Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (JPAS) Vol.12 (1)


International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (IJPAS) Vol.12 (1) June, 2018 Editions

 

Published by:

Cambridge Research and Publications International,

Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle

(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,

Enugu State, Nigeria

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Papers:

 

ANALYSIS ON WAVELET TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE USING PIXEL INTENSITY

  1. A. ABDULKAREEM, A. M. S. TEKANYI, S.M SANI AND I. YAU

Communication Engineering Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Abstract

The global changes in the area of multimedia and the rapid acceptance of graphic images in mobile networks makes image and video compression the most important aspect of digital image processing. The objective of image or video compression is to reduce the size of the image or video (redundancy) with little or no change in terms of image or video quality for an effective transmission and storage. This paper presents analysis on wavelet transforms compression technique using pixel intensity. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the achieved technique. To compensate for the quality of the degraded output of the images, we applied the luminance enhancement model.  Simulation results showed that, the achieved method is efficient with improved contrast pixel intensity. It has been observed that the enhanced LWT (E-LWT) compression technique produced the highest PSNR values in all the six video samples, followed by enhance DWT (E-DWT). For the respective individual sample video frames of NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi, and NTA2.avi, the E_LWT produced PSNR percentage improvement of 12.59%, 5.10%, 4.71% and 1.93% over E-DWT and for the benchmark video frame of Akiyo.avi and Forman.avi, the E_LWT also produced a percentage improvement of 14.46% and 5.31% over E-DWT.

Index Terms:  Image Compression, luminance pixel intensity, PSNR

 

 

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS TO ESTIMATE MONTHLY GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION FOR SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA

ABUBAKAR USMAN BABUJE1, JAMILA ADAMU2

1Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. 2Department of Mechanical Enginnering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

ABSTRACT

Global solar radiation and its components are important parameters for the design and performance evaluation of systems utilizing solar energy. An analysis has being made to assess the predictive accuracies of six existing  theoretical models for computing monthly global solar radiation for Plateau State using the meteorological parameters which cover 12 months period . Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Bias error (MBE) and Mean Percentage Error (MPE) methods were used for the assessment. However, based on this RMSE, MBE and MPE, model one (Angstrom type equation by Frere) and model three (First order Angstrom Type Equation by Ogolo 2000) gives a more satisfactory agreement with the measured results of the monthly solar radiation. And hence they are recommended for estimate of solar radiation in plateau state and its neighbouring states.

KeyWords: Global Solar Radiation, Solar Energy, Mathematical models, Predictive Accuracy, Meteorological Parameters

 

 

EVALUATING THE COMPUTING PRINCIPLE, OPERATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS OF ANDROID TECHNOLOGY

*AMANNAH, CONSTANCE IZUCHUKWU,**IGWELA, JENNIFER N.

*Department of Computer Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rivers State, Nigeria.**Department of Library and Information Science

Rivers State University Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Android is a software stack for mobile devices that include an operating system, middleware and key application. Android software platform and operating system for mobile devices is based on Linux operating system and developed by Google and Open Handset Alliance. The study investigated the computing principles of Android technology and also ascertains its mode of operations. The study is recommending that Android users have a strong flexible understanding of Android phones by studying the Android operation performance either on Android handbook or online research so that their use of Android smart phones in optimized. The study reviewed that when all the necessary instructions are implemented Android smart phones will perform more efficiently. Thus it will enhance effective use and management of Android smart phones.

 

 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON GRAIN YIELD OF GUINEA CORN USING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

AMINU HARUNA*, USMAN HASSAN, A.A. IBRAHIM & A.M BRINGA

School of Science and Technology Department of Mathematics and Statistics School of Basic Studies Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

ABSTRACT

Guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare) is a plant that is mostly grown in the Northern part of Nigeria. It serves as a source of food to many in the region. This study is on grain yield of guinea corn using experimental design. Data was collected and analyzed using the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The result shows that there has been a significant growth in the yield of guinea corn over the years. Different types of treatment has been sampled to be applied in guinea corn farming, the result revealed that ESTAB is the best treatment that when applied to the farming would yield a favorable return of the farming season. Recommendations reveal that there should be adequate knowledge of the application of ESTAB and that the Government should ensure adequate sensitization of Farmers on the kind of treatment to apply. The foregoing also shows Sorghum as an additional source of food nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant properties which hold promise as source of food and herbal medicine in the developing world.

