves and grains were collected at plant maturity and analysed in laboratory for their N contents using Kjeldahl digest and distillation procedures. Statistical analysis of N contents of the plants revealed significant differences among the interactions. The application of 80 Kg P2 O5 ha-1 influenced increase in root N content in mean for the two rainy seasons (7.4%) at 30 kg N ha-1, while the application of lower phosphorus rate (40 kg P2 O5 ha-1) increased the stem N content in mean for the two rainy seasons (9.3%) at 60 kg N ha-1. For leaf parameter, highest phosphorus rate of 80 kg P2 O5 ha-1 increased N contents in mean for two rainy seasons and recorded 24.3% when optimum N rate of 60 kg ha-1 was applied. Similarly, grain N contents increased with 80 kg P2 O5 ha-1 at optimum N rate of 90 kg ha-1 and recorded 36.9% in mean for the rainy seasons. Findings indicates herein, that phosphorus rates exerted effects on N uptake to increase N contents at nitrogen rates below the upper limit of 120 kg N ha-1 for all parameters measured. Conclusively therefore, additional phosphorus application above the present limit of 80 kg P2 O5 ha-1‑ can not be sustainable for sunflower production if nitrogen fertilizer is used in mixture with phosphorus, because the present P rate has demonstrated maximum effects on N uptake and translated to leave activities, grain yield and grain quality. Thus this stands as recommended phosphorus rate in this study.
Keywords: p rate; N rate; N uptake; N content; Interaction.
FARMERS’ PERCEPTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN LERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, Zaria.
The ability of farmers in Lere Local Government Area of Kaduna State to perceive and detect climate change and its consequences is the subject of this study. In spite of the efforts that have been made towards mitigating the effects of climate change, research and policies directed towards the locality, farmers’ knowledge and perception are still highly needed. This research is focused on the perception of the local farmers about their local environment. Structured Questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information for the research. 70% of the respondents (farmers) strongly agreed that the local environment is changing. Only 66.2% are of the opinion that the climate is also changing. The survey revealed that over 57% and 52% of farmers believe temperatures have been increasing while precipitation has been declining respectively. Over 48% of the farmers also believe that the changing climate is also for the environmental problems that are affecting their agricultural practices. There is need to implement proper adaptation strategies, and as such assistance and incentives will be needed to enable the farmers cope with the effects of the changing climate.
Keywords: Climate change, Farmers’ Lere, Perception,
SEED QUALITY STUDY IN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM LINN.) USING SEEDLING EMERGENCE AND ELECTRO-CONDCTIVITY AS INDICES
*IBRAHIM H., YUSUF S.T., ADEDIRAN, O.A., MUHAMMAD, A.N AND SALAUDEEN, M.T.
Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
An investigation was conducted in the screen house of Crop Production Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria to determine the effect of two seed extraction methods (extraction of seeds from wet ripe fruits and extraction of seeds from dry fruits and two drying methods (sun and air) on seed quality of six pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. The cultivars used were ‘Rodo-Dan Sokoto’ (RD-DSK), ‘Rodo Dan-Brini-Gwari’ (RD-DBG), ‘Tatashe Dan Kano’ (TS-DKA), ‘Tatashe Dan Kaduna’ (TS-DKD), ‘Shombo Dan Sokoto’ (SB-DSK) and Shombo Dan Guru’ (SB-DGU). The study was a 2 X 2 X 6 factorial experiment subjected to the Completely Randomized Design. The seeds of the different treatment combinations were placed in open plastic containers and stored at 80% relative humidity and 35 °C for eight weeks. Seedling emergence test was conducted every-other-week (two-weekly-interval). Seeds of cultivar ‘Shombo-Dan Guru’ (SB-DGU) generally recorded significantly higher seedling emergence percentage, longer seedling and lower electrical conductivity (EC) and greater longevity were recorded in cultivar ‘Shombo’ than in the other cultivars. Seeds of cultivar ‘TS-DKA’ recorded significantly lower values for all parameters except EC compared to all other genotypes. Seeds extracted from wet fruits before drying maintained viability for a longer period than those from dry fruits. Shade-drying resulted in significantly higher germination than sun-drying all through the storage period except in SB-DGU. The study revealed that longevity was better maintained when seeds of different pepper cultivars were extracted from wet fruits and afterwards dried in shade except in TS-DKA in which seeds extracted from shade-dried fruits had significantly greater quality than those of its other treatment combinations. Significant interaction effects of cultivar, extraction and seed drying methods were also recorded. Seed viability, seedling emergence and length declined with age while EC increased with age.
