International Journal of Management Sciences & Entrepreneurship (IJMSE) Vol.12 (6) June, 2018
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2018 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT AND RELEVANCE OF AUDITING TOWARDS ENHANCING PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN NIGERIA
DR MAHMOUD IBRAHIM
Department of Accounting, Faculty of social and Management Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi Campus, Bauchi State
Accounting and Financial management are very crucial for the prosperity of any organization but it is particularly important in the public sector organizations due to the nature of their operations and inherent perception of public resources’ ownership. To establish trust it is important for government to provide complete and accurate information on the assets and liabilities; revenue and expenses of the government. Lawmakers and the public look to audits for assurance that ASOSAI (2016) public sector actions are ethical and legal, and that financial statement accurately reflect the true measure of operations of the government. Ability to provide complete and accurate information on the asset and liabilities; revenue and expenses of government depicts proper transparency and accountability, boosts credibility and provide clear and precise information on the financial consequences of social, economic and political decisions taken by the government. The main objective of the study is to assess the role of auditing in enhancing public financial accountability. This study has conducted thorough analysis on how auditing contributes to the success of financial accountability which assures proper use of public funds. Conclusively, the study has alarmed on how independence of Auditor General (AG) at federal, state and local government levels need to be maintained in order to enable their offices to work independently without any due influence from either parts. Following this contention, the study advice policy and decision makers to rethink on the proper way of enabling Audit Offices of Nigeria to work strongly, diligently and prudently for the betterment of the Nation, by establishing supreme audit institutions in order to implement public sector governance reforms that will ensure efficient and effective utilization of funds and service delivery.
Keywords: Public Sector Audit, Auditing, Financial Accountability, Budget, Value for money, Governance.
ASSESSMENT OF PERSONAL SELLING AS A MARKETING TOOL IN MODERN BUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF PROMASIDOR NIGERIA LIMITED, MAIDUGURI BRANCH)
1SOLOMON A. E., VIVIENNE, N. ISAAC2 AND ABDUL, C.3
1Ulysses Nigeria Limited, Niger Road, Kano State;
2c/o Ramat Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1070, Maiduguri,
3Department of Marketing, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri
This study is aimed at assessing personal selling as a marketing tool in modern business with Promasidor Nigeria Limited, Maiduguri branch as a case study. Personal selling is a very effective tool to market the company’s products but what is more effective is the quality or the perceived quality, unmatched benefits of the service being rendered to the business customer. Business customers want to know what problem the product or service can help solve and how will the product or service help them serve their customers better than the competitors. Both primary and secondary sources of data collected were employed in order to gather information for the research. Questionnaires were also distributed to salespersons and distributors of the company for their views on personal selling as a marketing tool in modern business while chi-square statistical method was used in analysing the research to find out if personal selling is a useful tool in modern business. The findings of the research showed that salesmen are engaged in field selling and each salesman has his own territory to cover and is also allotted with a target. It was also revealed that most of the salespeople are exciting about their jobs and are well compensated by the organisation. Recommendation made was that the company should set a realistic target for each salesman with consideration given to individual salesman territorial potentials.
Keywords: Assessment, Personal Selling, Marketing, Tool, Modern Business
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS INTERACTION ON N CONTENTS OF SUNFLOWER PARTS IN MAIDUGURI, SUDANO-SAHELIAN AGRO-ECOLOGY, NIGERIA
- W.WABEKWA AND J. A. BASSI
Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
Experiments were conducted during 2010 and 2011 rainy seasons to determine how phosphorus availability would influence N contents of sunflower. The study location was Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri (10o 47’N, 13o 13’ E). phosphorus was applied at land preparation at the rate of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80kg P2O5 ha-1. Nitrogen at the rate of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1was in factorial combination with the phosphorus rates and arranged in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Nitrogen was applied in two equal splits, first at two weeks after sowing (WAS), to facilitate the development of plant parts and equip their absorption tissues and storage organs. The second N dose was applied at anthesis, when plants demand for fertilizer increased due to tissue maturity and grain development. Necessary cultural practices were taken care of, and samples of plant parts were obtained at harvest and analyzed for their various tissue N contents using Kjeldahl distillation procedures. Results showed that average root N content for the two rainy seasons increased with the application of 60kg P2 05 ha-1,without N (0kg ha-1) and recorded 5.4%. Result for stem N content shows positive interaction between 30kg N ha-1, and 60kg P2 O5 ha-1,which influenced optimum increase in the stem tissue N content (8.0%) in the average for the two rainy seasons. The application of 80 kg P2 O5 ha-1 without N (0 kg ha-1) increasedleaf N uptake and recorded optimum N content of 19.8% in the average for the two rainy seasons. Similarly average grain N content for the two rainy seasons increased and recorded optimum value of 25.7% when the highest phosphorus rate of 80kg P2O5 ha-1 was applied without N (0 kg ha-1). It is evident from the above findings that sunflower requires phosphorus for N absorption, and this justifies conclusions made from many related studies. There are also indications herein, that leaves and gains showed higher demand for fertilizer (N) than lower parts of the plant due to their roles in photosynthesis, grain development and grain quality; and therefore when recommended N rate for grain yield in sunflower is taken to consideration under field condition, the addition of 80kg P2O5ha-1isalso recommended to facilitate N uptake for increasedyield and quality of grains in terms of nutritional contents.
