JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE
Vol.9, No.1(1), ISSN 2318-9315
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P/ O/ Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State,
Nigeria, West-Africa. +2348025604997
Please contact us for any enquiry.
PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF THE CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER NIFEDIPINE ON HUMAN EMBRYONIC KIDNEY CELLS
JAMIL L AHMAD1, HEATHER M WALLACE2
1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Nigeria AND Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom. 2Heather M. Wallace –Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a positive as well as negative associations between chronic use of calcium channel blockers and the increased risk of developing cancer. However, these associations were immersed in controversies with the absence of laboratory based studies to back up those claims. Our aim was to determine in mechanistic terms the association between the long term administration of nifedipine and the increased risk of developing cancer with the aid of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line. Cell counting using the Trypan blue dye exclusion and 3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to investigate the effect of nifedipine on the growth pattern of HEK293 cells. Nifedipine had a proliferative effect on HEK293 cells growth and this proliferation is more profound at low concentrations of nifedipine than high concentrations and the proliferation was statistically significant (p<0.01). The chronic use of nifedipine is associated with increased proliferation of cells with concomitant elevation of polyamines concentration and elevated polyamine levels have been incriminated in many malignant transformation and hence, these provide possible explanation on the link between long term use of nifedipine and development of some human cancers.
Keywords: Polyamines, cancer, proliferation, nifedipine, protein content
CFD SIMULATION OF RECTANGULAR COOLING SINK
LAMUWA, G1., ABUBAKAR A.B2 , SHERIFF, B1., DALATU, I.S1., AND KAUJI, A.M1.
1Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri P.M.B 1070, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri P.M.B 1070, Borno State, Nigeria
Due to the advancements in computer hardware and software in recent years, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique has been a powerful and effective tool to comprehend the complex problem associated to cooling machine performance using various sinks with different structures and cooling fin numbers. In this study. a sink of different number of fins with uniform mesh sizes were designed in order to determine their effect on cooling machine performance. Three different designs were carried out with 2mm mesh sizes using Ansys Parametric Design Language (APDL). On each of the design, the number of cooling fins were varied from 13, 24 and 31 fins, and the best in cooling performance was determined. For the analysis of their performance, 11 different nodal temperature results were used. The nodal temperature numbers were constantly maintained throughout the simulation for consistency of the analysis, and by keeping the fin design constant on each cooling fin the nodal temperature results were obtained from every cooling sink. A constant dimension of 40cm2 of the structure was maintained throughout the simulation. An outstanding performance was achieved from a sink with 31 cooling fins structure, 2mm mesh size with an average nodal temperature of 296.82k followed by a sink with 24 cooling fins structure with an average temperature of 341.64K. Finally, cooling sink with 13 fins structure gives the highest average temperature of 359.50K. Therefore, based on the simulation, 31 fins cooling structure with 2mm mesh size is best for a machine due to its effectiveness in cooling performance compared to 13 and 24 fins structures.
Keywords: Computational, Fluid, Dynamic, Heat, Simulation, and Sink.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITIES OF SENNA OBTUSIFOLIA LEAVES (TAFASA) AND SORGHUM STOVER BASED DIETS IN GROWING SHEEP IN SEMI ARID REGION OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.
- A. JIBRIL1, F. I. ABBATOR2 I. D. KWARI2 AND A. A. MAKINTA1
1Department of Animal Production Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno state. 2Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State.
The study was conducted to evaluate the Chemical composition and digestibilities of S. obtusifolia leaves (Tafasa) and Sorghum Stover based diets in growing sheep. The result of the chemical composition were Expressed as % dry matter ranged from 90.00 to 96.02% while that of Sorghum Stover ranged from 90.6 to 90.8%. The Crude Protein content of S. obtusifolia leaves and Sorghum Stover ranged from 5.06, 10.36 and 22.11% respectively. The Crude Fibre content ranged from 19.0 to 34.00%. Ether Extract content ranged from 1.0 to 2.0%. The ash content ranged from 5.00 to 7.00%. The mineral composition of S. obtusifolia leaves and Sorghum Stover are rich in (Ca, K, P, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu). The mean dry matter digestibility of the treatment diets showed there was no significant (P>0.05) differences in apparent digestibility among the treatment groups. However, sorghum Stover supplemented group had the lower values. Dry matter digestibility ranged from 43.65 to 51.00% for treatment T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. It was concluded that S. obtusifolia leaves and sorghum Stover are generally low in nutritional value, but good in distribution of CP and CF. The nutrient compositions found explains the usage of this plant as a forage feed for ruminant animals as supplement to improved feed utilization. This reduced the cost of feeding concentrates, which are generally unaffordable by most small scale farmers in semi- arid environment of Nigeria.
