International Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Management (IJECM) Vol. 12 (3) June, 2018 Editions
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria
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EXPROPRIATION DIFFICULTIES IN POST WAR ENVIRONMENT: THE CASE OF 40 HECTARES OF LAND EXPROPRIATED FOR PRESIDENTIAL PALACE PROJECT IN BURUNDI
- MANIRAKIZA RICHARD,
Department of Estate Management and Valuation (EMV), School of Architecture and Built Environment (SABE), University of Rwanda-College of Science and Technology (UR-CST), P.O Box: 3900, Kigali, Rwanda
The issue of expropriation is very sensitive in all societies in general and in societies emerging from war in particular. Expropriation in war-torn societies is a problem that confronts Governments. This paper investigates the process of expropriation in Burundi in its post war environment. The researcher used case study research strategy. The study utilized questionnaires in form of interview, group discussions and documentary analyses and used a sample size of 64 respondents. Findings revealed that there was a high tension between affected people and the Government that resulted from quick expropriation process and misunderstanding on usable compensation rates. However, the results indicated that the Government has made significant changes. This study recommends the Government to reduce quick implementation of projects and pay special attention on post war expropriation and use expropriation when it is the only option available so as to limit the possibility to quick flashpoint of secondary conflicts.
Keywords: Expropriation, Post war, Burundi, Modes of land acquisition, Land code, Presidential palace project
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF LAND ACQUISITION AND COMPENSATION ISSUES: THE CASE OF PERI-URBAN POTISKUM
BABA ADAMU MOHAMMED
Department of Geography, Yobe State University, P.M.B 1144 Damaturu, Nigeria
This paper examined the socio-economic implications of compulsory acquisition of lands and compensation issues on small scale farmers in Peri-Urban Potiskum, Yobe State, Nigeria. For the purpose of this paper, data were collected through both primary and secondary sources, using multi-stage sampling technique. The first stage was the purposive sampling of two layouts, namely BOTP/47A and BOTP/57B, considered as the study area. The second stage involves the stratified sampling method where the population of small scale farmers was stratified into group ‘A’ and B’. Group ‘A’ are farmers whose farmlands have been absorbed by urban expansion and therefore are rendered landless; Group ‘B’ on the other hand, are farmers who have lost significant hectares of their farmlands, thus settled on small portion at peri-urban areas. The third stage employed the random sampling of 100 respondents from each of the two groups, totaling 200 respondents. The primary data were then collected through questionnaire administration and interview schedule with the respondents in the study area to determine their level of satisfaction with the given compensation. However, the paper explored relevant literatures in form of published and unpublished works, as secondary sources of data. Analysis of the data collected was achieved through the use of two suitable statistical tools, namely percentage and frequency counts as well as chi square analysis. The paper revealed that most farmers have been divorced from their farmlands for overriding public interest; and that sprawl and leap-frog development was the order of the day. It also revealed that occupational changes are experienced by the farmers which led to unemployment and poverty, thus, migrating to neighbouring villages as they cannot cope with the cost of urban life. It further revealed, that the basis for dissatisfaction expressed by the natives were that the principles of acquisition used by the state government in acquiring their farmlands was abused; and that the 70:30 ratio given to the farmers as compensation was inadequate and unfair. The paper therefore recommended prompt payment of compensation to eliminate the unnecessary suffering imposed on the claimants and radical harmonization of conflicting laws on acquisition and compensation; that there should be provision for valuation of crops and economic trees for fairness in payment of compensation; that there should be respect for the principle of equity and equality, which means the compensation ratio, should be reviewed to at least 50:50.
Keywords: Land, Acquisition, Compensation Issues, Small-scale, Farmlands and Farmers.
“AIR TRANSPORT DEMAND AND CHALLENGES AT MURTALA MUHAMMED INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, LAGOS, NIGERIA (2001-2015)”
ONI, S. I., EGE, E.E., OYEWO, M. A. AND HAMMED, T. A.
Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
This study focuses on air traffic at the Murtala Muhammed Airport (MMA) in Lagos, Nigeria. This research work takes a critical look at the volume and pattern of both domestic and international air traffic over a period of time, with the view to understanding and proffering solutions to operational problems facing air movement at the airport. This research work obtained data from Murtala Muhammed Airport (MMA). Secondary data in the form of historical records at the airport for the period 2001 to 2015 was used to understand the trends and patterns of movement at the airport. This research identified the trends and the changes in the volume of passengers over a fifteen (15) year period. The results imply a gradual increase in the volume of air movement over the years. The study also identified that the problems that characterise air transport operations in the country are centred around inadequate capital base, government policy on aviation, high exchange rate, and high cost of operations. The study’s findings reveal that by 2033, air passengers’ traffic at MMA will double the volume observed in 2015. The government should therefore reform civil aviation operations in the country through enhancing current regulatory and safety standards in the industry.
