BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE (BJMBPS) (VOL. 13 NO. 3)
ISSN: 1211– 4401 SEPTEMBER, 2020
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
ETHNOBOTANY OF MANAGEMENT OF TEETHING CONDITIONS IN BABIES FROM ISEYIN, NIGERIA
*GBADAMOSI, IDAYAT TITILAYO; & **AZEEZ, ENIOLA MORUFAT
*Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, NNigeria. **Department of Biology, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.
In view of health conditions and pains associated with the eruption of teeth in infants, this study investigated the indigenous remedies used in the management of pains and diseases associated with teething. Thirty-one (31) medicinal plants from twenty five (25) families were documented from respondents with vast ethnomedicinal knowledge on management of teething condition in infants from Iseyin, Nigeria. The interview was conducted in Yoruba language and the recipes, plant parts used, method of preparation and administration were recorded. Some of the documented plants were Alternanthera nodiflora R. Br, Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich., Vernonia amygdalina Delile, Typha domingensis (Pers.) Steud., Carica papaya L., Morinda lucida Benth., Cussonia arborea Hochst, Cola acuminata (P. Beauv.) Scott & Endl. and Annona senegalensis Pers. Of the thirty-one (31) medicinal plants, the priority plant species were Alternanthera nodiflora and Xylopia aethiopica. The ethnobotanicals are used as regimen for the treatment of fever (Cola acuminata), boils (Vernonia amygdalina) diarrhoea (Saccharium officinarium L), sleeplessness and restlessness (Typha domingensis) associated with teething. The plants documented in this study could form basis for future research activities in departments such as Botany, Microbiology, Pharmacognosy and Chemistry.
Keywords: Teething, Infants, Medicinal plants, Paediatric diseases, Indigenous recipes
WEALTH FROM WASTE: A REVIEW OF NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE ISOLATION FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTES.
Y.S. MAIGARI; Z.Y ABBA; & A. ABDURRAHMAN
Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State.
Nanocrystalline (NCC) cellulose is a renewable natural resource obtained from cellulose-based materials. It is typically rod-shaped monocrystalline cellulose with tens to hundreds of nanometers in length and 1 – 100nm in diameter. Nigeria is blessed with an abundance of different sources of cellulose, more especially our agricultural waste. Although there are various ways of getting rid of these wastes, production of NCC is a very profitable alternative. This paper will discuss the different methods employed by researchers towards the production of NCC, likely limitations of these methods, properties of NCC and its applications in the modern world. This is, with the hope that our researchers take into consideration the exploration of this topic from the well-documented areas to the grey areas.
Keywords: Nanocrystalline Cellulose, Hydrolysis, Agricultural Waste, modification, lignocellulose, polymer, nanocomposites.
ISOLATION OF BETULINIC ALDEHYDE FROM N-HEXANE LEAVES EXTRACT OF Piliostigma thonningii (SCHUM.)
1BABAGANA, A., 2HALILU, M.E., 1AHMED M., 3AMUDA, M.Y., 1MAIYAMA, S.Y.., 1YAHAYA, A. 3HAUWA, A.B. AND 1HASSAN, L.G.
1Department of Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sokoto, Nigeria. 2Deparment of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sokoto, Nigeria. 3Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri, Borno State-Nigeria.
An experiment was carried out to isolate Betulinic aldehyde and characterize its structure from the n-hexane extract using standard procedure. The n-hexane fraction was subjected to column chromatography followed by preparative thin layer chromatography which resulted in isolation of a colorless crystalline compound named as “PA”. The spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR and FTIR) and literature comparison infer that the isolate is a pentacyclic triterpenoid namely Betulinic aldehyde. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time Betulinic aldehyde was isolated from the leaves extract of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum.)
Keywords: Betulinic aldehyde, pentacyclic triterpenoid, isolation, crystalline compound and n-hexane
EFFECTS OF AGRO-COMET PESTICIDE ON THE SURVIVAL OF AFRICAN CAT FISH (Clarias gariepinus, BURCHELL 1822) JUVENILES IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
BITRUS D. YUNANA*, DIBAL, H. ISHAKU AND ABDULSALAM HADIZA
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Pesticides have been in use by farmers for long and most often sprayed on farmlands that are near water bodies without recourse to the physiological effect on aquatic life especially fishes. Moreover, this can create and/or result in biomagnifications or bioaccumulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the sub-lethal effect of agro comet in fish, (Clarias gariepinus sub-adults). The study was carried out in the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar for 96 hours after acclimatizing the fish to laboratory conditions for two weeks. Ten (10) sub-adults of Clarias gariepinus were used for each aquarium, exposed to five different concentrations of the agro-comet and a control group. The experiment was carried-out in triplicate. The experimental fishes were exposed to 0, 300, 500, 2000, 3500 and 4000ppm of the test chemical. The mean length and weight of the fish used for this study were 29.87 ± 1.863cm and 148.00 ± 25.733g respectively. The mortality data of Clarias gariepinus sub-adults exposed to the chemical were concentration-exposure-duration dependent. The 96 hours lc50 value with 95% confidence limit of Clarias gariepinus sub-adult exposed to agro-comet chemical was 1800ppm ± 1.353, and was significant with a determination coefficient (r2=0.89) at p<0.05.
Keywords: pesticides, concentration, Clarias gariepinus, biomagnification, sub-lethal, Agro-comet.
AN INDISCRIMINATE DEFAECATION AND DISPOSAL OF FAECAL MATERIAL MAKE PERI-URBAN CULTIVATED CROPS POTENTIALS FOR PARASITE TRANSMISSION AND EXPOSE PARASITES TO COMMUNITY
Department of Biological Science, Federal University Gashua, P.M.B 1005, Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.
The risk factors of contracting Neglected Tropical Diseases are becoming increasingly high in both rural and urban settlements. Faecal contamination of food is another form of faecal – oral transmission. Opened space defaecation is commonplace in rural settlement while indiscriminate disposal of faecal material is common in urban settlements. The business of faecal material disposal is flourishing in urban areas and the stake holders are not aware of risk factors and they lack proper site for the faecal waste disposal. As a result, parasites are exposed to community. A study was conducted at Nomansland, a Peri-urban settlement in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. Over a period of four months, vegetables were examined for parasites and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia lamblia, Necator americanus, Schistosoma haematobium, and Strongyloides stercoralis were observed. Demonstration and implications of F-diagram (faeces, fingers, flies, fields, fluids, feed) should be addressed to members of the community. This study was restricted to parasitic examination. Bacterial, fungal and viral examinations are recommended.
Keywords: Community, Defaecation, Faecal, Giardia lamblia, Strongyloides stercoralis
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES oF ZNO-POLYANILINE NANOCOMPOSITE
ZAHARADDEEN MUHAMMADI, MISBAHU SAAID AHMAD1, GEETHA BHAVANI2
1Department of Chemistry Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa 2Noida International University.