Keyword: Sorghum, Guinea corn, Experimental design, Estab and Anova

 

 

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ADOPTION OF MODERN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AMONG FARMERS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA

1BABUGA, U.S 2GARBA, A 2DANDAWO, H. 3S.S JIBIA AND 4HAMISU, A.J

1Department of Agriculture Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria 2Department of Agriculture Extension and Management, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia Jigawa State Nigeria 4Department of Agricultural Technology, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia Jigawa State Nigeria 3Department of agricultural extension and management, federal college of agricultural produce technology, Kano

ABSTRACT

Livestock extension services have a vital role to play in livestock production, since it is the responsibility of extension service to disseminate improved technologies in livestock husbandry and management to livestock farmers apart from forming a link between research stations and farmers. This study was carried out to analyse the factors responsible for adoption of the livestock production technology in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to seventy five randomly selected respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and regression models. It was found that majority (97%) of the respondent attended one form of school or the other. Most, also (78.67%) of the respondents had farm size between 1-3 hectares.  Also majority (78.67%) belongs to one organization or the other. And greater percentage of the respondents adopted poultry production, feed and feeding improvement and livestock fattening. The result of the t-test between yield of respondents on number of animals before and after access to extension services shows that there was a significant (p<0.001) difference in the number of animals reared. It also indicated that farm size was significant (p<0.001) while household size, years of farming experience, membership of organization and extension contact were significant at (p<0.005). The major constraint to adoption of animal production technologies were shortage of extension agents, high cost of technology and lack of access to credit facility. The major pre-requisite for the improvement of extension service are employment of more extension agents or workers and adequate training. Adequate agricultural credit to farmers at low interest rates will enhance their adoption of crop and animal production technologies.

Keywords: Analysis, Livestock, Production, Adoption and Technology

 

 

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MOMORDICA BALSAMINA AND DIOSPYROS MESPILIFORMIS ON SOME BACTERIA CAUSING GASTROENTERITIS

*1OGBEBA, J., AND 1IRUOLAJE, F. O., 2DOGO, B.A. AND 1 ABDULLAHI J. A.

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria. 2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Federal Secretariat Complex, Oke-Mosan, Abeokuta, Ogun state.

ABSTRACT

Momordica balsamina and Diospyros mespiliformis leaf extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the plants extracts was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Momordica balsamina methanol extract had inhibition zones of 3.3mm, 4.2mm, and 7.0mm against E. coli, S. aureus and K. pneumonia respectively, while the ethanol extract had inhibition zones of 2.0mm, 4.1mm and 4.0mm against the test organisms respectively. The aqueous extract had the lowest inhibition zones of 1.4mm, 2.4mm and 2.1mm respectively. Diospyros mespiliformis methanol extract had the highest inhibition zones of 10.2mm, 12.2mm and 10.3mm against E. coli, S. aureus and K. pneumonia respectively, followed by their ethanolic extract which had 10.6mm, 10.3mm and 7.6mm against the respective organisms. The aqueous extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis did not inhibit K. pneumonia. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of tannin, phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and terpenoids in both Momordica balsamina and Diospyros mespiliformis. The quantitative phytochemicals for both Momordica balsamina and Diospyros mespiliformis using spectrophotometric analysis revealed total phenol (1.208mg/g and 1.336mg/g), flavonoid (1.8mg/g and 1.4mg/g), ascorbic acid (0.071mg/g and 1.208mg/g) alkaloid (0.22mg/g and 0.03mg/g) and tannin (0.63mg/g and 0.92mg/g) respectively. The overall result indicated that Momordica balsamina and Diospyros mespiliformis leaves are potent antimicrobial preparations at least invitro and the quantititative bioactive constituents suggests antioxidant ability of both plants.

 

 

THE IMPORTANCE OF EXERGY ANALYSIS OF BOILERS USED IN INDUSTRIES

ADAMU, J., ALHASSAN, A.M., ACHAKPO, G.C

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

ABSTRACT:

This paper creates awareness among researchers on the suitability of exergy analysis in energy auditing works and acquaints the personnel on whether the boiler is utilized maximally or not.   Energy losses and exergy efficiency are two basic factors that are considered in studying systems like steam power plant. Though, energy losses (degradation) in a given system are commonly inevitable, it is also a fact that, because of the increased awareness of energy management globally, Governments were compelled to re-examine their energy policies and take drastic measures in eliminating waste. It has also sparked interest in the scientific community to take a closer look at the energy conversion devices and to develop new techniques to better utilize the existing limited resources.