Key Words: Passenger, Civil Aviation, Flights, Freight, Domestic, International
APPRAISAL OF SOLID WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
BOGORO AUDU GANI
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
This research is mainly aimed at identifying the techniques used and the problems encountered in collection of solid waste Bauchi metropolis as a basis for suggesting more effective technique. Questionnaire, interview guide and observation methods were used to gather information from the sample population of the study area. Major findings revealed that though the area has up to 50% of the respondents educated to secondary level but their income level is generally low and the household size is high with teenagers dominating. About 30% of the respondents do not have storage facilities and those with storage facilities dispose of their refuse immediately it is gathered. Also Bauchi State Environmental Protection agency is the only that evacuate solid waste generated in Bauchi metropolis and the collection centres are few which lead to emergence of unauthorized collection centres and large accumulate of uncollected waste. It is also found that 75.30% of the respondents were willing to pay some charges to improve refuse collection. The research recommends among other things all households should possess storage facilities. A house-to-house collection method should be introduced in Government Residential Area (GRA) and Bauchi Local Government should resume evacuation of solid waste. Community effort should be integrated in the waste evacuation process and more collection centre should be provided.
Keywords: Solid Waste, Collection, Storage, Evacuation, Household
ASSESSMENT OF INTERDEPENDENCIES OF RELATED MUNICIPAL SERVICES IN MAIDUGURI TOWN
ABDULLAHI BABAGANA AND BABAGANA DUNGUS
Dept of Urban and Regional Planning, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri
This paper is focused on the dimensions of dependency of related services in Maiduguri town. Services are important elements for the survival of the city, analysing the way they relate and depend on themselves as a system in the city is of paramount importance as well. Literatures have shown how the effectiveness of one service boost the effectiveness of one or more other services and if, one of the services in the relationship circle faults it will result to a negative outcome on the other, whereby having devastating consequences on the city. A spearman’s rho correlation was run for the collected data which reveals that between water supply, electricity supply and waste water management services, there is a moderate positive relationship which is effective and is an asset for the town. On the other hand, it also reveals that, between fire service, water supply and telephone/internet there is a weak relationship signifying inefficiency and can lead to deterioration and reduction of environmental quality. Based on this, recommendations such as prioritising service provision, creation of city government, creation of a one-stop-shop, slum upgrading and preparation of development plan for the town are suggested.
SOLID WASTE GENERATION: PATTERN AND METHODS OF DISPOSAL IN KANO MUNICIPAL COUNCIL, KANO STATE, NIGERIA
IBRAHIM ALIYU HASSAN, PhD1,
Department of Environmental Science, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
The paper examined the pattern and disposal methods of domestic solid waste generated in Kano Municipal Council. Primary data were obtained through administration of structured questionnaires to a random size of population in the areas that have the highest heaps of solid waste on the major streets and open spaces. Secondary data were obtained from desk review method; information on environmental issues resulting from poor management of municipal solid waste was obtained from relevant literatures. The results of the findings clearly show shows that, while the communities, industries, individual communities, non-governmental organization, agencies, and pressures groups are responsible the government has the highest concern for the proper handling and evacuation of the domestic solid waste in Kano Municipal Council. The composition of the municipal solid waste in the city is heterogeneous; it contained both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials which are mostly e-wastes, plastic and polythene materials. The study also reveals that shows that, while the communities, industries, individual communities, non-governmental organization, agencies, and pressures groups are responsible the government has the highest concern for the proper handling and evacuation of the domestic solid waste in Kano Municipal Council. The study further shows that the mean score supporting the statement that lack of knowledge and awareness of improper handling of domestic solid waste may cause prevalence of disease in our community’s scores 3.455. There is no organized house to house or street to street collection of the solid waste in some parts of the Kano Municipal Council. The test of association between gender and proper handling of domestic solid waste shows a no significant association between the variables with χ2= (1, N397) =1.558, P=0.212≥ 0.005, signifying that there is no significant difference between gender and proper waste handling in Kano municipal council. Generally, the study shows that in Kano Municipal Council the following types of wastes and trash are generated; the biodegradable, which includes things like food and kitchen waste such as meat trimmings or vegetable peelings, yard or green waste and paper. Therefore, the paper recommends that a there is the need to reassess all legislations regarding waste management with a view to stream lining them so that there is a comprehensive and clear role for all the agencies, various tiers of government, as well as the public including Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and community associations.
KEYWORDS: WASTE, DOMESTIC, GENERATION, MUNICIPAL, MANAGEMENT
GROWING AND DIVERSIFYING THE NATIONAL ECONOMY: THE REAL ESTATE IMPERATIVE. INTEGRATED URBAN-RURAL DEVELOPMENT
1SALAU LIADI TUNDE, 1ILEKOIN AYODELE, OLUWATOBA, & 2AMINA MUSA ALIYU (MRS)
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, PMB, 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
The integration of the rural and urban areas plays a great role in economic development of any nation as it is a mechanism for income, employment and wealth creation .Yet the important of rural – urban integration for economic development has been ignored by governments at all level all over the world in their policy making . This paper reviews how rural – urban areas integration by government planning authorities can facilitate environment development that promotes trade network, employment, and information between the rural and the urban areas. Powerful rural – urban integration can play a great role in poverty reduction and economic development of any nation.