Chemical precipitation technique and chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline were used to synthesized ZnO nanosize (22 to 37nm) and polyaniline respectively. The ZnO-polyaniline nanocomposite was made by insitu polymerization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were the techniques employed for the characterization of the nanoparticles. The frequency ranges of 500 to 2000 KHz at different temperature were used to investigate the conductivity and dielectric properties of ZnO-polyaniline nanocomposite. It was observed that the conductivity of ZnO-polyaniline composite increased with temperature and frequency. The conductivity and dielectric constants decrease with higher proportions ZnO polyaniline nanocompiste it was learnt that the interface formed between ZnO particles and polyaniline causes the decrease of conductivity and dielectric constant in ZnO-polyaniline nanocomposite.
Keywords: Zinc Oxide, Polyaniline, nanocomposite, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
IMPACT AND ERADICATION OF WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES) IN NIGERIA
RABIU SABO1 & UMAR SABO2
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe state 2Department of Agriculture, Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua, Yobe state
Once water hyacinth entry into a community water bodies, often it’s become hard to eradicate and looks as it has come to stay. One of the worse impacts of water hyacinth is the destruction of biodiversity which well thought-out enormous. Farming as well as economic losses to water hyacinth are always excessive. Control is not an easy task, because mechanical control is considered costly; chemical/herbicides control requires permanent application while biological control is considered delayed and sometimes mixture of achievements as well as failure. Nigeria may adapt from countries that make used of this weed to create opportunities and jobs for its populace..
Keywords: Impact, Eradication, Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes), Nigeria
DETERMINANTS OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN KOLOKUMA-OPOKUMA LGA OF BAYELSA STATE
COMFORT EMMANUEL ELECHI, PH.D; & AMADA-OWEI W. FORSMAN
Department of Human Kinetics, Health and Safety Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt.
This study investigated determinants of contraceptive use among married women in Kolokuma-Opokuma Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of all married women of child bearing age in Kolokuma-Opokuma Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of four hundred participants for the study. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using simple percentage and binary logistic regression at 0.05level of significance. The finding of this study showed that 37.2% of the respondents discussed about contraceptive use with their spouse. The result of the binary logistics regression showed a significant relationship between spousal communication and contraceptive use (OR = 5.545): 95%CI = 3.183 – 7.829), a significant relationship between male involvement and contraceptive use (OR = 2.30: 95%CI = 1.292 – 4.168), a non-significant relationship between age and contraceptive use (B = -.156; B = -.270; B = -.808), a non-significant relationship between level of education and contraceptive use (B = -.156; B = -.656), a significant relationship between type of marriage and contraceptive use (OR = 5.568: 95%CI = 3.291 – 9.199) and a non-significant relationship between work status and contraceptive use (OR = 4.961: 95%CI = 2.00 – 7.832). It was concluded that there are factors that contributes immensely to the level of contraceptive use among married women of child bearing age. It was recommended amongst others that targeted, staged based information, education and communication intervention should be implemented by NGOs such as FHI -360, SFH, PPFN etc to change the knowledge and attitude of married men/women in family planning method.
Keywords: Determinants, contraceptives, use, married and women.
COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN PUSPHURUS POTASSIUM (NPK) FERTILIZER AT DIFFERENT LEVEL ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA.
*BUKAR USMAN; **BABAGANA ZANNAH AUDU; ***NUR ADAM IMAM; ****ZAINAB ADAM IMAM; **MUSTAPHA ALIBE; *AMINU SHETTIMA BELLO; & *FALMATA MUSTAPHA
*Department of Biology Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria **Department of Geography Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria. ***Department of Integrated Science Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria. ****Department of Chemistry Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria
This study was carried out to assess the growth performance of Moringa oleifera. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inorganic fertilizers N.P.K 15:15:15 at two different levels: N P K 5g and 3g with three treatments replicated three times. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD) and data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), means were separated using Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). Growth parameters measured include number of leaves per plant, plant height (cm) and stem girth cm. the result shows that 5g NPK 15:15:15 at week 8 produced more leaves of 129, tallest plant of 63.75, and highest stem girth value of 1.73cm as compared to other treatments. The result conceded that application of NPK at 5g best supported the vegetative growth of Moringa Oleifera which is statistically significant at (P<0.05) as compared to other treatment.
Keywords: Inorganic growth Moringa Oleifera
DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DOSE (LD50) CONCENTRATION OF ECHIS OCELLATUS’ VENOM AND ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Moringa oleifera PLANTS ON THE PARAMETERS OF HAEMATOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY OF MALE ABINO RATS.
ADEYEMI, S.O¹ AND AZEEZ, E.M²
Department of Biology, School of Science, EACOED, Oyo, Oyo State.
Abino Rat is the most venomous viper species which constitutes a severe economic and public health problem all over the world, specifically, in African countries. It’s responsible for 90% of the bites and over 60% of the several thousand annual deaths from snakebite in West Africa, particularly to farming communities and antivenom is the only available specific treatment but its use often triggers serious physiological responses. Moringa oleifera has been reported as a medicinal plant used traditionally in Nigeria for the treatment of many diseases. This study therefore investigated the LD50 of the E. ocellatus snake venom and the LD50 of M. oleifera extract. For the LD50 of E. ocellatus experiment, twenty (20) male albino rats weighing between 150-180g were randomly divided into four (4) groups of five rats each. Group A served as the normal control while group B, C, and D were envenomed by a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.56, 0.28 and 0.14mg/kg respectively, while sixteen (16) male albino rats weighing between 150-180g were randomly divided into four (4) groups of four (4) rats each. Mortality rate, weight change and behavioural response were observed during the experiment. More so, haematology and histopathology of heart were investigated in the LD50 of the E. ocellatus snake venom and the concentrations of the blood component of the rats were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in haematological study of the LD50 of the E. ocellatus snake venom. Heart lesion was observed in all the groups compared to the control group. The findings were determined using analysis of Probits in SPSS 2019 and revealed that E. ocellatus has LD50 of 0.22mg/kg and M. oleifera has 800mg/kg as LD50. Moreover, M. oleifera has very low toxicity profile in all the tested animals, it is relatively safe for herbal oral medication and this research might become a highly effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diseases. Further study would be effect of M. oleifear as an antidote for Echis ocellatus envenomation.
Keywords: Echis ocellatus, Moringa oleifera, haematology and histopathology.
EFFECT OF GERMINATION ON THE QUALITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF FINGER MILLET PAP
EJIM, K.O1 AND *EJIM, M.N2
1Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55, Bida, Niger State. 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55, Bida, Niger State.