Keywords: Cultivar, extraction method, seedling emergence, sun- and shade-drying.
THE EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DALA TOPOSEQUENCE
DAUDA ABUBAKAR JUGULDE
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bali
The “evaluation of physical properties of Dala toposequence was undertaken. Four profile pits each were dug at the crest, upper slope, lower slope and the fadama. The profile pits were described and sampled according to the pedogenic horizons identified. The soil colour has a general hue of 7.5YR (light pink to weak red) at the crest and gradually got mixed up as one rolls down the interfluves to 10YR in some places. The sand, silt and clay content of all the soils studied on the toposequence ranged from 80.5 – 90.6% sandy loam to sandy texture. Both the bulk and the particle densities were within the ranges of 1.4 and 1.8 gcm-3 bulk density and 2.5-2.8gcm-3 particle density while total porosity ranged from 57.1–72.0 % respectively.
Keywords: Evaluation, Physical Properties, Dala and Toposequence.
THE EFFECTS OF GARCINIA KOLA LEAF POWDER ON FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTED POTATO TUBER (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)
OLADEJO A.O., ISHAYA M., SHIKIRU G.K. AND OLORUNDARE O.O.
Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Nigeria.
The study was carried out to isolate and identify fungi associated with fungi infection of Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) and to test the effect of Garcinia kola leaf powder on fungal infection of Potato tubers. This was done in Jos North L.G.A of Plateau state, Nigeria June 20 and July 4th 2016. Fungi were isolated from infected Potato tuber samples, cultured and identified using morphological characteristics. Garcinia kola leaf powder were tested on 500g Potato tubers in the quantities of 5, 7.25, 10grams and 0gram (control). Each treatment was replicated three times. Two fungi species (Rhizopus stolonifera and Aspergillus niger) were identified as fungi associate with Potato tubers in this study. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD). The percentages of infection caused by the two fungi showed no significant difference (p≤-0.5) in the quantities of powder used except the control. However, treatment 3 (10grams) of the plant powder was able to control the two species of fungi identified (Rhizopus stolonifera and Aspergillus niger) to 0.09% and 7.15%, respectively. This showed that Garcinia kola leaf powder has the fungicidal effects on Rhizopus stolonifera and Aspergillus niger, common fungi that affect stored Potato tubers. Based on this study, it is therefore recommend that Garcinia kola leaf powder be used as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in the control of fungal infection during storage.
Keyworld: Fungi; Potato tubers; infection; Garcinia kola; leaf powder
GULLY EROSION IN NIGERIA A REVIEW: (TRIGGERS, EFFECT AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS)
BUNU M1, GREMA L.U2 , MAINA M.N2, AHMED B.G3 AND ALI M3
1Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri P.M.B 1070, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri P.M.B 1070, Borno State, Nigeria 3Department Agricultural Technology. College of Agriculture Gujba. Yobe State, Nigeria.
Gully erosion, the most destructive and striking erosion type, has been recognized as one of the major global environmental problems. Its formation is one of the greatest environmental disasters in Nigeria, especially South-eastern parts of the country. Large areas of agricultural lands are lost or have become unsuitable for cultivation due to gully erosion. Many States in Nigeria are currently under the threats of this phenomenal process, south-eastern part of the country being the most affected. It has numerous causes; and these causes can be both naturally and artificially-induced, but the underlying geology and the severity of accompany surface processes play a key role. Observations have shown clearly that gully erosion is more prevalent in sedimentary terrain than in the basement complex of Nigeria. This erosion activity at various scales has resulted in the loss of lives and properties almost on yearly basis. Solutions that have been proffered include public awareness campaign, improved farming techniques, cultural method of gully control, enactment of laws against any activities that favour gully growth, and thorough implementation of suggested solutions.
ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) SOURCES FOR AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION SERVICES DELIVERY IN HADEJIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, JIGAWA STATE
1GARBA, A,. 1DANDAWO, H,. 1HABIBU, M.U,. AND 2BELLO, M. W
1Department of Agriculture Extension and Management, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia, Jigawa state. 2Department of Agriculture Technology, Federal College of Agriculture Produce Technology, Kano
This study analyses the influence of Information and communication technology (ICT) for agricultural information services delivery by small-scale farmers in Hadejia local government area, jigawa state. Data for the study was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents. In the first stage, four (4) crops farmers groups were randomly selected from Hadejia Local government area. In the second stage, twenty (20) farmers were also randomly selected and from each group as respondents this gives 80 respondents for the study. The techniques used for data analysis were descriptive and inferential statistics. The result shows that Male and married individuals dominated the use of ICT to source information for agricultural production in the study area. The result also shows that 62.05% obtained information on farming through radio, 6.02% got theirs through television, 25.00% through GSM while 6.02% got their information on farming through internet. The result indicated that all the respondents have access to one source of information or the other: Land preparation (8.09%), seed variety (25.05%), planting date (8.07%), plant spacing (7.05%), fertilizer application (19.01%), herbicides application (9.05%), pesticides application (12.03%) and modern storage (8.01%). The Effects of ICT Utilization on crop production shows that the coefficient of age, level of education and farm size was found to be significant at P < 0.01 level of probability and relates positively with information and communication technology utilization. The result shows that, availability, quality of information / relevance and ease of access to the ICT facilities is the major (43.75%) factor influencing their preference to ICT in Hadejia Local government area of Jigawa state. Based on the findings of this study, it is pertinent to make some recommendations. Extension workers should be encouraged to form groups or clusters to enable them donate money for the purchase of computer system. Government should provide Television viewing center in villages for them to watch television program on agriculture. Adult education should also be provided to small scale farmers to enable them keep records of their farming activities.
Keywords: Analysis, ICT, Agriculture, Information and Jigawa State.
APPRAISAL OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN FIKA AND DAMATURU, YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
IKPE SOLOMON & WILLIAM NYETIOBONG
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu 2Department of Geography, University of Uyo, Uyo
The role of agriculture in rural and urban food security is becoming more pronounced as the federal government is heavily investing in agriculture to boost food security and diversify the Nigerian economy. However, the existing rural areas of Fika and Damaturu, though with fertile arable crop land is faced with myriad of regional development challenges that are dragging the pace of development of the region, which have not been empirically studied and documented. This Cross sectional survey design, examined Community Participation in Agriculture and Rural Development in Fika and Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. The study area was classified into two and hundred questionnaires were administered to rural areas of each local government. A total of one hundred (200) copies of questionnaire were purposively distributed to local farmers in Fika and Damaturu Local Government areas respectively. Primary data was collected and analysed. From the result of the study, the rural population participates in agriculture and majority produce cereal crops. 44% of the respondents accounted for low level of production compared to the consumption requirements. Several factors such as employment of crude implements, land acquisition and limited advanced agro-techniques interplayed to diminish the level of production. The study revealed that new technologies such as improved seedlings, irrigation, mechanization, and trainings/workshops were highly employed. However, the study shows that insignificant population of farmers benefitted from service of agricultural expertise and monitoring agricultural agencies. This work found that Rural Development Programmes (RDPs) like FADAMA, Yobe State ADP and IFAD have played significant roles in agricultural growth of the area. The positive impact on rural farmers was assessed based on proceeds i.e. the number of bags harvested, output per hectare and input/output cost differentials. From the Cross-tabulation analysis with Chi-square statistics, it is found that the involvement of rural population in Agricultural activities relates significantly to effectiveness levels of RDPs in agricultural growth with 58.656, 64.574 and 13.927 accounted for Pearson Chi-Square statistic (PCS) value, Likelihood Ratio (LR) and Linear-by-Linear Association (LLA) respectively had p<0.05. The second hypothetical test using same statistic revealed that the effectiveness levels of RDPs in Agricultural Growth also interacts significantly with participation in new agricultural technologies with 75.774, 80.490 and 26.689 as PCS, LR and LLA respectively and p<0.05.For the two analyses, the contingency coefficient found at the level of interaction is high and that RDPs effectiveness is statistically insignificant (ineffective) as participation in new technologies and local involvement by rural residents are not functional. This study showed that before some of these RDPs were introduced, agricultural growth was low. Recent Rural development is revealed in variables such as: rural housing development, new tools acquisition by farmers, higher profits and increased rural revenue, livelihoods capacity development, periodical expansion of farming space and farmer’s ability to provide family utilities in Fika and Damaturu. Thus, agricultural initiatives are perceived to be advantageous to socioeconomic development of farmers and the rural terrain. Therefore, it is imperative that the problems that hinder effective RDPs actualization and agricultural growth should be controlled by introducing advanced modern technologies in agriculture, trainings, and expert monitoring of production for sustainable rural agricultural as well as other socio-economic imperatives in Fika and Damaturu with far-reaching arable land management in the region.
