JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE & ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Vol.9, No.5, ISSN 2285-3138
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P/ O/ Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State,
Nigeria, West-Africa. +2348025604997
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ANALYSIS OF COST AND RETURNS OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) PRODUCTION IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA
BAKARI1 U. M., MOHAMMED2, D. AND IBILA1 B. T.
1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria 2Centre for Arid Zone Studies, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
The study determines the cost and returns of sesame production in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 120 farmers were randomly selected from five administrative wards namely Bar, Mbala, Fiidi,, Modern market and Agan. Data were obtained from respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire. Information for the study were collected after 2016 cropping season. Descriptive statistics and farm budgeting technique were used to analyze the data. Socio-economic profile of respondents showed that majority (82.5%) were married, young (46.7%) abled farmers and 85% had 1-5 years of sesame farming experience. The cost and return analysis revealed that cost of seed (₦1,050/ha) account for 5.18%, cost of labour (₦5,100/ha) account for 25.15%, cost of ploughing (₦5,338/ha) account for 26.32%, cost of herbicides (₦2,340/ha) account for 11.54%, cost of fertilizer (₦5,500/ha) account for 27.12%, cost of transportation (₦500/ha) account for 2.27% and cost of empty sacks (₦450/ha) account for 2.47% of the total variable cost of sesame production. Fixed cost (₦2,768/ha) account for 2.22% of the total cost of production. The production of sesame in the study area was found to be highly profitable with a net income of (₦28,954.00/ha). It was recommended that adequate fertilizer should be provided at affordable price to sesame farmers. More farm machines should be provided particularly, tractor. This will go a long way in lessening the cost of production, thereby, ensuring improved profit. Farmers should be encouraged to form cooperative societies. Thus, community and family labour should be used instead of hired labour
Keywords: Costs, returns, sesame, production, Benue State, Nigeria
THEORETICAL REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED ORGANIZATIONS IN BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Business Administration and Management, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The study reviews the Effects of Risk Management on the Performance of Selected Organizations in Borno State, Nigeria. Primary data utilized for the research was obtained from personal interview and questionnaires served to the respondents. The population covered for this study include all the entire management staff of the selected business organizations under study. The study has 50 respondents selected as the sample size for this study, using Simple Random Sampling technique. Questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. The primary data collected from the questionnaire and interviews were analysed and interpreted using Contingency Table otherwise known as Simple Percentage Table, while Documentation Analysis was employed in the presentation of secondary data. The study discovers, among other things, that their organizations to a large extent comply with risk assessment in their activities and that there is evidence of a large extent compliance with risk assessment in the activities of the selected businesses. The study also discovered that company’s compliance with risk assessment in their activities, to a large extent influences better organizational performance through improved safety practices, enhanced productivity and increased profitability. The study recommends that organizations should have a systematic process for risk management. Steps suggested in the study of (Boehm, 1991) could be beneficial in this regard and that organizations have to expand their internal communication, Secondly, the demands of external stakeholders will likely to be increasing (Ryan et al., 2005). Organizations should also establish a proper communication strategy to support effective communication and consultation.
Keywords: Risk Management, Organizational Performance, Risk Management Process
NIGERIAN’S VISION 2020: A CRITICAL REVIEW ON AGING POPULATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIAL SECURITY.
*OLEABHIELE ERNEST PAUL1 **AKHERE ABHULIMEN ANGUS2 ***IGIBA GREGORY3 ****ONAH REMIGIUS UGWUJA4
*Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Academic Registry, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ***Department of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ****Deputy Rector’s office, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
The paper examines the changing indices of the world’s economic development as it relate to Nigerian’s vision to become among the top 20 economies of the world. This is important because, the problem of unemployment, aging and social security in Nigeria is peculiar to the lack of states provision of eldercare which requires the family to provide the needs for the survival of older people. The research problem indicated that; government no longer care for older people, children now played the most important role of providing economic security to old age by all means necessary which in turn expose them to all sort of social vices, strong social security policies are not viable to take care of the retirees after retirement. The objective of the study is to examine and identify the problem associated with older people in Nigeria and also to provide alternative entrepreneurship skill as viable option for retirees in Nigeria, to also explore other means of managing the old age through global interpretation of aging, this is because of the expansion of the world economy as Nigeria government and the political leaders believe that provision of social care to old age is the responsibility of the family. Literature was reviewed from relevant journals, magazines, and newspaper. Our reflections indicated that there is a huge failure of pension and insurance scheme to be able to manage and maintain stability and social confidence on eyes of people as aging has been privatized. In conclusion, therefore, it is important to bear in mind that the vast majority of older people in Nigeria are unemployed and lack social security services, therefore, their fate rely on the hands of their families. This research is a contemporary social problem that needs urgent investigation and analysis by researchers and academician to be able to know the strength of which the problem is going through for possible action.