The effect of germination on the proximate, antinutrients and sensory attributes of finger milet pap was investigated. Finger millet pap was produced from germinated and non-germinated finger millet grains. Proximate composition, anti-nutrient content and sensory evaluation were carried out using standard laboratory procedures. Finger millet grains were sorted to remove dirt, washed and sprouted for 24hous and 48hours respectively. The finger millet grains were wet milled sieved and the slurry was allowed to settle after which water was decanted. The result for proximate composition of germinated finger millet pap showed that protein, fat, dry matter, and energy value increased significantly (p≤0.05 ) with increase in germination i.175%, 42.89%-51.47% respectively while the carbohydrate and crude fibre decreased . The anti nutrient contents were similar as phytate, alkaloid, oxalate and cyanide decreased significantly (p≤0.05) with increase in germination time. The result for Sensory evaluation of germinated finger millet pap showed decrease with increase in germination time in all attributes evaluated such as taste, mouth feel, appearance and overall acceptability. values ranged from 6.280%-5.786%, 6.357%-6.143%, 6.786%-6.429% and 7.389%-7.286 respectively.sample A was most preferred in all the sensory attributes evaluated.
Keywords: Germination, Quality, Acceptability, Finger Millet Pap
COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A REVIEW ON THE RESPONSES OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TOWARDS PRODUCTION OF MEDICAL SUPPLIES AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
ABDULLAHI NWAHA ISAH*, SADIKU ITOPA BELLO AND NASIRU AUDU
Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State.
Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by a virgin virus, SARS-CoV-2, which has infected millions of people worldwide, via aerosol containing virus or by contact with an inanimate surfaces infected with the said droplets nuclei. Up till now, there are still no matching and novel antiviral drugs or viable vaccines to cure the disease. According to World Health Organization, physical distancing, and frequent and correct hand hygiene are important measures to prevent infection of the coronavirus. Chemical engineers have joined the rest of scientific community to respond to the COVID-19 challenges, by inventing critically needed medical supplies and the techniques to manage the inherent medical wastes. In this review paper, chemical engineering expertise on supplies for preventive measures and hospital service requirements are highlighted. Notable among the supplies that can be used to flatten the cure of the epidemiological spread of COVID-19 are soap, for washing of hands with water to destroy the viral genome; hand sanitizers for disinfection; improved personal protective equipment and vaccine delivery systems. Waste management, as another response of chemical engineers to minimize possible secondary impacts of the disease is also explained.
Keywords: Coronavirus, Chemical engineers, Response, Hand hygiene, Personal protective equipment, Waste management.
MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MODERN PHYTOLITH ASSEMBLAGE IN YOBE STATE NIGERIA
1MOHAMMED MUSA GASMA AND 2ISIYAKU ALHAJI MUSA
1Department of Biology, Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, P.M.B 02 Gashua Yobe state, Nigeria. 2Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) Ibadan, P.M.B 5244 Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.
Morphological study of phytolith was carried out from 10 plant species in 10 different plant families in Yobe state Nigeria. Fresh plant leaves were randomly collected each from family which consist of leaves from 10 species and families for phytolith analysis. Schulze’s solution was the standard method used to extract phytolith from the sample. The extracted samples were examined with Olympus Bx41 microscope. Phytolith results revealed a wide range of phytolith morphotypes with considerable degree of variability. However, 8 species were reported to have cuneiform bulliform phytolith shape, 1 bilobate phytolith shape and 1 reported globular echinate phytolith shape. Psilate and verrucate surface texture was observed from the study. These results of phytolith analysis could serves as baseline data that represent the modern vegetation assemblage of the study area for future paleoenvironmental study and environmental reconstruction.
Keywords: Assemblage, Morphotype, Nigeria, Phytolith
EFFECT OF PALM-WINE ON COLIFORM BACTERIA
AREMU, ADEGBENRO OLUKAYODE
Department of Biology, the College of Education, Lanlate.
The inhibiting property of palm wine on coliform bacteria was investigated. The inhibiting property of palm wine on coliform generally was confirmed. It was established that this property was neither due to the alcohol content nor to any biological agent. Faecal coliform was inhibited. Three samples of palm wine type were used. It was found that all the three samples of palm wine possess this inhibitory property.
Keywords: Palm wine, faecal coliform, inhibition alcohol
DETERMINATION OF SYNERGISTIC ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AND GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AQUEOUS EXTRACTS AGAINST CLINICAL RESISTANT SALMONELLA TYPHI ISOLATE
*UDOSEN, I. E.; **SAMUEL, E.; *BADI, S. B. AND *WADA, N.M.
*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
In this study, fresh Ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale) and Garlic cloves (Allium sativum) were collected, washed, dried in the room and ground. The powders were added to distilled water for 72 hours. The extracts were filtered and four doubling concentrations (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 g/mL) were made each separate and combined. The extracts were applied against the Salmonella typhi isolate using the disc diffusion method. Ginger extract showed more activity with 24.67mm as the highest zone of inhibition at 100% g/mL. Garlic extract showed 11.33mm as zone diameter at 100% g/mL. The combined effect reduced the efficacy of the Ginger extract at all concentrations, the highest zone of inhibition recorded for the combined effect was 21.67mm at 100% g/mL. Tube dilution method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), various doubling concentrations (50, 25 12.5 and 6.25 g/mL) were used and the Ginger and Garlic extracts inhibited the Salmonella typhi except the least concentration (6.25 g/ml) which showed growth after the 24 hours incubation. The combined effect for the MIC also showed growth except at the highest concentration (50 g/mL). During the test for Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), all the plates showed growth after 24 hours incubation. This showed that the Garlic and Ginger have bacteriostatic effect against the test organism. Antibiotics sensitivity was also carried out with standard antibiotics discs (Cotrimoxazole (SXT) 30µg, Chloramphenicol (CH) 30µg, Sparfloxacin (SP) 10µg, Ciprofloxacin (CPX) 10µg, Amoxacillin (AM) 30µg, Augmentin (AU) 30µg, Gentamycin (CN) 10µg, Pepfloxacin (PEF) 30µg, Ofloxacin (OFX) 10µg and Streptomycin (S) 30µg) and compared with the antibacterial activity of the Ginger and Garlic extracts. The test organism may be multidrug resistant because, only Augmentin (30µg) and Sparfloxacin (10µg) were able to inhibit the bacterial growth with Sparfloxacin having the higher zone of inhibition of 25.00mm and Augmentin with 20.00mm.
Keywords: Synergistic, Antibacterial, Activity, Ginger (Zingiber Officinale), Garlic (Allium Sativum).
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF ANNONA MURICATA LEAVES ON PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 AND PROSTAGLANDIN SYNTHASE ACTIVITIES
SIKIRU GBENGA.K., OLORUNDARE OLUFUNKE.O., OLORI OKE OLUSOLAPE., AYORINDE JAMES AND OLADEJO AFOLABI.K.
Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study ascertained the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity of the total lipid (chloroform) extract of Annona muricata leaves. The plant material was extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1) and partitioned with 0.2 volume water. The chloroform extract was investigated for its effect on the in vitro activities of phospholipase A2, prostaglandin synthase and membrane stabilization. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited phospholipase A2 activity in a concentration-related manner compared to the control, with a range of 0.2 – 0.6 mg/ml inhibiting the enzyme activity by 23.91 – 43.48%. Effect of the extract on prostaglandin synthase activity showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of enzyme activity at the doses 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml compared to the control. The highest percentage inhibition (87.46%) attained at 0.5 mg/ml was comparable to that of 1.0 mg/ml indomethacin. At various concentrations (0.1-0.8 mg/ml), the chloroform extract also significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited heat and hypotonicityinduced haemolysis of human red blood cells (HRBCs) compared to the control. The highest percentage inhibition of heat-induced haemolysis (53.03%) was obtained at 0.4 mg/ml of the extract while the highest percentage inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis (77.91%) was obtained at 0.8 mg/ml. This study thus confirmed that the mode of action of this extract of Annona muricata leaves on inflammation could be through the inhibition of phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin synthase activities and by membrane stabilization.
Keywords: Annona muricata; Anti-inflammatory; Phospholipase A2; Prostaglandin synthase; Membrane stabilization; HRBCs: Human Red Blood Cell Membranes
NUTRITIONAL MEDICINAL VALUES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA. A CASE STUDY OF ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
SALISU ABUBAKAR & MUINAT IBARAHIM MAHOUD
Department of Biology, Federal College of Education, Zaria.
The study assessed the nutritional and medicinal values of moringaoleifera in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Sample data were collected from the study area and analyzed for Nutrients, Elemental and Phytochemical Constituents of Moringaoleifera.The results revealed that 25.9% crude protein (CP) obtained in the study showed moringaoleifera to be a potential source of supplementary protein in human and animal diet as proteins serves as essential building blocks of body tissue. This agrees with the findings of Makkar and Becker (1997) and Sarwattet al. (2002), that moringaoleifera is a rich source of protein. The level of crude protein (25.9 %) is of particular nutritional significance as it is capable of meeting the human and animal‘s protein requirements and boosting the immune system against diseases (Makker and Becker, 1997;Kyriazakis and Houdijk, 2006; Brisibeet al., 2009). The quantity of CP in moringaoleifera used in this study means that it could be used as feed supplement to prevent protein deficiency in the diet of animals as their amino acid requirement is proportional to the CP content of their diet (NRC, 1994). Amino acids are needed in direct proportion to the dietary protein level. The level of feed consumption in human and animals depends on the level of the protein in diet (Morris et al., 1987; Mendonca and Jensen, 1989). The 25.9% CP of moringaoleifera recorded in this study is higher than 17.01% reported by Ogbe and Affiku (2011), 22.23%, by Aye and Adegun (2013), 1.40%, by Ajaet al. (2013) and 18.92% by Nkechinyere and Nwafor (2014). However, the findings of this study is lower than 28.0% and 27.61% (for late and early maturation, respectively) reported by Bamishaiyeet al. (2011), 39.13%, by Sodamadeet al. (2013), (27.44%), Olugbemiet al. (2010a), (30.27%) Moyo et al. (2011), (27.2%), Yameogoet al. (2011) and Mutoyobaet al. (2011) (30.65%). The variations in the values of the CP may be as a result of different climatic conditions of the various locations, different soil types where the leaves were collected and the stage of maturity, in addition to edaphic factors as reported by Bamishaiyeet al. (2011).
Keywords: Medicinal, Values, Moringa Oleifera, Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria
STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF PLANT EXTRACTS ON PAWPAW FRUIT (Carica papaya L.) ROT FUNGI IN GIREI AND YOLA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ADAMAWA STATE
ABDU, H. I 1, ABUBAKAR ISA 2 , MARIA DINGARI 3, IBRAHIM USMAN KASHIM4, SAMUEL WAJA5.
1Dept. of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State. 2Dept. of Science LaboratoryTechnology, Federal polytechnic mubi Adamawa State. 3Dept. of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State. 4Dept. of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State. 5Dept. of biological sciences, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State.
A study for fungal post-harvest rot pathogens of pawpaw fruit rot was investigated in three markets in Adamawa state, (Sabon Gari, Voniklang and Yola town market) with objectives to identify the fungal pathogens of pawpaw, to determine the incidence and the severity of the pathogens and to determine the in-vitro and in-vivo control of the three plant extracts (garlic oil, neem oil and ash) on the pathogens. Thirty six pawpaw fruits were randomly collected from the three markets and taken to laboratory of Plant Science, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola. Industrial potato dextrose agar (PDA) was used for the isolation of fungi. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in three replicates for each of the treatment. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) separated means that were significant. The symptoms of the disease were observed and associated organisms isolated and identified through pathogenicity test and the following pathogens were identified; Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor spp. A severity test on the pathogens was carried out with the sample size of twelve pawpaw fruits by measuring the level rot of the pathogens. Result showed (p=0.0001) that Mucor spp was the most severe. The incidence pawpaw fruit rot in three markets revealed a high percentage rot in Sabongari market, Aspergillus niger (38.4), Aspergillus flavus (18.2) and Mucor spp (47.5). Control trials both in-vitro and in-vivo with garlic oil, neem oil and ash were found promising, and their different concentrations (1ml, 2ml and 3ml) were also found promising and the effectiveness of the control increased as the oils and quantities of ash increased. Essential oil of garlic, neem oil and ash extracts proved effective in the control of pawpaw fruit fungal rot and are recommended as an alternative to synthetic fungicides which are often hazardous and costly.
Keyword: carica papaya, Aspergillus niger, flavus, mucor, garlic, neem, ash concentration, invivo and invitro.
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIBIOTIC EFFECTS OF Moringa Oliefera SEED POWDER ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS
1YAHAYA, U. F., 2MAIKANO, S., 3POPOOLA, A. S., 4OKECHALU, S. O., 5LIKITA, M. S., 6ADEMOLA, T. O., 7LAPKAT, L. G., AND 8A. BAKO
1Agricultural Extension, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 2Forestry Technology, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 3Forestry Technology Department, Federal College Forestry, Jos Plateau State. 4,7&8Horticulture and Landscape Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 5Basic Science Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 6Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State.