Key words: Senna obtusifolia leaves, crop residues, chemical composition, digestibility, based diets
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST DISEASE (BOTRYTIS CINEREA) OF TOMATO FRUITS
1NASIRU YAHAYA AHMED, 2SANI ISA ABUBAKAR AND 3MOHAMMED ABUBAKAR CLARKSON
123Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 05 Bali, Taraba State Nigeria
This study systematically reviews that Salicylic acid enhanced stress tolerance, maintains firmness and reduced decay in tomato fruit. The fruits were wounded and treated with SA at low concentrations (0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mM SA) and high concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mM SA), whilst the sterilized fruits with 10% ethanol solutions were included as control in the experiment. The fruits were inoculated with Botrytis Cinerea spores 10 minutes after the treatments and incubated at 101 and 85 – 90% relative humidity for 17 days in every succession. The result revealed that treatments with high concentrations of SA have the greater inhibition effect of Botrytis cinerea on the tomato fruits. While the low concentration treatments resulted to a marginal inhibition effect and shows no much significant difference with the control (Appendix I). Statistically significant (p<0.05) minimum lesion diameter was observed on fruits treated with 20 and 30mM SA as compared to 10 mM SA. The mixed Anova result has shown there is a significant effect of SA concentration on lesion diameter. Similarly there is significant effect of time on lesion diameter, the interaction between time and SA concentration is also significant. Finally, postharvest treatment with SA and increase in concentrations has enormous potential use as an alternative to chemical fungicides in inhibiting postharvest decay on tomato fruits and possibly prolong the shelf life. Thus, the findings have significant contribution to reduce economic postharvest losses of perishable fruit and evidence to researchers.
Keywords: Botrytis Cinerea, Salicylic Acid, Tomato fruits, Postharvest treatment.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A REVIEW
MUSA, A1. MALAH, M.B2. AND SHETTIMA, M.L3.
1Department of Basic Science, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture P.M.B. 1427 Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 3Department of Forestry Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The damaging effects of climate change in developing countries are as a result of ever-reliance on livestock production, changes in rainfall and temperature pattern, incessant emission from green house and factories, distribution and abundance of disease vectors and parasites. Meteorological parameters like temperature, humidity and precipitation showed 52 and 54% variation in the seasonality of foot and mouth disease (FMD) prevalence in cattle. Hot humid weather aggravates the infestation of ticks burden in cattle. Changes in wind-direction influence the spread/transmission of some pathogenic parasite; many vectors of disease parasite experienced significant mortality during cold condition and advantages to livestock species however, warmer winter may increase the livelihood, susceptibility of the animals over wintering. Flooding carry the risk of Cryphosporidium (spore forming-organisms) E. coli pollution into run-off water from agricultural land. Climate change most often than not result in a substantial shift in meteorological parameters patterns often result in an outbreaks and severe manifestation of diseases in a primarily unexposed animal population. Furthermore, the effect of climate change are more pronounced on climate change related disturbances such as overgrazing, deforestation, construction of dams and loss of biodiversity often give rise to new mixture of different species/strains there by exposing the host to novel pathogens and vectors causing the emergence of new disease and parasitic infection. Therefore, climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species of livestock in the developing world.
Keywords: Climate Change, Livestock health, Temperature, Vectors and Pathogens
MATHEMATICS LITERACY: AN AGENT OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
JA’AFAR ALIYU, ADAMU ABDULKADIR TATA AND ISAH YAHAYA
Department of Pre-ND and Remedial Studies, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
The phenomenon of poverty has been affecting societies of the world from time immemorial and currently the disturbing trend of its menace is quite worrisome; as a result of which societies are committed to see to its alleviation to some level if not completely eradicated. To do this, the paper looks at the duo of mathematics literacy and poverty to see how the former, if acquired by individuals could be used to address the latter. Mathematics literacy enables individuals to be acquainted with basic mathematical skills so as to handle effectively well the aspects of local trading, business and entrepreneurship. Quite a number of views as advanced by scholars and some world economic policy agencies were discussed in the paper and their bearing to national development. The role of mathematics in the reduction of poverty and national development was also highlighted. The paper in the end recommended how mathematics literacy could be applied in alleviating poverty and the sustenance of national development.