Keywords: Boiler, Exergy analysis

 

 

THE DOSIMETRY OF X-RAY POINT SOURCE IN TISSUES.

AREMU S.O1, HAQUE M.F2, NDAWASHI M1. ODELAMI A.K3.

1Federal polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State. 2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Bauchi State. 3Sheu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology Kaduna, Kaduna State.

Abstract

With the rapidly increasing use of radioisotopes in research, therapy and radiation protection studies, the problem of accurate determination of the distribution of the energy imparted to biological tissues has greatly increased in importance. The absorbed doses in tissues due to X- ray point sources were computed as a function of exposure time, Photon energy and the distance between the source and target. The absorbed dose was found to increase linearly with exposure time. With the increase in Photon energy, the absorbed dose was found to increase almost linearly while it decreases exponentially as the distance between the source and the target was increased.

Keywords: Dosimetry, Point source, Photon energy, Distance, Exposure time.

 

 

MEASUREMENT OF GROSS ALPHA AND BETA RADIOACTIVTY IN GUBI DAM WATER BAUCHI.

*ABUBAKAR1 N., AMBI2 A. A., GARBA3 M. L., NDAWASHI4 M., ABDURRAHMAN5 O. AND HAMZA6 S. H.,

1, 2, 4,5 $ 6Department of Science Laboratory Technology Federal Polyteccnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231 , 3Department of General Studies Federal Polyteccnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi-Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

In this research work a total of 10 replicate samples of water from Gubi dam were collected for the analysis using appropriate methods to determine the gross alpha and beta radioactivity. To ensure that the field site selected and the samples collected accurately represent the environment intended for the study, proper measures were adopted for the sample preservation and transportation. The gross alpha and Beta measurements were carried out at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria using Gas-flow Detector Dual Phosphor (counting system) the values for the gross alpha and beta were determine for all the samples. The average alpha activity for the dam, was found to be (7.057E-03Bq/l). The average beta activity for the dam, was found to be (4.11E-02Bq/l). The concentration of alpha- beta, alpha and beta against the samples ID (point of samples collection) are plotted in 3D on the histogram and on the contour map to show the physical distribution of radioactivity taking place at each point were the samples are collected.

Keyword: Water, Samples, Gubi, Dam, Gross-alpha, Gross-beta, Radioactivity, Histogram Contour.

 

 

ALLELOPHATIC OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS BARK EXTRACT ON GERMINATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF SOYBEAN AND GROUNDNUT

GARBA A,* SANI A, ** ABUBAKAR IBRAHIM A. ***

*Department of Forestry Technology Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

**Department of Animal Health and Production technology Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. ** *Department of Agricultural Technology Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

Abstract

Extracts from Bark of Eucalyptus camaldulences, at three different concentration levels where used to experiment the inhibitory effect on germination and early growth of maize and sorghum. The study was conducted under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extracts were prepared by drying and pounding the Bark to get fine granules. 15g, 30g and 45g of the granules were then sucked for twenty four hours in three different plastic containers containing 480ml of distilled water. The effects of extracts from these three different concentrations were compared with distilled water. The extract shows remarkable inhibitory effect on the germination and hypogeal growth on the two receptor seeds.

 

 

PAPER NUMBER: JPAS-2018-141

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TRACTOR NOISE IN FARMING SECTOR (CASE STUDY OF NORTH-EAST PART OF NIGERIA)

TIJJANI BUKAR LAWAN

Department of Geography, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Yobe State University, P.M.B 1144, Damaturu, Yobe State

Abstract

The use of machines in modern agriculture is highly accepted with no measures taken into consideration in relations to occupational hazards; this is due to the increasing demand of food and the need to meet the demands in agricultural productivity for sustainability. This research is carried out in order to review tractor noise in the agricultural and farming system in North-Eastern part of Nigeria and identify the common forms of hazards associated with the tractor noise in the industry. A secondary source of data collection was used during the study period. The result revealed that when the level of the sound in the tractor is very high or the exposure time is long the hair structure cilia that normally vibrate in process of moving the sound bend due to the loudness and it will not come to its normal position this lead to an induced hearing loss. Controls on how to manage the hazards were also given Farmworkers mostly believe in orthodox ways, rather than following the procedures as per safe operating training/techniques. This may involve different activities like operating machinery such as tractors, crane, excavator and manual handling which also increase the risk exposure. Nigerian Government is now focusing not only on crude oil as a source of its revenue but also agriculture which leads to high investment and extensive plans on agriculture in order to sustain its populace and generate national income. This study shows how tractor sound in Northeast Nigeria causes induce hearing loss and other health problems on the human body as result of too much exposure to the sound without health and safety measures.