Keywords: Community, Participation, Agriculture, Rural, Development.
INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MATERIALS ON CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF MAIZE CROPS
KURIGADO B1, KAUGI A.M 1 , SALEH A.M 1, ZANNAH A.K.M2 AND DZIVAMA Y.M3
1Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri P.M.B 1070, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department Agricultural Technology. College of Agriculture Gujba. Yobe State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Resources Engineering, Adamawa State College of Agriculture P.M.B 2088, Ganye.
The research was carried out to determine the influence of organic materials on crop evapotranspiration of Maize in semi-arid region of Nigeria. In order to ascertain the influence; a drainage type lysimeter of 0.6m height, and 0.3 diameter with cross-sectional area of 0.85m2 were used. The organic materials used were; Moringa Olifera Groundnut Haulm and Maize Leaves, were grown and incorporated into the soil at tonnage of 0.45kg/m2. The organic materials (treatments) were laid in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. For consistency water application, an irrigation interval of 4days was maintained. Furthermore, the highest maize crop evapotranspiration of from the lysimeter of (19.2, 88.1, 127.32 and 86.10mm/day) at all stages of growth was found with Moringa Olifera leave respectively. Therefore, the study indicates that Moringa recorded the highest influence on the evapotranspiration, yield attributes of Maize crop. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis (T-test) showed that there is no significant difference between the means of the ETc predicted using the model and that observed from the field using lysimeter, however comparison between the predicted ETc and observed from the lysimeter using Nash- Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) exhibited a high degree of agreement between the model output and the field observed data with an R2 = 0.9779, NSE values, of 0.98, 0.68, 0.78, 0.66, RSR values of 0.11, 0.64, 0.59, 0.58 for initial, development , middle and late stages ; in addition the RMSE for the four growth stages was found to be 0.86, 1.9, 1.6, and 0.92, implies that the applicability of Hargreaves model is a good representation of calculating maize evapotranspiration to semi-arid region with sandy soil.
Keywords: Drainage; Evapotranspiration; Lysimeter; Organic Matter; Nash- Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE)
SUBSTITUTION VALUE OF MAIZE WITH SWEET POTATO MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE AND AEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF FINISHING BROILERS IN THE SEMI-ARID REGION OF NIGERIA.
A.A. MAKINTA1, ABDUL M1 AND A. M. MARTE1
1Department of Animal Production Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Four (4) weeks feeding trial was conducted to assess the haematological indices of broiler finisher fed sweet potato for maize as a source of energy. Ninety (90) chicks were randomly allocated to the 3 dietary treatment with maize as the control in groups of thirty (30) birds and each treatment was replicated thrice (3x) in a complete randomized design (CRD). Treatment 1 (control) 0% sweet potato meal, T2 10% diet containing maize while T3 (20%). The birds were allowed access to feed and drinking water ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. The blood sample were collected through wing vein with 5ml sterile syringe and needle into sample bottles containing anticoagulant tubes and use for evaluation of haematological indices of red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). There was clear cut trend in values of the different parameters which could be attributed to the test materials. However, sweet potato meal can favourably replace maize up to 20% without affecting the performance of broiler finisher.
Keywords: Broiler, sweet potato, maize, haematology and performance.
EFFECTS OF REPLACEMENT OF SYNTHETIC VITAMIN PREMIX WITH PLANT BASED VITAMIN ON THE GROWTH PERFORMNANCE AND SURVIVAL OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS FINGERLINGS.
*1OJE E.O., 2ORIRE A.M., 2BAKE G.G, 1NASIRU I, AND 1ISA, S.I
1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Lugbe, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger-State, Nigeria.