Keywords: Aging, Social Security, Unemployment and Poverty in Nigeria.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA
OTTI VICTOR UZOMA
Department of Public Administration, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi
This study is expository in nature. It ex-rays the history of entrepreneurship as being the history of entrepreneurial activities that are generally accepted to be an important tool in the economic development of the developing nations. The objective of this study is not necessarily to investigate the different roles entrepreneurship play in different countries in different stages of economic development. It is set to examine the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development. Relevant literatures were reviewed. Findings were made showing that entrepreneurship is a major input in economic development of the developing countries and thus should not be discouraged, though we have derailed. This study recommends that entrepreneurship development activities require radical, deep and urgent transformation based on 21st century global demands. Enabling business environment should be provided by various governments to encourage the growth of entrepreneurial activities in Nigeria.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, economic development, enabling environment, global demands.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP AND WORKPLACE CREATIVITY IN SELECTED COMMERCIAL BANKS IN SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA
*UGBOMHE O. UGBOMHE (Ph.D) ** OKWUOKENYE JOSEPH ***DR. ABU AMODU AMEH
*Department of Business Administration and management, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria **Department Of Business Administration Faculty Of Management Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra State Nigeria. ***Department of Business Administration, Kogi State University, Anyigba. Kogi State Nigeria.
Leadership has been an area of investigation for a long time. Even today, it has been an area of investigation by scholars and writers and management consultant because of different developments going on in organisations. Leadership is often conceptualized as one of the most complex social means (Fry and Kriger, 2009). Three things are found in leadership – leader, followers and situation. Leader provides a direction to the followers, set goals for the subordinates and then motivate and empower them to work closely with their effort in the same direction. Consequently, leaders are able to get organisational goals achieved by reducing to the barest minimum the gap between real goals achieved and prepared goals set for attainment. On the basis of common ambition, leadership prepares others to work together (Bodla, Ali, & Danish, 2013). The effects of challenges encountered by Nigerian banking sector in retaining competitive workforce is shown in lost of altruistic love by leaders in the sector. Towards the early 2000, the challenges of making workforce more creative through spiritual leadership element (altruistic love) became a fundamental focus. This challenge has given rise to crisis of confidence in the leadership of many of the banks in Nigeria. It is manifested in a large number of things which are usually unpleasant and unmanageable. If the challenges is left unattended to, the issue of building new workforce by spiritual leaders may temporarily stop the short-term and long-term competitiveness of Nigerian banking industry. The cost of building creative workplace in term of money may not be the major focus, but the time and effort can be enormously fundamental because of the intense development in the issues of managing workplace creativity by spiritual leaders. Many initiatives were put in place in an effort to enhance the reward packages particularly in the area of salary scheme to enable Nigerian banking industry remained competitive at both national and international levels. The efforts could not yield any good fruit particularly in instilling loyalty to the industry. To ensure that these efforts are realistically inculcated into the Nigerian banking industry, there is need to adopt the best management approach through an acceptable leadership style. Knowing that Nigeria is a secular state and is characterized by diverse workforce, it is believed that the emergence of spiritual leadership is able to significantly contribute to the creativity of the workforce towards building a strong working culture in Nigerian banking industry. This work is anchored on path-goal theory provided by House and Mitchell (1974). The path-goal model is a theory based on specifying the style or behaviour of a leader that best fits the employees and work environment in order to achieve a goal. The goal is to increase motivation empowerment and satisfaction of employees so they become productive members of the organisation. The path-goal theory of leadership was developed to describe the ways that leaders encourage and support their followers in attaining the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy. Specifically, leaders clarify the path so subordinates know which way to go; remove roadblocks that are stopping them going there. Increasing the rewards along the route, leaders can take a strong or limited approach on these. In clarifying the path, they may be directive or give vague hits. In removing roadblocks, they may scour the path or help the followers move the bigger blocks. In increasing rewards they may give occasional encouragement or pave the way with gold. The design of the study is descriptive in nature and data were gathered cross-sectionally. This method was adopted because according to Mansor, Mahmood and Ismail (2015) “it provides a guideline to conduct more comprehensive data collection activities with less time consumption. The population of the study comprised employees from selected banks in South-west Nigeria. The total population within the targeted scope was obtained prior to the determination of sample size. The study employed non-probability sampling (convenience) in which a few banks in South-west Nigeria were selected. The study has provided empirical data on the nexus between spiritual leadership and workplace creativity. It has shown that employees in the organisation are inclined towards accepting a leadership approach that may contribute towards increased creativity in the organisation. Altruistic love has been seen to be an element known with workplace creativity. Through the research, leaders possess a high level of altruistic love towards their subordinates. Spiritual leadership is based on economy ethical values in the leader and giving courage to development team spirit among workers by demonstrating more of humanistic values and treat workers more than just employees in an organisation. So it nurtures a sense of belongingness among them toward creativity.