Antibiotics are administered in poultry drinking water for prevention or control of bacterial contamination and to promote growth performance and health of birds. However, these antibiotics have negative effects and this has led to the search for safe and natural alternatives like Moringa Oleifera to reduce continuous use of antibiotics in poultry to promote health and nutrition. In this study, effects of oral administration of different levels of Moringa Oleifera seed powder on the growth performance of broiler chickens were evaluated in comparison with antibiotics. Seeds were collected from Bauchi State, dried and crushed into powder. Physiochemical constituents such as polysaccharide, phenol, flavonoides, and tannins were analysed before administration. In addition, a total number of sixty (60) day- old broiler chicks were purchased and divided at random into five treatment ( T1, T2 T3 T4 and T5 ) and total number of twelve (12) chicks par treatment with three (3) replicate in each. T1 serves as the control, T2 second control with only vaccine (Gumboro and Lasota), T3 (5g of Moringa Oleifera seed powder), T4 (10g of Moringa Oleifera seed powder) and T5 (5g of Amprocine solable- antibiotics). The experiment lasted for eight (8) weeks. Weight gain or loss, feed intake and feed conversion ratio, water intake of the chicken were assessed weekly during the growing stage. A total of 4 chicks were randomly selected for the determination of weight liver, heart, gizzard, spleen and body part / carcass weight, data collected were analysed using descriptive statistic and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and reported as mean standard deviation. However, the result obtain shows that there is no significant difference in feed intake (T1 =4.11, T2 = 4.20, T3 = 4.20, T4 = 3.90 and T5 = 4.20) and water intake (T1 = 15.20, T2 = 15.88, T3 = 14.63, T4 = 13.17 and T5 = 16.04) intake for the five treatment. Also there is significant difference in weight gain (T1 = 1.638, T2 = 1.466, T3 = 1.670, T4 = 1.879 and T5 = 1.504) and mortality (T1 = 8.33, T2 = 0.00, T3 = 8.33, T4 = 16.66 and T5 = 0.00) for all treatment. It can be concluded that Moringa Oleifera seed powder incorporated with 10g in water can improve growth performance of boiler chickens.
Keywords: Moringa, Growth Performance, Phytochemical, antibiotics, Broiler Chickens.
NEGATIVE IMPACT OF GAS FLARING ON THE TEMPERATURE, SOIL, CLIMATE AND ON THE PEOPLE OF UMUEBULU IN ETCHE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA.
CHINYERE P. OBIDIEGWU (PhD) & 1JOHN O. OKARA
Biology Education Department, School of Science Education, Federal College of Education (Tech), Asaba.
Owing to the malady of global climatic change which is an omniscient challenge of our contemporary world, gas flaring as an abnormality has procured prime significance over the last few decades. This study is about gas flaring and its negative impacts on temperature, soil, climate and on the people of Umuebulu in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study utilized empirical research design. The stratified sampling technique was used to stratify the area into six layers using distance from the flare site as a yardstick, thus the strata includes 100m, 200m, 300m , 400m, 500m, 600m from the flare site. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the analysis of data. Findings include majority of respondents (92.0%), suggested that the temperature in Umuebulu was cooler than it was now as compared to the (8.0%) that responded otherwise. The negative impact of gas flaring on the environment include; acid rain (75.3%), air pollution (93.1%), temperature rise (84.3%) and deforestation (85.1%). The following crops were currently being affected by gas flaring in Umuebulu, Yam (99.0%), Cassava (85.3%), Okro (96.0%), Plantain (54.0%), Potatoes (7.3%) and maize (100%). Locations Closer to the flare site were hotter than locations further from the flare site (mean annual temperature at 100m from the site was 29.1 0c at 600m at 28.1 0c). It is also responsible for the health problems of the people of Umuebulu, which includes bronchitis, asthma, cancer and many other gruesome ailments. The ANOVA model was significant at P> 0.00. This implied that the variation in temperature in terms of distance from the flare site within Umuebulu area was significant.
Keywords: Umuebulu, gas flaring, Health problems, Niger Delta, Nigeria, Temperature, Soil, Acid rain.
VITAMIN A AND SOME MINERAL CONTENTS OF PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA MAXIMA) SEED.
AMBI A.A.1*, MUSA B.2, HAFSAT B.M.1, NURA M.1, AND SHATU M1.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2Centre for Dryland Agriculture, Bayero University Kano.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed are important food materials used by most Nigerian families due to its delicious taste, aroma and appeal. In this study, changes between chemical composition of processed and unprocessed pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) was investigated. The nutritional compositions were analyzed by standard methods. The vitamin A contents of proceesed and unprocessed pumpkin seed were 36.83 µg and 33.72 µg. The copper, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus and iron contents of processed seeds were; 0.063, 0.43, 47.67, 58.19, 610.77 ppm while the values for unprocessed were; 0.047, 0.41, 36.73, 58.45 and 211.19 ppm respectively. The finding suggests that pumpkin seed is rich in this vitamin and minerals. If utilized efficiently, it can ameliorate micronutrients deficiency problem in population of all age groups.
Keywords: Pumpkin seed, Cucurbita maxima, vitamin A, nutrition, processed, unprocessed
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, MINERAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL CAPACITIES OF JATROPHA CURCAS AND LONGE PEDUNCULATA
ADULOJU, I. E.1, OMACHI, A. B.2, GIRIGISU SADISU1
1Department of Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. 2Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
This study was conducted to investigate and compare the phytochemical screening, mineral composition and antimicrobial capacity of aqueous and organic (ethanol and n-hexane) extracts from dry leaves of Jatropha curcas and Longepedunculata. In vitro phytochemical screening of all crude extracts from dry leaves of Jatropha curcas and Longepedunculata was carried out and showed positive results for alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, sterol and oxalate while quantitative analysis revealed that important secondary metabolites were slightly abundant in Jatropha curcas than Longepedunculata, thus; alkaloid 6.4%, tannin 50.0%, flavonoid 16.0%, saponin 40.0%, oxalate 0.01g/100g and alkaloid 5.4%, tannin 50.0%, flavonoid 14.6%, saponin 40.0%, oxalate 0.0092g/100g respectively, but phytate was found to be relatively abundant in Longepedunculatathan Jatrophacurcas with 10.8g/100g and 9.8g/100g respectively. These different phytochemicals are shown to perform different biological activities in humans and animals. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts (aqueous ethanol, n-hexane) against some selected bacteria prepared at 200mg/ml using agar disc diffusion method showed that Bacillus subtilis exhibit the highest level of susceptibility to antimicrobial effect of Jatropha curcas while Bacillus subtilis and Staphilococcus aureus had the highest level of susceptibility to antimicrobial effect of Longepedunculata. Hence, they are therefore recommended for pharmaceutical and therapeutic purposes.
Keywords: Jatropha curcas, Longepedunculata, phytochemical, antimicrobial.
SURFACE PLASMON POLARITON TECHNIQUE IN DETERMINATION OF SUCROSE IN CARBONATED DRINKS
ABBATI ALHAJI MUSA1 AND GOJE A. A2
1Department of Basic Studies. Mai Idris Alooma Polytechinic Gaidam. P. M.B 1020 Yobe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology. Federal Polytechnic Damaturu. P. M.B 1006, Yobe State, Nigeria.
In this research, an optical sensor based on Kretschmann Surface Plasmon Polarton technique known as Charge couple device (CCD) with a sensitivity of 0.03 was used to detect the sucrose content in a carbonated drink. The drink samples with assumed different sucrose concentration have been chosen for angle scan SPR measurements using transfer matrix method of MATLAB programming language. All the simulation were assumed at room temperature as from the input data of sucrose refractive index was collected from the international scale of refractive index at 200C. The samples with different sucrose content as reflected by their various refractive index. The results show that the shift of resonance angle (ΔƟSPP) increases linearly with the sugar content. Therefore, this technique could be used as optical sensor for detecting sucrose content in carbonated.