KEYWORDS: Agricultural and farming industry, Tractor noise, Health and Safety, Hazards, Human body.

 

 

PRODUCTION AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF MILLET BALLS “FURA” FROM BLENDS OF PEARL MILLET AND SESAME SEED FLOUR

1KURE O.A (MRS), 2DANIEL, B.SAND 3*DONALDBEN N.S

1,2, 3Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the effect of fortification of millet balls “fura” with sesame seed flour on quality attributes The five blends were formulated: MSF 1=100% millet flour and 00% sesame seed flour. MSF 2= 90% millet flour and 10% sesame seed flour. MSF 3= 85% millet flour and 15% sesame seed flour. MSF 4= 80% millet flour and 20% sesame seed flour. MSF 5= 75% millet flour and 25% sesame seed flour. Functional properties of the blends and proximate composition and sensory properties of the millet balls were determined using Standard methods. The bulk density ranged from 1.45±0.03-1.59±0.04; swelling capacity ranged between 11.0±0.11 and 11.86±0.09 g/g. The water absorption capacity ranged from 110±0.11-148±2.00,theoil absorption capacity increased with increase in sesame seeds quantity. with MSF 5 (25% substituted sesame seed)having highestvalue of174±1.65 while  MSF 1 (with 00% of sesame seed 1000% millet flour) recorded the least value of 141±1.63.Bulk density, swelling capacity increased with increased percentage sesame seed substitution from sample MSF 1 to MSF 5, respectively. The moisture, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents decreased with increased sesame seed substitution, while Protein, fat and ash contents increased with increase in sesame seed substitution.The Moisture content of the “fura” composite flour blends decreased from 21.82±1.09% to 18.11±1.00% with increase in the level of sesame seed flour. The Protein content ranged from 6.86±0.08% to 10.4±0.02% at 25% substitution level.While the values ranged from 1.07±0.06% to 0.91±0.02% for fat, The Ash content values ranged from 2.07±0.61% to 3.93±0.10%. Carbohydrate by difference ranged from 65.45±1.00 to 60.55±1.00. There was no significant difference in terms of colour, texture and overall acceptability (p<0.05) for the “fura” samples, but there was significant difference in taste and the aroma. However, the panellists indicated preference for the for the fortified “fura” samples with sesame seed in terms of the taste and aroma, Sample MSF 5 with 25% inclusion sesame seed has the highest mean score for all sensory parameters, this is an indication that “fura” can be fortified with sesame seed up to 25% level.

Keywords: Millet, sesame, fura, flour, fortification

 

 

SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS THAT MODEL POPULATION DYNAMICS USING THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM METHODS

BAZUAYE F.E

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Portharcourt, Rivers State.

ABSTRACT

This paper applied Laplace Transform Techniques to obtain solutions to non-linear differential equations that model Population dynamics. The new model identified four parameters that affect population growth, in contrast to the models in literature which considered only three parameters which are Births, deaths and overcrowding. The additional parameter is the epidemic. The solutions obtained in no overcrowding and no epidemic indicates a population growth. It shows that there exists a rise in the population abundance. But whenever the epidemic term is introduced into the model, there is a sharp decrease in population growth.

Keywords: Population growth, Model parameter, Simulation.

 

 

NUTRITIONAL, PROXIMATE AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF CAKE PRODUCED FROM COMPOSITE FLOUR BLENDS OF CASSAVA AND WHEAT

KANU C. N. AND ONUEGBU P. I.

Department of Food Technology, School of Applied Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State

Abstract

An experiment was carried out to determine the nutritional proximate, composition of cake produced from blends of wheat and cassava flour. The result showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) among the treatment in their moisture content. Sample D04 had the highest moisture content while the least was recorded in sample I09. The result further reveal that Ash Content ranged from 2.61 – 2.73 and there was no significant difference (P<0.05) among the samples. Crude fibre was observed to have a significant difference (P<0.005) between the sample with sample I09 having the least while the highest was observed in sample H08. A significant difference (P<0.05) existed in the protein content of the sample likewise, fat and Carbohydrate also ‘had a significant difference (P<0.05) in the magnesium, phosphorus, sodium and calcium content respectively. The sensory evaluation also recorded a significant difference (P<0.05) in the colour, taste, aroma, texture and general acceptability.

Keywords: Proximate, Sensory, Evaluation, Produced, Composite.

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