Keywords: Relationship, Spiritual, Leadership, Workplace Commercial Banks.
PACKAGING AND MARKETING OF TIGERNUT MILK IN BIDA METROPOLIS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
GIDEON TSADO, ZACCHAEUS N. MAMMAN, HASSAN, ZAINAB
Department of Business and Management Studies, Niger State polytechnic, Zungeru, Bida Campus
The aim of this research is to identify packaging and marketing of Tigernut milk in Bida metropolis. 286 responded but the target population of the study was 1500. The survey research method was adopted for the study while chi- square were used to test the hypotheses. Of this work today in competitive marketing environment the packaging changed due to increasing self-service and changing of consumers’ lifestyle. Therefore packaging of Tigernut milk is growing increasingly because of higher demand. Packaging becomes an ultimate selling proposition stimulating impulsive on buying behaviour to increasing market share and reducing costs. However, the following objectives were formulated; to identify the extent to which packaging of Tigernut milk influences buying behaviour, to find out the impact of a changed in packaging of Tigernut milk, to ascertain whether its brand packaging promote the marketing of Tigernut milk, to determine whether consumers are motivated with the appearance of a Tigernut milk on its quality. The result obtained from the analyses showed that there is positive relationship between packaging influence, and their buying behaviour. The study also reveals that there is impact on changed packaged of Tigernut milk consumption. Also there is relationship between brand new packaging and marketing of Tigernut milk and finally that consumers are motivated with the appearance of a Tigernut milk on its quality. The study recommended that Firms should ensure that their packaging includes information concerning product features usage and derivable benefits.
Keywords: packaging, marketing, consumers, changed, behaviour and Tigernut milk
GLOBALIZATION AND THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA
The Federal Polytechnic Damaturu
Globalization is not new, because for thousands of years, people and firms, later, corporations have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances. This facilitates the emergence of inter-connectivity among countries and continents respectively. It uses the available potentialities to generate wealth and improve living standards. Sadly, it isn’t doing that well at the moment in many developing countries. Corruption is equally not a new phenomenon, which has gained a universal ground in both the developing and developed countries. This is evident for there is hardly a society or country that is completely immune to or free from it. Moreover, the wind of globalization has eased it’s penetrated in to the political, social, economic and administrative life of many societies global wide. There is a link between globalization and corruption. This is because globalization brings to the finger-tips of corrupt people and/or agencies the supporting information to enable them in accomplishing their corrupt activities with adequate conveniences. Critical to this is the globalization of financial systems makes it easy for corrupt agents to transfer stolen funds and assets from one country to hide/keep in another country like the classical cases established in Nigeria. The fight against corruption is an inevitable project worth doing especially in developing countries like Nigeria and this is what the government is currently taking with a lot of priority. This paper focuses on the concepts of globalization and corruption, the fight against corruption in Nigeria. The choice of Nigeria in developing countries is motivated by the appealing need for more attention on its economic development and the need to fight corruption, which appears to be a great threat to the economic growth of the country and others alike.
Keywords: Globalization, Corruption, Developing Countries, Economy
ENTREPRENUERSHIP AND EMPLOYMENT GENERATION IN NIGERIA
BAMIDELE BODE BALOGUN
Centre for Entrepreneurship Development, Kebbi State Polytechnic, Dakingari
This paper examines entrepreneurship and employment generation in Nigeria using Sokoto State as a case study. The data used in this study is cross section and was collected from a sample of 125 respondents, who were contacted through a structured questionnaire and personal interview. And the data collected was analysed using simple percentage method. The study revealed that entrepreneurship has contributed positively in providing gainful employment for Nigerian youths and graduates. The paper concluded that entrepreneurship, if given the enabling environment, the problem of unemployment will be reduced drastically if not eradicated. It therefore recommends that Government at all levels should provide adequate and desired infrastructural facilities needed for entrepreneurship activities to strive effectively.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Employment Generation, Entrepreneurship Development, Nigeria.