Keywords: Surface Plasmon Resonance, Carbonated drink, Sucrose, MatLab, Transfer Matrix Method.
INVESTIGATION OF PERSONAL HYGIENE AMONG ALMAJIRI CHILDREN IN SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA
1YUSUF SARKINGOBIR, 2MALAMI DIKKO
1Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Sokoto state, Nigeria 2Department of Pharmacy, Sultan Abdurrahman School of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto state, Nigeria.
Almajiri is an Islamic student who attends Islamic school in Nigeria and other African countries. Particularly, Almajiri is the oldest major way of obtaining Islamic knowledge in the Northern Nigeria. One unfortunate concern pertaining Almajiri is lack of adequate care from the parents, government, philanthropists, and the public; which consequently plunged the Almajiri child into many troubles. Many of them are wallowing in the streets, markets, packs, etc begging while wearing untidy garments. Thus, this paper determined the state of personal hygiene of Almajiri in Sokoto using crossectional descriptive design. Therein 240 Almajiri children were recruited as respondents, and the collected data was analyzed with thematic networks. They were from various villages across Sokoto state, no one is doing Almajiri in his village (town) ,they all came from diverse villages across Sokoto state. Thus, their care is now on the necks of Mallams (teachers), seniors and few places where they work .The intimate parental care was missing. 33.3% of the respondents have shoes, while the majority 66.7% have no shoes. 33.3% wore dirty clothes, 33.3% wore clean clothes, and 33.3 % wore dirty and torn clothes .Most of the respondents (66.7%) have clean teeth ,and 33.3% have unclean teeth .Half of them admitted the use of brush ,16.7% admitted the use of artificial brush (Makilin ) ,and 66.7% admitted the use of natural sticks for brushing their teeth. The 50% of the respondents reported that they have water at their schools. 33.3% said they take bath daily, few (16.7%) said they do it once a week. All the respondents wash hands always when eating, 33.3% wash hands with soap after toilets, and 66.% said they only use water. 50% of the Almajiri submitted that at their schools there were toilets .Thus they have to opt for open defecation. 33.3% wash garments weekly, and 66.7% wash their garments rarely. 66.7% said they get food through begging, and 33.3% get food through mental/ domestic job .This work revealed poor personal hygiene state among Almajiri in Sokoto state, Nigeria.
Keywords: Almajiri, personal hygiene, Quran, children, public health, Sokoto state.
COMPARATIVE DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENIG ON SOME LOCAL HERBS (NEEM, GUAVA, LIME) USED AS CHEWING STICKS IN LAFIA –NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
DENNIS D.Y; AND SAMUEL K.E
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic- Lafia, Nigeria.
The comparative determination of antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of Neem, Guava, Orange stems extract was investigated. The samples were obtained by cutting the stems of Neem, Orange and Guava, it was then oven dried and the dried samples were polarized using manual blender and a fine powder was obtained. The powdered sample of the three plants were subjected to phytochemical screening, testing for presence of tannin, flavonoid, saponins, hydroxymethyl anthraquinine and reducing sugar according to the standard method. Neem, Guava and Orange extracts revealed that ethanol extract contains the following; saponins, favonoid. Neem extract showed inhabitation/growth for staphylococcus aureus. Orange extract showed inhabitation on gram positive bacteria which is staphylococcus aureus rather than gram negative, while Guava extract showed inhabition activities against bacteria that are gram positive. The phytochemical screening revealed these antimicrobial activities in them. It is also in the light of this knowledge that most families in Lafia and some parts of our country Nigeria preferred the use of these chewing sticks rather than the conventional toothpaste sold for the treatment of mouth odour, infections & discoloured teeth. In this work, it is recommended that, the general public could use these herbal plants for the above mentioned correction and for its affordability, but with caution when being used due to the presence of tannins & saponins which have adverse effect on human health.
Keywords: Comparative; Antimicrobial Activity; Phytochemical; Screening; Herbs.
ON THE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LASSA FEVER TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS
YUSUF BALAA*, KALABU SALISU AHMADA, ABDUL AUDU IBRAHIMA, IBRAHIM YUSUF INUWAA & AMINU HARUNAA
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State.
In this research, a Lassa fever mathematical model has been developed. A non-linear ordinary differential equations were formulated to study the transmission dynamic of the model. We used the next generation operator method to obtain the basic reproduction number which can be used to control the transmission dynamics of the disease. The local and global stability of the disease free- equilibrium were determined using Routh- Hurwitz criterion and Castillo-Chavez approach respectively. The disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium points were also obtained. The result of the analysis shows that, the disease-free equilibrium point is locally and globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number and unstable when This simply means Lassa fever disease can be controlled when the number of secondary infection is kept at barest minimum.
Keywords: Lassa fever, model, Stability analysis, Transmission
RESPONSE OF Vigna unguiculata L. (COWPEA) AND Vigna subterranean (BAMBARA GROUNDNUT) ON SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH SPENT LUBRICATING OIL
1MOHAMMED, A.K.; 2UMAR, A. N.; 3GBADAMOSI, F. O.; 1SALIHU, A.B. AND 2DANFULANI, S.
1Department of Chemical Science, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Dept of Biological Science, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 3Dept of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
Soil contamination by spent lubricating oil from automobiles emerge a growing concern in many countries especially in Nigeria posing an adverse effect on the agricultural land there by affecting the soil physical and chemical properties, increasing heavy metals present in it which can be dangerous to human health. Research on the response of Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) and Vigna subterranean (bambara groundnut) had been demonstrated to studied how such plants could react to contaminated soil. Viable seeds of Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) and Vigna subterranean (bambara groundnut) were cultivated on soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil. 4kg of soil each was used for the experiment and treated with 25ml, 50ml, 75ml and 100ml of spent lubricating oil and control experiment of unpolluted soil and polluted soil were also set up. Germination of plants was observed as the emergency of plumule from the soil surface. Plants height and the number of leaves were measured on the third week after germination occurred and continued every 3 weeks for 15 weeks. The germination results show that the control of Vigna unguiculata and Vigna subterranean had the highest height of plant and number of leaves followed by the soil treated with low concentration of spent oil. Analysis on the physicochemical properties of soil shows that the presence of spent lubricating oil had some significant effect on the soil. The soil pH is reduced from 6.2 of the unpolluted control soil to 5.4 of polluted soil making the soil more acidic, nitrogen is significantly reduced to 0.32% in the polluted control compared with the 0.60% in the unpolluted control of Vigna unguiculata likewise in Vigna subterranean, potassium reduces from 83.5ppm in unpolluted soil to 67.5ppm in polluted soil of Vigna unguiculata and 90 ppm in unpolluted soil of Vigna subterranean to 50ppm in polluted soil, phosphorus reduces from 69.95ppm in unpolluted control soil to 64.85 in polluted soil and also there is increase in the concentration of calcium, magnesium and heavy metals on the soil. However, Vigna unguiculata and Vigna subterranean were able to grow, germinate and survive well in oil polluted soil this was because they are well tolerant to the soil contaminant and could be considered effective for phytoremediation of pollutant especially at low concentrations.