Key Words: Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Interaction; N-contents; Average
IMPACT OF REWARD ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, BAUCHI)
MBAKWE FRANCIS K1, IGIBA EHIMEN G2. AND OLEABHIELE ERNEST.P.3
1,2Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 3Department of General studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Human resource is one of the important assets that organization owns. Reward helps management to retain efficient and experienced workforce in an organization. This research work examined the impact of reward on employees’ performance with special reference to Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from one hundred (100) participants through purposive sampling method and data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 16. Result showed that reward dimensions jointlypredict employees’ performance, which accounted for 71% variance of performance. Subsequently,recommendations were made to the management of the institution that they should buildup the commitmentamong employees by rewards and achieve both individual and Organizational objectives.
Keywords: Effect, Reward, Employee, and performance
THE APPLICABILITY OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING SYSTEM IN CONSUMER GOODS COMPANIES
WALI, YAYA MUKHTAR
Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
There is an increase in the production and consumption of goods and services brought about by an increase in population. The competition between companies also led to the need for the adoption of more efficient costing systems such as the Activity Based Costing (ABC) which is better than the Traditional Costing System. The aim of this study is to examine the level of the adoption of ABC by some companies operating in Bauchi Metropolis. Fifty questionnaires were administered to purposely selected staff of some companies. The hypothesis formulated was tested using the student t-test and correlation co-efficient. Findings revealed that the companies do not operate the ABC system as most of the respondents are not even aware of it. It is recommended that companies should adopt the ABC because it will bring about an improvement in their performance.
Keywords: Activity Based Costing, Consumer Goods, Traditional Costing Systems, Cost Drivers, Cost Centres
DISTINCTION BETWEEN SELLING AND MARKETING
MUSA UMAR FAROUQ
Department of Marketing, School of Administrative and Business Studies, College of Administration, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nasarawa State
The personal communication of information to persuade a prospective customer to buy something – a good, service, idea or something else which satisfies that individual’s needs. This involves a person helping another person. The right goods and services to the right people, at the right time, at the right place, at the right quality, at the right price, using these rights in marketing promotion and communication. Selling focuses on the revenue needs of the seller or firm. It tries to find means of converting the firm’s goods and services into cash and sales revenues. Marketing focuses on the consumers. It tries to look for the best means of satisfying the consumer’s needs, want. In order for selling to achieve its goals of satisfying the revenue needs of the firm, whatever has already been produced is “sold” to consumers, irrespective of how they feel after the sales. But marketing requires that production output and the means of getting consumers to adapt it are determined by marketing research. The degree of their performance is much dependent on the marketing objectives and resources, the product concern and the strength of competition, among others. What do I market? Ideally, I market products and services. Here are keywords to notice where marketing products/services. Product: high quality, good designs, attractive designs, Services, high performance. Price: pricing, price structure, Discount, quality discount, trade discount, seasonal discount, discount allowed, discount received, rebate incentive, Received, return outward, return inward. Services: Consumers, consumerism, distribution, demand, supply, major customer, behaviour, stock, inventory, revenue, warehouse, Strategy, aggressive, research, push, segmentation, competitor, life cycle. Middle-men, Agent, Brokers, Disk-jobbers, Drop Shippers, Company, Producer, Client, Consideration, Principal, Commission, Channel, etc.