AN EVALUATION ON THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT ON BANKS PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
YUSUF OVA MUTALIB*, EMMANUEL UAREME IRIABIJE*, YAHAYA MUHAMMAD ADAMU** & FARAYOLA AYO ADE*
*Department of Accountancy, ** Business Administration and management, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The study is aimed at assessing the impact of human capital investment on the performance of Nigeria banks. The study covers banks quoted on the Nigerian stock exchange as at 2017. A sample size of 4 banks was obtained; all from the new generation bank. Secondary source of data was used for the data collection, salaries and allowances was used as the proxy for human capital investment while Market price per share, Earning per share and Book Value per share were used as the proxies of performance. Regression was used to test the impact of human capital investment on performance while Public Human Capital Efficiency Coefficient was used to test the efficiency of human capital in Nigerian banks. The study found that there is significant relationship between MPPS and human capital investment; there is a significant relationship between BVS and human while there is no significant relation between EPS and human capital. The study also found that human capital investment has positive impact on the efficiency of banks’ employees. The study recommends, among others, that banks should increase human capital investment in order to increase their MPS and BVS. In addition, there is need for Nigerian banks to ascertain the level of human capital that can be seen to be optimal so that redundancy and underutilization would not be encouraged.
Keywords Human Capital, Performance and Banks
ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF SME’S IN CURTAILING THE MENACE OF POVERTY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF SOKOTO METROPOLIS
MUHAMMAD B SHEHU
Department of Economics, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto.
Poverty is the world’s current greatest threat to peace and stability more than terrorism and other highly publicized struggles. The main objective of the study is to examine the role of SMEs in curtailing the menace of poverty in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study include: to examine whether SMEs generate enough income to reduce the level of poverty, to find out whether SMEs consumption expenditure can reduce poverty in Sokoto metropolis and to examine whether SMEs create wealth and assets that can reduce poverty. Poverty has no geographical boundary. It is seen in the north, west, south and east. It is found in rural as well as urban areas of Nigeria. The studies of SMEs is directly link with the issue of entrepreneurship that has to do with the wealth creation, job creation, income generation as well as poverty reduction. Table 1 above shows the mean income of the respondents before and engagement into SMEs operation that stood at 744.85 and after engagement with SMEs the income increases to 2996.06. From the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the SMEs activities in Sokoto metropolis is a veritable tool for poverty reduction in Nigeria, as the sector helps in the increase of the level of income of Nigerians.
Keywords: Role, Curtailing, Menace, Poverty and Sokoto Metropolis.
ASSESSMENT OF PERSONAL SELLING AS A MARKETING TOOL IN MODERN BUSINESS (A case study of Promasidor Nigeria Limited, Maiduguri Branch)
1SOLOMON A. E., VIVIENNE, N. ISAAC2 AND ABDUL, C.3
1Ulysses Nigeria Limited, Niger Road, Kano State; 2c/o Ramat Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1070, Maiduguri,3Department of Marketing, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri
This study is aimed at assessing personal selling as a marketing tool in modern business with Promasidor Nigeria Limited, Maiduguri branch as a case study. Personal selling is a very effective tool to market the company’s products but what is more effective is the quality or the perceived quality, unmatched benefits of the service being rendered to the business customer. Business customers want to know what problem the product or service can help solve and how will the product or service help them serve their customers better than the competitors. Both primary and secondary sources of data collected were employed in order to gather information for the research. Questionnaires were also distributed to salespersons and distributors of the company for their views on personal selling as a marketing tool in modern business while chi-square statistical method was used in analysing the research to find out if personal selling is a useful tool in modern business. The findings of the research showed that salesmen are engaged in field selling and each salesman has his own territory to cover and is also allotted with a target. It was also revealed that most of the salespeople are exciting about their jobs and are well compensated by the organisation. Recommendation made was that the company should set a realistic target for each salesman with consideration given to individual salesman territorial potentials.
Keywords: Assessment, Personal Selling, Marketing, Tool, Modern Business