Keywords: Mathematical literacy, Poverty, Alleviation, National Development
APPRAISAL OF THE PATTERN OF DRUG PRESCRIPTION AND CONSUMPTION IN GENERAL HOSPITAL MAKARFI FROM 2011 – 2015
ALEWU, B., MUSA, D. O., FIRDAUSI, U., CAROLINE, Y., & YAHAYA B. Y.
Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State – Nigeria
The patterns of drugs consumption and prescription in General Hospital Makarfi Kaduna state were undertaken. Drug is any chemical substances other than food that provide nutritional support that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body. Drug consumption is the process of taking a chemical substance which is either prescribed by doctors, nurses or any of the medical practitioners with the sole aim of preventing, suppressing, and curing diseases or ailment. Prescription is a health care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health practitioners in a form of instruction that govern the plan of care for an individual patients. The purpose of this research is to find out the various forms of drugs employed by people, the type of drugs for each ailment mostly consumed by patients, the various ailment suffered by people that warrants the use of various drugs, and the age group mostly involved in drug consumption in General Hospital Makarfi from 2011-2015. This study is significant because it will give information of accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of patients by the doctors in this hospital generally. Secondly, cases of multi-drug resistance by patients can be detected and corrected. The problem of addiction, drug abuse, misuse, may be identified and addressed. Descriptive survey design was employed for this study. Both structured questionnaire and recorded data were used as instruments for data collection. The respondents were staff working in the present hospital and include: the Doctors, pharmacists, Nurses, and Medical record officers. The total number of 50 respondents and target population of 203096 patients attending this hospital for the stated period were considered for this present study. The method of sampling technique employed for this study is simple random sampling technique. The sample used for this study is 203096. This study employed simple percentage in data analysis. The form of drug mostly prescribed by doctors to the patients in this hospital is injectables (35174)(24%) followed by tablet (31434) (23%) between 2011 and 2015. Anti-malarials (1175344) (45.1%) were the type of drugs mostly prescribed for these patients in General Hospital Makarfi between 2011 and 2015, and least with anti-angina (17600) (0.7%). Comparing the anti-malarials, considering Coartem®, lonart®, P-Alaxin®, Quinine, and Artemeter produced by different companies, Artemeter is the drug mostly prescribed and consumed by these patients. In general, antimicrobial agents were the most prescribed in this hospital. For the stated period, the category of patients mostly prescribed drugs is the teenagers (179413) (4.7%). The type of diseases mostly suffered by these people is malaria (46537) (22.7%) and typhoid fever (36007) (18.0%) between 2011 and 2015 and least wit enterocolitis (2430) (1.2%). For the stated period, the category of patient mostly prescribed drugs is the young adult (349230) (18%) approximately between the ages of 21 – 35 years closely followed by infants (Aged 2-5yrs) (264852)(14%). Conclusively, STOP. It is recommended here that patient should follow the appropriate prescription by the doctor in order to avoid drug abuse. Patients must follow the appropriate pattern of drug consumption to avoid drug dependence or drug addition, patient should explain the illness clearly to the doctor (physician) in order to obtain accurate prescription.
Keywords: Drug, Consumption, Prescription, Hospital
FARMERS AWARENESS ON THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES APPLICATION ON IRRIGATED FARMLANDS IN JERE BOWL, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
MUSA, A1., WAKIL, M2. AND BUKAR, A2.
1Department of Basic Science, Mohamet College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculturi, P.M.B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
This study examines farmers’ awareness on the effects of pesticides application on irrigated farmlands. Data was generated from 283 farmers through structured interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage to present the result. The result shows 13 different chemicals compound were being applied as pesticides for control of pests and diseases. Findings revealed that farmers awareness on effects of pesticide application was very low 11.5% opined on reducing soil quality, killing non-target organisms 38.4%, harming soil microbes 11.8%, harming beneficial plants 17.0% and pollute river and pond 21.4% respectively. Farmers are not adequately enlightened on the effect of pesticides application which was one of the ways of polluting the soil, river and vegetables in the area. It was observed that source of farmers knowledge was vendors which constitute 22.3%, self-effort toward knowing pesticide application 50.5%, read label were 11.3% and do not read label 15.9%. These could be attributed to lack of extension services.
Keywords: Farmers, Awareness, Effects, Pesticides and Jere Bowl.