Keywords: Distinction, Selling, Between, Marketing, Elements.
EFFECTS OF MICROFINANCE SERVICES ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA
Department of Banking and Finance, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu
In this study titled the effect of microfinance services on the financial performance of small and medium enterprises, a case study of microfinance institutions in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Most of the small and medium enterprises in Nigeria fail in their premature state, because of lack of insufficient capital, lack of risk awareness and the absence of financial literacy. The major objective of this study was to measure the relationship between these above variables, the independent and dependent respectively. The specific objectives for this study include ascertaining how financial sustainability affects financial performance in small and medium enterprises in Maiduguri. The findings about this study stated that financial sustainability, financial literacy and risk diversification have moderate positive relationship with financial performance of microfinance institutions in Maiduguri. The target population for this study consisted of four microfinance institutions. Sample of 82 respondents was taken. The sample was chosen by using Slovene’s formula. Sampling technique for this study was non-random sampling particularly purposive sampling. Descriptive research design was employed. Structured questionnaire have been designed to facilitate the acquisition of relevant data which was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics which involves simple tables and illustrations was tactically applied in data presentations and analysis. Regression model was used to measure the kind of relationship that exists between the independent and the dependent variable. The results of the study showed that moderate positive relationship exists between financial sustainability, financial literacy, risk diversification and financial performance of microfinance institutions. The researcher would like to recommend for the microfinance institutions to expand their services to other parts of the country to distribute the opportunities that can be benefited by the poor citizens in entire the country.
EFFICACY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP (Study of Roxate Cyber Café Bauchi)
OLEABHIELE E. PAUL1, IGIBA E. GREGORY2 AKHERE A. ANGUS3 AND REMIGIUS ONAH4
Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.1, Department of Business Administration and Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.2, Registry Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.3
Most small enterprises in less developed countries are being envisaged to gain from this era of information and communication technologies. Lately, very few small enterprises have realized the impacts of information and communication technology which has contributed to the growth and development of the business activities worldwide. The introduction of these ICT has immensely helped these small business entrepreneurs widen their market as well as lessen their dependent rate on the middle men for business activities. This research study focused on the Efficacy of Information and Communication Technology [ICT] on the performance of small enterprises with a specific focus on Roxate cyber café Bauchi. The main purpose of this study were to find out the use of ICTs among small business owners, to assess the problem encountered by small business entrepreneurs, determine how ICTs has help in boosting small business activities, and to make adequate recommendation where it is necessary. However, the entire staffs in the Roxate Café were involved in this study. From the observation it was revealed that ICT is one of the focus points in modern business firm today and has great impact on the organization of the small enterprises the study also revealed the high cost of maintenance and purchasing IT tools as one of the major problems encounter with ICT. And finally in maintaining the digital world and its prospect, the study recommends that, there should be adequate awareness, training and encouragement especially on ICT businesses to pursue IT research while maintaining low cost of ICT tools/machines/equipment’s.
ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING DISCLOSURE PRACTICE AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN NIGERIA
Accountancy Department, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria
Despite 2014 full convergence to IFRS in Nigeria, environmental accounting disclosure practice remains voluntary due to the absence of standard that should mandate such disclosure. However, the effect on the public image of the company from failure to comply with environmental regulations enforced by environmental regulatory agency contributed to the disclosure practice among public companies in Nigeria. This study examines the level of environmental accounting disclosure practice among listed companies registered with NESREA. Content analysis was employed to analyze published 2015 annual reports of companies. Based on a sample of 63 companies, the result indicates that accounting standards do not significantly contribute to environmental disclosure albeit environmental agency motivates companies to voluntary disclosure.
Keywords– environmental accounting; disclosure; regulatory agency;
A REVIEW OF GLOBALISATION IMPACT ON NIGERIAN TOURISM PRODUCT AND BUSINESS
UKONU, IJEOMA CHINYERE1 DONATUS EVEREST AKALAZU2 AND FLORENCE ELIMA LAGASI 3
1&3Department of Hospitality management, Federal polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi state 2Department of Leisure and Tourism Management Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Bauchi State.