Keywords: Urban Area , Rural Area, Integation , Linkage , Development
PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: A SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY TO ENHANCE A VIABLE RURAL ECONOMY OF AMPANG-WEST DISTRICT, MANGU L.G.A OF PLATEAU STATE
NANLE VERONICA YILRET, WETNWAN MORRIS DABUAHAT & WASH PETER MUSA
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Plateau State Polytechnic Barkin –Ladi
Participatory approach to sustainable rural development is capable of impacting greatly on the rural populace. Considering the current on-going rural development program embarked by the Plateau State Government to improve rural productivity, this study seeks to ascertain the impact of such packages on the rural populace and to determine their participation in the development process. Data used for the study are primary and secondary data, sample questionnaires were administered in four villages in each of the four zones of Ampang District. Using the total number of housing unit in each village, 10% sample size was adopted for questionnaire administration, a total of 85 questionnaires were administered in all the villages. This study revealed that the study area is a maize and Irish potatoes producing area and their basic farming inputs are; fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, water for irrigation, storage facilities, credit facilities, extension services, road infrastructures etc. Findings however revealed that; most farm inputs are not accessible to the farmers since they are not registered and captured by the government agency in charge of registration, interviews with Community Based Associations also showed that the people are not consulted before, during and after the implementation of government packages on fertilizer distribution, farmers data capture, tractor hiring scheme among others. Since the on-going rural development program in Plateau State stands a better chance of impacting greatly on the rural farming community, this study therefore recommends that; government agencies should collaborate with community association leaders to form cooperatives societies to enable them access all the packages, efficiency and effectiveness of such programs and packages can be ensured through the consultation of government agencies with professional bodies and the beneficiary communities.
Keywords: Rural development, Participatory Approach, Farming Inputs, Sustainability
INTELLIGENT HOUSING: A PANACEA TO CRIME PREVENTION IN IBARAPA REGION, OYO STATE
LASISI, KAMIL OLURANTI AND ALAO, ADEMOLA ADEROJU
Department Of Urban & Regional Planning, the Polytechnic, Ibadan.
Crime can ruin lives, but it also carries a significant financial cost – so reducing crime saves money. In fact, it’s been calculated that implementing Secured by Design pays for itself as this is why the benefits of CPTED are being recognized globally. This paper is an attempt to synthesize how housing designs and layout systems can have either positive or negative implications on the actual prevention of crime in less developed nations using Ibarapa Region in Nigeria as a case study. Some of the objectives pursued are to examine the existing housing condition (physical structure); examine the environmental quality surrounding the houses in the study area; analyze the various types of security measures adopted in the study area that make it vulnerable to criminality; and to suggest actionable measures to ameliorate the problems of insecurity and its delinquencies in the study area. The primary source of data for the study was gathered through direct survey of the area, personal interview, maps and questionnaire administered to the residents of the study area using a multi-stage sampling technique.. Data collected from the field observation were analyzed using SPSS. The study is anchored on the concepts of Urban Governance and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). The study revealed that the structure of the physical environment can reduce or enhance the probability of a crime being committed and can either limit or facilitate the detection of offenders. This finding corroborates the assertion made by Angel (1969) that the physical environment exerts a direct influence on crime settings by delineating territories, by reducing or increasing accessibility through the creation or elimination of boundaries and circulation networks, and by facilitating surveillance by the citizenry and the police. The study suggested government intervention, provision of jobs, law enforcement and access control to mention but just a few.
Keywords: Intelligent Housing, vulnerability, criminality, surveillance
THE EFFECT OF CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL ON REAL ESTATE IN NIGERIA
1ANTHONY ABBEY TINUFA & 2ILEKOIN AYODELE, OLUWATOBA,
1Estate Management & Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, PMB, 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
In this paper, the influence of Capital Asset Pricing Model on the Nigeria Real Estate was tested by measuring the performance of the real estate portfolio the performance of the general market portfolio of the Nigerian stock exchange was used as the bench mark. The performance of both portfolios were gotten and measured from year 2000 to year 2011. Though real estate stock is believed to be a very good tool for diversification, yet findings have shown that this is not always correct. This paper tackle this matter by analyzing the data gotten from the public long term asset return of UACP property development company , Skye shelter fund and the market index of the Nigeria stock exchange. The market risk and the actual rate of return were both measured using CAPM model .The regression analysis shows that there is weak relationship between the Nigeria real property market and the general market although both are moving in the same direction. The return on the Nigeria real estate market outperformed the return of the general market.
Keywords: CAPM, returns, systemic and un systemic risk, Nigeria property market