QUANTUM LEAP OF GEOSTROPHIC AND HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUMS CUM HIGH INSOLATIONS ON LIVESTOCK FARMING IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
ADAMU BABA ABDULAHI PH.D GEOGRAPHY, COL. (DR.) WILLIAM BUTU AND ADAMU DAVID AHMED
*Dept. of Geography, FCT College of Education Zuba Abuja **Dept. of Geography, Nigerian Defence Academy Kaduna ***Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Minna
The study investigates the quantum leap of geostrophic and hydrostatic equilibriums cum high insolations on livestock farming in Niger state over a period of Eight years (2010 – 2017). The objectives of the study among others are to examine the influence of the two equilibriums and high insolations/high temperature on poultry birds and cause their mass Death between March/April yearly. Multi-stage sampling techniques were employed in the selection of sampling poultry farms. Ten Local Government Area were used for the study, pyranometer equipped with automatic sensors were used to collect data on insolation. Multiple Linear Regression Model of Augment Dickey-Fuller and Philip –Perron were used with the aid of SPSS computer programme. Results indicated an average of 380c of Temperature and mean of 81.581725 indicating high insolation and stagnant Air resulting into mass Death of Poultry Birds indicating 148708 losses out of 215837 birds reared during the period under study. Recommendation were made for the mitigation against mass poultry birds death.
Keywords: Quantum Leap, Geostrophic and Hydrostatic equilibriums, High Insolation, Livestock Farming, Niger State Nigeria.
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BORON IN THE ENVIRONMENT (RIVER, WELLS AND BOREHOLES WATER) IN SOME SELECTED AREAS OF CENTRAL TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 05 Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
Thirty (30) water samples were collected from the selected locations in Bali, Gasol and Gashaka local Governments Areas of Taraba States. Ten (10) samples were collected from rivers, 10 samples from wells and 10 samples from boreholes. The water samples were collected using 500 ml polyethylene bottles. The concentration of boron was determined by ultra violet visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS spectrophotometer), using a UNICAM UV/VIS spectrometer using two techniques. The techniques used were the ferroin method at 516 nm and at 410 nm by the Azomethine-H method. The concentration of boron was slightly higher in some of the river water from gashaka (0.006 to 0.09) mg/L. the concentration of boron in the samples from Gasol ranges from 0.004 to 0.03 mg/L while that of the samples from Bali ranges from 0.005 to 0.08 mg/L.
Keywords: Boron, well water, river water, Ferroin method, Azomethine-H method, UV-Visible.
EFFECTS OF POULTRY MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SORGHUM SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) (MOENCH) IN BAUCHI. NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNAH ZONE, NIGERIA.
*ABUBAKAR I. A, *YOHANNA, H AND *BABUGA, U. S
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of poultry manure on the growth and grain yield of sorghum at Federal polytechnic Bauchi demonstration farm in the 2017 rainy season. Three levels of poultry manure (0, 5 and 7.5 tons/ha) were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The effects of poultry manure on stand count, plant height, leaf area index, grain yield and 1000 kernel weight were significant at P=0.05 level of significance. Higher and significant values were recorded for T3 for most of the growth parameters and yield while the lowest values were recorded for the control treatments respectively. Poultry manure at 7.5 tonnes/ha produced significantly higher grain yield at harvest and so is appropriate for smallholder farmers in the study area. However, similar studies over seasons and locations with economic analysis are required to give a conclusive recommendation.
Keywords: Poultry manure, Sorghum, Yield, Bauchi
THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIANS IN EFFECTIVE INFORMATION DISSEMINATION FOR IMPROVED FOOD PRODUCTION BY RURAL FARMERS IN NIGERIA.
SULEIMAN ABDULLAHI, SAMUEL EJEMBI OJI & ADAMU HASSSAN
The paper explores the role of agricultural librarians in effective information dissemination for improved food production by rural farmers in Nigeria. The development of agriculture in Nigeria and subsequent diversion from agricultural sector to oil exploration in 1970’s, are viewed. The role of agricultural librarians in the provision of information to agricultural practitioners, agricultural students, and rural farmers through, available information resources on agriculture, such as internet facilities, seminars, workshops, group interactions, exhibitions, among others, are also studied and examined. The study reveals some problems facing agricultural librarians, as dearth of current information resources in agricultural libraries, lack of formal training in agricultural information, traditional method used in agricultural research in Nigerian universities, among others. It was also, recommended as a strategies for enhancements, that available information should be delivered to farmers in their local language so as to give the best knowledge and understanding of practical examples. In addition, agricultural librarians should avail their users, the opportunities of online and internet resources in the area of agriculture .Furthermore, agricultural librarians should make research result reach the farmers not in form of scientific papers in the area of understandable information.