Keywords: Plumule, phytoremediation, polluted, soil and contaminant
DETERMINATION OF THE ELEMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS IN ORGANS OF AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS (AFRICAN SPINACH) AND SORGHUM BICOLOR (GUINEA CORN) FROM BONU ARTISANAL GOLD MINE SITES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
1ABDULLAHI A. ALKALI, 2CRAIG WILLIAMS, 2LYNN BESENYEI AND 3JONATHAN YISA
1Department of Chemical Engineering, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria; 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England, the United Kingdom; and 3Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Consumption of plants which grows wild or cultivated on soils contaminated with heavy metals like lead (Pb) by the humans or animals could serve as pathways to Pb pollution trough food chain. The heavy metals contamination of soils from the artisanal gold mine sites is as a result of the human anthropogenic activities in search for precious metals such as gold. Samples of Amaranthus hybridus (African spinach) and Sorghum bicolor (guinea corn) were collected at intervals of 20m from one sampling point to another from the Bonu artisanal gold mine sites, the plants organs (of the roots, stems, and the leaves) were dried, crushed, sieved, analyzed using X-Ray Refraction (XRF) and all were found to contain Pb and other heavy metals at varying concentrations. Lead is the principal heavy metal focused on in this research work. The percentage concentrations of Pb in all the Plant organs analysed varied with some greater than the 0.001% which the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended as the safe limit of Pb concentration for human consumption while in others they were found to be less. The toxic and recalcitrant nature of Pb and other heavy metals does not in any way, guarantee the consumption of any plant organs with concentrations of these metals no matter how low. The presence of these varying concentrations of Pb in the plant organs pose a threat for their consumption by animals either domesticated or wild which may in turn, be consumed by humans. There are other elements such as Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and Zinc (Zn) present substantial concentrations in the organs of the two plants analysed. These are essential element needed in our diets for the human growth and healthy living however, this should not tempt us to cultivate food crops on the contaminated mine site.
Keywords: Sida acuta, Hibiscus aspera, X-Ray Refraction (XRF) and Artisanal
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF METAL (II) COMPLEXES OF BARBITURIC ACID
1BAFFA, A.; 2BASHIR, S.S.; 2YAMMAMA, S. G.; 1ABDULMALIK, A.; 1MUHAMMAD, A.A.; AND 1PANDA, A.N
1Department of Chemistry, Rabiu Musa Kwankwaso College of Advance and Remedial Studies T/Wada, Kano. 2Department of Chemistry, Kano University of Science and Technology. 3Department of Chemistry, Isa Kaita college of Education, Dutsin-ma.
The complexes were synthesized by refluxing ethanolic solutions of metal (II) chlorides salts (MCl2, M=Cr (II), Mn(II) and Fe(II),) and barbituric acid in the ratio 1:1. The complexes were characterized by conductivity measurement, solubility, elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The percentage yields of Cr (II), Mn (II) and Fe (II), are 74.40%, 87.56%, and 78.21%, respectively. The molar conductivity measurements are within 27.2-28.0 × 10-6 ohm-1cm2mol-1 respectively. The complexes have high decomposition temperature in the range 328oC- 334oC. The complexes showed appreciable antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli whereas ligand shows none, all the synthesized complexes are not as active as reference drug (Apron plus) on Penicillium species, while Cr (II) complex showed better inhibition zone on Aspergillus specie more than the standard.
Keywords: Refluxing, Ethanolic solutions, Metal (II) chlorides, Inhibition zone and Complexes.
GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER FEED USING SOYA BEAN MEAL (Glycine max) ON FOUR WEEKS OLD CHICKEN (GROWER)
MAMOON M.; GAMBO J. B.; & IMHOAPERAMHE T.
The Department of Applied Biology, College of Science and Technology Kaduna Polytechnic P. M. B 2021 Kaduna, Nigeria.
Broiler feed using soya bean meal for four weeks old chicken (Grower)) was produced using locally sourced resources (Soya bean, Groundnut cake and Palm kernel) by Pearson square method producing a 21% crude protein and Metabolizable energy ME 2827Kcal/Kg of feed, the proximate analysis was carried out using Association Of Analytical Chemistry 2004. The result shown to have the following result Crude Protein 21% ,Crude Fibre 6.0%, Ash content 4.25%, Moisture 2.9%, Fat 13.5 and Carbohydrate 52.35%. Experimental birds used are two broiler strains (50 Cobbs and 50 Marshalls). There is a significant effect (P˂0.05) of the formulated and commercial feed intake on the two broiler strains Cobbs and Marshall showing (P value 0.04) using Statistical analysis using (SPSS). There was significant effect based on the feed utilization, showing that the formulated has more effect based on the weight with a (MSE 0.036) as against the commercial control (MSE 0.250.).The specific growth rate of formulated was minutely higher than the commercial. The formulated feed also has a better performance than the commercial feed (P˂0.05) was considered significant.
Keywords: Metabolizable energy, Broiler strains, Pearson square, Crude protein, MSE (Mean Square Error)
DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SCAVENGING EFFECTIVENESS OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA IN GEIDAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA.
MR MOHAMMED AUDU, MR. MUSA MOHAMMED GARANDAWA AND MR. UMAR DAN AZUMI
School of Science, Department of science laboratory technology; Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic P.M.B 1020 Geidam, Yobe state, Nigeria.
Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history, plants have ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds. Many of which are efficacious and contain compounds that are potential drugs which require further examinations. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids etc., which have been found to possess to antimicrobial properties in vitro. Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit or quench free radical reactions and delay or inhibit cellular damage. Although, almost all organisms possess antioxidant defence and repair systems that have evolved to protect them against oxidative damage, these systems are insufficient to prevent the damage entirely. However, antioxidant supplements, or foods containing antioxidants, may be used to help human body reduced oxidative damage. Studies on the nutritional value and biological activity of the kernel of Terminalia catappa revealed that it has a good digestibility, exerts a strong antioxidant activity, possesses anti-HIV properties, anti-asthma properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. The fresh leaf of Terminalia catappa was air dried under laboratory condition, was ground into fine powder extracted with methanol using cold infusion method and partitioned using solvent of gradient polarities such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Methanol crude extract, n-hexane portion, ethyl acetate portion, n-butanol portion and aqueous portion revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloid. However, soluble starch, phlabotannins and glycosides were not found in the extracts. The methanol crude extract showed the percentage inhibition of 98.25 at 10ug/ml, 97.40 at 20µg/ml, 96.94 at 30µg/ml, 96.63 at 40µg/ml and 97.10 at 50µg/ml; n-butanol portion showed the percentage inhibition of 95.75 at 10ug/ml, 96.40 at 20µg/ml, 96.15 at 30µg/ml, 96.40 at 40µg/ml and 96.15 at 50µg/ml; n-hexane portion showed the percentage inhibition of 95.50 at 10ug/ml, 95.65 at 20µg/ml, 95.80 at 30µg/ml, 95.75 at 40µg/ml and 95.75 at 50µg/ml; ethyl acetate portion showed the percentage inhibition of 78.35 at 10ug/ml, 87.65 at 20µg/ml, 95.00 at 30µg/ml, 94.75 at 40µg/ml and 94.70 at 50µg/ml and the aqueous portion showed the percentage inhibition of 94.40 at 10ug/ml, 95.10 at 20µg/ml, 96.00 at 30µg/ml, 95.50 at 40µg/ml and 96.05 at 50µg/ml.