The present study was conducted to determine the growth and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings fed diets with various levels of plant based vitamin premix namely Adansonia digitata pulp (Baobab) and Tamarindus indica The fingerlings mean weight ranged between 2.0g to 2.5 g and were stocked in circular ceramic oval tanks measuring 0.6 m x 1.5m at a density of 20 fish/tank. Fish were fed 42% crude protein diets at 0%, 3%, 5% and 2.5% of both plant vitamin premixes which were commercially blended and the synthetic vitamin mineral premix. The fingerlings were fed at a rate of 3% of the total body weight and later readjusted to 5% based on the consumption of the feed. Feeding was done twice daily at 0800, 1600, . Feeding rates were adjusted based on the average weight of the fish after every sampling period. The experiment involves seven experimental diet with three replicates. The fish were given the experimental diets for a period of 8 weeks. Results showed no significant differences in the weight gain and survival rate of the catfish fed with diets that contains baobab pulp (adansonia digitata), tamarind (tamarindus indica) and normal synthetic or commercially available vitamin mineral premix. Fish fed with no Premix had stunted and retarded growth. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature were not affected by the addition of plant vitamin premix at the level of 5% in the diet of African catfish fingerlings.
Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, adansonia digitata, tamarindus indica and Synthetic premix.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WATER VOLUMES, SHAPES, GLASS THICKNESSES AND WATER HOLDING CAPACITY OF 60 LITRES GLASS AQUARIA
OLAYIMIKA, S. O. A*, LAMAI, S. L*, OLUGBOJI, O. A** AND GARKIDA, A. D.***
*Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna; Niger State ** Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna; Niger State, ***Department of Glass Technology Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; Kaduna State.
The study determines the relationship between water volumes, glass thickness, and water holding capacity of three shapes of 60 Litres (L) glass aquaria. Glass aquaria were designed and constructed using 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm thicknesses glass for Tower, Prism and Cuboid shapes in triplicate and they were tested for leakages. Water was introduced into each aquarium and monitored under room condition for 49 days. A significant difference occurred (p < 0.05) in the volume of water that can be retained by various shapes and thicknesses of glass aquaria. 3 mm thickness glass aquaria failed in retention of water of 60 L in all the shapes with a significant difference (p < 0.05) between shapes. 4 mm and 5 mm thicknesses failed in Prism and Tower shaped, during and shortly after filing without a significant difference (p > 0.05), while Cuboid shaped retained water, without significant difference (p > 0.05) occurred between 4 mm and 5 mm glass thicknesses in water retention capacity. Significantly different (p < 0.05) occurred between shapes and between glass thickness. 4 mm and 5 mm thicknesses are recommended for the construction of Cuboid shaped 60 L aquaria. Aquaria builders have opportunity to offer quality aquaria to customers based on their demand using 4 mm and 5 mm glass thicknesses for Cuboid shaped glass aquaria. Opportunity for choice of glass thicknesses based on customers’ financial ability exist between 4 mm and 5 mm for Cuboid shaped glass aquaria, minimizing loss of time, money, power and materials and increase healthy nation, job creation and wealth for the people are attainable based on this research outcome.
Keywords: Aquarium, Glass thicknesses, Shapes, Water volumes and Water holding capacity
PERFORMANCE OF GOAT FED VITEX FLOWER LEAVES IN THE SEMI-ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA
*L.G. ASHEIKH, *H. JESSE, **A.A MAKINTA
Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Bono State. **Department of Animal Production Technology, Ramat Polytechnic.
Twenty goats (20) of mixed breeds and sex with an average weight of 12.12 raging from (8.10 to15.2kg) were used for this research work. The goats were weighed and divided into five groups (five treatments).Each treatment with (4) goats. To (control) concentrates only, T1 has 5% vitex leaves, T2 has 10% vitex flower leaves, T3 has 15% and T4 has 20% level of inclusion of vitex flower leaves. The major feed ingredients used in the experimental diets are: cotton seed cake, Cowpea husk and wheat offal the crude protein (CP) content of experimental diet is higher in T2 and lowest in T3, equally the same for the crude fibre (CF). The dry matter in take (DMI) were not significantly (P>0.05) different among the treatments. Final live weight gain (FLWG) were significantly (P<0.05) different among the treatments. The performance of animals in T0 (control)is better but the cost of production is higher compared to T3 due to vitex flower leaves level of inclusion .This research reveals that vitex flower leaves can be fed to goats without any adverse effect and it is economical for goats/sheep production in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria.
Keywords: Goat, Vitex, Flower, Semi-Arid, Zone.