Globalisation has been referred to as the evil we have to live with due to it negative aspect yet its positive aspect has made life easier. This research work is a review of the impact of globalisation on Nigerian tourism business and product. It uses secondary research method to review the concept of globalisation; in the light of its dimensions, it reviews the positive and negative effect of globalisation on tourism business and product. In Nigeria most tourism organisations place their product and advertise their businesses online using the social platforms. The invention of the computer reservation system and global distribution system is a positive impact which has improved hotel and airline services. Internet marketing of tourist destinations and products offering all-inclusive travel packages, teleconferencing, video brochures, and online payment are all positive technological impact. On the other hand, globalisation is a threat to tourism product; it is a threat to gastronomy tourism; especially to destinations that market local cuisines and local gastronomic produce as tourist attractions. The American MacDonalisation of food culture is overwhelming the local food culture, where take away and fast food has become the order of the day. Tourists would now prefer to grab an ice cream and a meat pie rather than settling down to a rich cultural food. Multinational tourism business are penetrating the less developed economies in search of new markets and thereby throwing the local companies out of business. It was recommended that The Nigeria tourism companies should step up in their standard of facilities and services to position themselves to compete more favourably globally. Incentives that will improve the competitiveness of local tourism companies should be put in place by the Government.
Keywords Business, globalisation, Nigerian tourism, product
FINANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF TURKEY
SIRAJO ALIYU AND USMAN IBRAHIM ZWAL
Department of Banking and Finance, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
Finance for development is an integral means that assist the lower and middle income nations to extend some certain development programs. The case of Turkey stands as a special considering their immediate borders, which include European countries. As a result, concentration of the country on economic infrastructure sector dominates its foreign assistance allocations. Though, the rate of the assistance reduces in recent years, the country have to diversify means to complement the deficit.
POLICY FORMULATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1OTTI VICTOR UZOMA 2OKHUMAILE SELENA IDOWU 3EHIMI CELESTINA
1Department of Public Administration, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi 2Department of Banking and Finance, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi 3Department of Accountancy, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi
This study expository in nature. It aims at unearthing the potentials of ICT for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals which were declared by the United Nations in 2015 as binding for all nations of our planet addressing both developing and developed countries. ICT must play a significant role if the SDGs should be achieved as projected in 2030. The study gives an overview of some of the existing efforts in this area and is written as an appeal to all professionals, scientists and IT-professional and their organization to take a holistic approach for all ICT-activities and projects to always include and monitor the effects of their work on the SDGs. The impacts of ICT on sustainability are twofold: On the one hand there might be negative effects on sustainability such as the generation of electronic waste; but this study advocates that ICT is definitely an enabler to more efficient resource usage, education and business operations which is critical success factors for achieving the SDGs.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Millennium Development Goals, Information and Communication Technology
SANITATION MARKETING AND FINANCE AS A POWERFUL TOOL TOWARDS A HEALTHY BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN BAUCHI- A Review
1OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED 2MURTALA ALIYU BABAJI 3ALIYU MUNKAILA ABUBAKAR 4SHUAIBU NURU MAMMAN
1,2&3Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 4Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
We build our environment and afterwards our environments build us. A healthy nation is central to all physical, social and economic growth. The Nigerian health sector is faced with inadequate sanitary facilities. In most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria have not actually migrated to the next, higher level in terms of hygiene as open defecation is still a norm. As a result of this, the Federal, State and Local governments are presently trying to achieve safe hygiene practices for a collective responsibility, sustainable waste management and benefits to the society. Bauchi is one of the states identified with open defecation free environment in Nigeria. The need for adequate and affordable toilet design, construction and management of such sanitary facilities are too much of a heavy burden to bear due to some circumstances beyond the funding of the management, which requires special interventions and supports. The provision of sanitation marketing is to construct improved and healthy toilets in Bauchi to create nd support the toilet business then facilitate the finance of such improved and healthy toilets will be discussed. The study area under investigation further discusses issues of immense contribution to sanitation marketing. Hence, the contribution of this work can never be over estimated as the results and findings were all relevant to professionals and other future possibilities in terms of attainment of a knowledge-based economy and opportunities in toilets at various spaces and levels. It has been recommended that government should strictly enforce the law that sanitation marketing towards attainment of healthy built environment using improved and healthy toilets should be sustainable.
Keywords: Built, Environment, Healthy, Sustainable, Toilet
ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING PRACTICES AMONG SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES (SMES) IN IMO STATE NIGERIA: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR DIVERSIFICATION
ANUKAM, AMAOBI ISAAC
Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Nigeria
This study explores with empirical evidence the extent of overlap, similarities and dissimilarities between entrepreneurial practices and the marketing concepts among Small to Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) in Owerri, Nigeria. It inquires and assesses approach to marketing practices entrepreneurs apply. Qualitative approach is adopted in the study which requires primary data collection tools consisting of structured instruments for in- depth interviews and guide for focused-group discussion (FGD) and critical incidence analysis are used for data collection. Secondary data were sourced from firms’ records, periodicals and related literatures. Convenient samples of twenty (20) SMEs were studied. Content and Thematic Analysis were used in data analysis. The research findings show that while traditional marketing is structured and it’s framework requires certain conditions to thrive-formal planning and theoretical structures. Entrepreneurial marketing (EM) improvises, and does not seek for a perfect condition to grow a firm. Thus, the highlights of the interface between entrepreneurship and marketing as discussed in the findings on the areas of differences, similarities, overlap and collaboration will give practitioners, academics and scholars greater synergetic leverage over unstable marketplace in the application of marketing and entrepreneurial processes for greater results.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Marketing, Innovation, Small and Medium Enterprises, Marketing Environment, Marketing Opportunity
IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON THE ATTAINMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS (A STUDY OF NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA)
*MELLETUS UCHECHUKWU AGBO (PH.D) **MICHAEL OKPARA
*Department of Business Administration, College of Management sciences **University of Agriculture, Umudike,Abia State, Nigeria
The study examined the impact of leadership styles on the attainment of organizational effectiveness with respect to Nigerian breweries plc. Aba. Simple percentage table in analysing the collected data was adopted and was used to test the research questions posed in the study. While simple regression and correlation was used to test the hypotheses in this study with the use of SPSS V. 23. Using the simple regression statistical tool, It was found that R square value of 0.731 which elucidated that 73% of the change and variations in the dependent variable was caused by the independent variable and at a significant level of 1% that 0.000 at an Adjusted R-value, the coefficient was still positive signifying a strong correlation between leadership style and organizational profitability of Nigerian breweries plc. Aba. Secondly, R2 which was the coefficient of determination between the dependent and independent. The R square value of 0.69 which elucidates that 69% of the change and variations in the dependent variable was caused by the independent variable and at a significant level of 1% that 0.000 at an Adjusted R-value, the coefficient was still positive signifying a strong correlation between charismatic leadership styles and attainment of organizational goals of Nigerian breweries plc. Aba. Equally, ANOVA table the P- value for the model was 0.000 which means that the model was statistically significant since the P-value was less than 0.005. The result of the analysis revealed that the calculated t-value of 20.995 was greater than the table value (-3.169), therefore, the null (H0) hypothesis was rejected, while the alternatives hypothesis (H1) accepted. Conclusively, there was positive and significant relationship between leadership style and organizational productivity of Nigerian breweries plc. Aba. Secondly, there was positive and significant effect of charismatic leadership styles and attainment of organizational goals of Nigerian breweries plc. Aba. Finally, that there was positive and significant relationship between Participative leadership styles and attainment of organizational market share of Nigerian breweries plc. Aba.
Keywords: leadership Styles, Organizational Effectiveness, Transactional Leadership, Transformational Leadership
ROLE OF PUNISHMENT AS A MANAGERIAL STRATEGY IN NIGERIAN ORGANISATIONS
*ILESANMI, O. A. PH. D. **DR. (MRS.) FAMOLU, B. **AJIBOLA, K. S. *BAKARE, AKEEM ADEWALE
*Department of Business Administration, Osun State University, Osogbo,
Osun State, Nigeria. **Department of Human Resources Development, Osun
State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.
An organisation consists of a group of employees, and the success of the organisation is directly related to the success of that group of employees. One of the key factors in determining the success of those employees is the relationship that they have with the employer. This paper examines the role of punishment in management practices in organisations. This also made attempt to examine the important behavioural and social issues associated with the use of punishment in organisations. This paper made use of content analysis. The paper recommends that managers should punish only undesirable behaviours, give reprimands as soon as possible, tell employees exactly what kind of work behaviours are undesirable and their associated consequences, administer punishment in private and punishment should have information value and employee’s value.
Keywords: Organisations, Managerial, Punishment, Strategy, Nigerian,