Keywords: Terminalia catappa, Phytochemicals, Proximate analysis, Elemental analysis, Secondary metabolites
RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS OF (NORM) IN ROCKY PARTICLES USING GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER A CASE STUDY OF GRACELAND HANWA, ZARIA
1GAZARA, A.B., 1SANDA, S. Y., 1NAFIU, Y.2ISAH, U.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria. 2Shehu Idris College of Health Science and Technology, Makarfi.
The research titled Radiological Assessments of (NORM) in rocky particles using Gamma Ray Spectrometer. The three samples were collected from two ponds located at Hanwa Graceland, Zaria. The method used was Gamma ray spectroscopic using Sodium Iodide Gamma ray spectroscopy detector. The activity concentration of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in the study area which is one of the potential pathways where member of the public, animals and farm produce could be exposed was quantified using gamma ray spectroscopic analysis. The results have shown that 40K has a mean concentration of 123.5421 Bq/kg in the range of 107.0413 – 148.3349 Bq/kg. Similarly, 232Th has a mean concentration of 80.6777 Bq/kg in the range of 73.4377 – 94.2083 Bq/kg. Furthermore, 226Ra has a mean concentration of 21.6113 Bq/kg in the range 2.23376 – 38.0789 Bq/kg. This shows that the Concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found to be below standard limit, and that of 232Th is higher than the standard limit. This implies that there is no problem based on the results obtained according to the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effect Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000) that all radioactive elements should be within 21 – 145 Bq/kg. This also shows that 226Ra is the least available radionuclide in the study area followed by 232Th which is more prevalent than 226Ra. While 40K is the most abundant radionuclide in the study area. Based on foregoing the following recommendations are hereby proposed: Determination of activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K by gross alpha and beta activity, and Internal exposure resulting from drinking water and ingestion of grasses containing Ra, Th and K by the cows should be undertaken in future.
Keywords: NORM, Radioactivity, Rocky particles, Radiation, Radionuclide.
COMPARATIVE ASSESMENT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL CONTENT OF CABBAGE AND SPINACH SOLD IN LAFIA.
ASHEFO, D. P.1*, ZAKKA, A.W2., AND OBOH, J. E1.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia. 2Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna.
Most vegetables are usually green plants and are consumed raw or preheated. The comparative assessment of bacteria in spinach and cabbage were carried out to know the bacteria load of spinach and cabbage sold in Lafia Modern Market. Samples were bought from the market and taken to the Microbiology laboratory of Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia for analysis. The samples were homogenized in a sterile beaker with peptone water for 15 minutes and serially diluted. Using pour plating method, the 1st and 3rd dilutions of each sample were cultured on Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar, and Salmonella Shigella agar and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. The plate count indicated that on the average spinach had the highest bacteria count of 7.2×103CFU/g, 4.6×103CFU/g and 3.1×103CFU/g on Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and Salmonella Shigella agar respectively. Cabbage on the other hand has an average bacterial count of 3.0×103CFU/g, 3.0×103CFU/g and 1.3×103 CFU/g on Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and Salmonella Shigella agar respectively. The isolates identified are Staphylococcus spp (16%), Escherichia spp (23%), Bacillus spp(15%), Pseudomonas spp(15%), Streptococcus spp(8%) and Salmonella spp(23%). These isolated bacteria are pathogenic and are of public health importance due to their implication in food borne illnesses. It is recommended that farmers, vendors and consumers should improve on their hygiene when handling vegetables to prevent/reduce bacterial contamination
Keywords: Cabbage, Spinach, vegetable, hygiene, Bacteriological.
BIODEGRADATION OF POLYTHENE BAGS BY SOME SELECTED BACTERIA AND IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYTHENE DEGRADING MICROORGANISM
ADEGBA, A.J; ABDULKADIR, A; ABUBAKAR S; DR. YUSUF, H
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa. Nasarawa State.
Polythene waste accumulating in the environment poses an ever increasing ecological threat. They are usually polymer ethylene which forms an essential part in our daily life. They are used in various sectors of wide application such as packaging materials as films or sheets. In this study biodegradation of polythene bags by some selected Bacteria and identification and characterization of polythene degrading micro-organism was carried out. The polythene bags were buried on the ground for the period of nine months. Subsequently, the different samples of the same polythenes were inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus for one month with addition of 15ml fresh media to the medium every week. Serial dilution of 10-1 – 10-4 dilution was carried and pour plate method was done to obtain a discrete colony for both the buried and Laboratory inoculation samples. The isolates were identified by gram stain reaction and biochemical test. In coagulase and catalase test, 10-1 – 10-4 dilution were positive. The fungal species associated with the polythene bags that were buried were Cladosporium species, Aspergillus species, Rhizopus Species, Candida Species, Mould and Fusarium species. The bacterial isolate are Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus species, Pseudomonas species, Bacillus species. The percentage weight loss of polythene bags inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus , for one month labeled A,B,C,D and E were( 33.33, 29.35, 33.72, 25.00 and 40.00; 23.72, 35.48, 49.01, 41.66 and 25.00%) respectively. While the percentage for the buried samples were (28.75, 19.89, 24.94, 23.35 and 15.66%). This studied showed that some microbes are capable to some extend degrade polythene. In comparison there is greater percentage weight loss in Laboratory condition than the natural environment
Keyword: Polythene, Staphylococcus aureus, Biodegradation and Fusarium species, Bacillus subtilis
SCHOOL BASED SEX EDUCATION AND HIV PREVENTION IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS
Kaduna State College Nursing and Midwifery, Tudun Wada, Kaduna.
School-based sex education is a cornerstone of HIV prevention for adolescents who continue to bear a disproportionally high HIV burden globally. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the existing evidence for school-based sex education interventions in low- and middle-income countries to determine the efficacy of these interventions in changing HIV-related knowledge and risk behaviors
Keyword: Sex, Education, HIV Prevention, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis